פרי עץ הדר, “the fruit of the goodly tree;” the four species of fruit which we use on this festival differ in basic attributes, The citron, etrog, is the fruit of a tree which provides taste as well as a pleasant fragrance. It symbolises the righteous person who has both Torah learning and good deeds to his credit. The tree from which the palm frond has been taken provides fruit but does not provide fragrance. (Date palm) It symbolises the average Israelite, who, while having the performances of many commandments to his credit, has failed to acquire Torah knowledge, i.e. he does not exude fragrance. The myrtle branch, hadass, does not bear any fruit but provides us with a pleasant fragrance. It symbolises the person who did acquire Torah knowledge but did not translate it into the performance of its commandments. Finally, the willow branch, aravah, comes from a tree that neither provides fruit nor fragrance, (except shade). It symbolises the Jew who has neither acquired Torah knowledge nor acquired a list of merits for having performed good deeds. The reason that we bind all these four plants together before performing our ritual with them is, to demonstrate that we are aware that the Almighty does not really look down upon us with favour until we have managed to coexist peacefully, regardless of any shortcomings we perceive in one another. The prophet Amos 9,6 alludes to this concept when he wrote: הבונה בשמים מעלותיו ואגדתו על ארץ יסדה, למי הים וישפכם על פני הארץ, ה' שמו, “Who built His chambers in heaven and founded His vault on earth; Who summons the waters of the sea and pours them over the land.” On this verse, Midrash Rabbah comments that G–d does all this when we, His people, form a united union. (Vayikra rabbah 30,12) Our author adds that it appears to him that this is also the reason why, on Rosh Hashanah, New Year’s day, in our prayer describing the essence of the day we insert the line: ויעשו כולם אגודה אחת, “they will all form a single band.” A different explanation: The lulav symbolises the human backbone, שדרה. The myrtle branch is a symbol of the eye, whereas the willow branch is a symbol of the lips. The citron, etrog, symbolises the heart, the most import part of the human body.