Ha'Gomel
1 א
(יב) אִ֣ם עַל־תּוֹדָה֮ יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ֒ וְהִקְרִ֣יב ׀ עַל־זֶ֣בַח הַתּוֹדָ֗ה חַלּ֤וֹת מַצּוֹת֙ בְּלוּלֹ֣ת בַּשֶּׁ֔מֶן וּרְקִיקֵ֥י מַצּ֖וֹת מְשֻׁחִ֣ים בַּשָּׁ֑מֶן וְסֹ֣לֶת מֻרְבֶּ֔כֶת חַלֹּ֖ת בְּלוּלֹ֥ת בַּשָּֽׁמֶן׃ (יג) עַל־חַלֹּת֙ לֶ֣חֶם חָמֵ֔ץ יַקְרִ֖יב קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ עַל־זֶ֖בַח תּוֹדַ֥ת שְׁלָמָֽיו׃
(12) If he offers it for thanksgiving, he shall offer together with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes with oil mixed in, unleavened wafers spread with oil, and cakes of choice flour with oil mixed in, well soaked. (13) This offering, with cakes of leavened bread added, he shall offer along with his thanksgiving sacrifice of well-being.
2 ב
(א) אם על תודה יקריבנו. אִם עַל דְּבַר הוֹדָאָה עַל נֵס שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לוֹ, כְּגוֹן יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם וְהוֹלְכֵי מִדְבָּרוֹת וַחֲבוּשֵׁי בֵּית הָאֲסוּרִים וְחוֹלֶה שֶׁנִּתְרַפֵּא — שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכִין לְהוֹדוֹת, שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֶן יוֹדוּ לַה' חַסְדּוֹ וְנִפְלְאוֹתָיו לִבְנֵי אָדָם וְיִזְבְּחוּ זִבְחֵי תוֹדָה (תהילים ק"ז) — אִם עַל אַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה נָדַר שְׁלָמִים הַלָּלוּ, שַׁלְמֵי תּוֹדָה הֵן, וּטְעוּנוֹת לֶחֶם הָאָמוּר בָּעִנְיָן, וְאֵין נֶאֱכָלִין אֶלָּא לְיוֹם וְלַיְלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ כָּאן: (ב) והקריב על זבח התודה. אַרְבָּעָה מִינֵי לֶחֶם — חַלּוֹת וּרְקִיקִין וּרְבוּכָה, שְׁלוֹשָׁה מִינֵי מַצָּה, וּכְתִיב עַל חַלֹּת לֶחֶם חָמֵץ וְגוֹ'; וְכָל מִין וָמִין עֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת, כָּךְ מְפֹרָשׁ בִּמְנָחוֹת, וְשִׁעוּרָן חָמֵשׁ סְאִין יְרוּשַׁלְמִיּוֹת, שֶׁהֵן ו' מִדְבָּרִיּוֹת, כ' עִשָּׂרוֹן (מנחות ע"ו):
(1) אם על תורה יקריבנו IF HE OFFER IT FOR A THANKSGIVING — i.e., if he brings if on account of (על) a matter that requires thanksgiving (תודה): on account of a miraculous deliverance that was wrought for him, as being, for instance, one of those who have made a sea-voyage. or travelled in the wilderness, or had been kept in prison, or if he had been sick and was now healed, all of whom are bound to offer thanks-giving, since it is written with reference to them, (Psalms 107:8, 15, 21, 31) “Let them offer thanksgiving to the Lord for His goodness, and for His wonderful works to the children of men!” (cf. Rashi on those vv. and on vv. 4, 10, 17 and 23 of that chapter; see also Berakhot 54b) — if it is on account of one of these things that he vowed those peace offerings, they are “peace offerings for acknowledgement” and require the offering of bread that is mentioned in the section, and may not be eaten beyond a period of one day and one night as it is here set forth (v. 15) [whilst other שלמים may be eaten at any time during two days and the intervening night]. (2) והקריב על זבח התודה [IF HE OFFER IT FOR AN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT] THEN HE SHALL OFFER WITH THE SACRIFICE OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENT four sorts of bread: cakes, wafers and cakes of flour saturated with oil — these being three kinds of unleavened bread; it further states (v. 13), “together with cakes of leavened bread [he shall offer his offering etc.]”, thus making four. Each kind consisted of ten cakes; thus is it explained in Treatise Menachoth 77a. And their total measure was five Seahs according to the Jerusalem standard, these being equal to six Seahs of the “wilderness” standard (i.e. in force at the period when the Israelites were in the wilderness) comprising 20 tenths of an ephah) (Menachot 76b).
3 ג
(א) הֹד֣וּ לַה' כִּי־ט֑וֹב כִּ֖י לְעוֹלָ֣ם חַסְדּֽוֹ׃ (ב) יֹ֭אמְרוּ גְּאוּלֵ֣י ה' אֲשֶׁ֥ר גְּ֝אָלָ֗ם מִיַּד־צָֽר׃ (ג) וּֽמֵאֲרָצ֗וֹת קִ֫בְּצָ֥ם מִמִּזְרָ֥ח וּמִֽמַּעֲרָ֑ב מִצָּפ֥וֹן וּמִיָּֽם׃ (ד) תָּע֣וּ בַ֭מִּדְבָּר בִּישִׁימ֣וֹן דָּ֑רֶךְ עִ֥יר מ֝וֹשָׁ֗ב לֹ֣א מָצָֽאוּ׃ (ה) רְעֵבִ֥ים גַּם־צְמֵאִ֑ים נַ֝פְשָׁ֗ם בָּהֶ֥ם תִּתְעַטָּֽף׃ (ו) וַיִּצְעֲק֣וּ אֶל־ה' בַּצַּ֣ר לָהֶ֑ם מִ֝מְּצֽוּקוֹתֵיהֶ֗ם יַצִּילֵֽם׃ (ז) וַ֭יַּֽדְרִיכֵם בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ יְשָׁרָ֑ה לָ֝לֶ֗כֶת אֶל־עִ֥יר מוֹשָֽׁב׃ (ח) יוֹד֣וּ לַה' חַסְדּ֑וֹ וְ֝נִפְלְאוֹתָ֗יו לִבְנֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃ (ט) כִּי־הִ֭שְׂבִּיעַ נֶ֣פֶשׁ שֹׁקֵקָ֑ה וְנֶ֥פֶשׁ רְ֝עֵבָה מִלֵּא־טֽוֹב׃ (י) יֹ֭שְׁבֵי חֹ֣שֶׁךְ וְצַלְמָ֑וֶת אֲסִירֵ֖י עֳנִ֣י וּבַרְזֶֽל׃ (יא) כִּֽי־הִמְר֥וּ אִמְרֵי־אֵ֑ל וַעֲצַ֖ת עֶלְי֣וֹן נָאָֽצוּ׃ (יב) וַיַּכְנַ֣ע בֶּעָמָ֣ל לִבָּ֑ם כָּ֝שְׁל֗וּ וְאֵ֣ין עֹזֵֽר׃ (יג) וַיִּזְעֲק֣וּ אֶל־ה' בַּצַּ֣ר לָהֶ֑ם מִ֝מְּצֻֽקוֹתֵיהֶ֗ם יוֹשִׁיעֵֽם׃ (יד) יֽ֭וֹצִיאֵם מֵחֹ֣שֶׁךְ וְצַלְמָ֑וֶת וּמוֹסְר֖וֹתֵיהֶ֣ם יְנַתֵּֽק׃ (טו) יוֹד֣וּ לַה' חַסְדּ֑וֹ וְ֝נִפְלְאוֹתָ֗יו לִבְנֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃ (טז) כִּֽי־שִׁ֭בַּר דַּלְת֣וֹת נְחֹ֑שֶׁת וּבְרִיחֵ֖י בַרְזֶ֣ל גִּדֵּֽעַ׃ (יז) אֱ֭וִלִים מִדֶּ֣רֶךְ פִּשְׁעָ֑ם וּֽ֝מֵעֲוֺֽנֹתֵיהֶ֗ם יִתְעַנּֽוּ׃ (יח) כָּל־אֹ֭כֶל תְּתַעֵ֣ב נַפְשָׁ֑ם וַ֝יַּגִּ֗יעוּ עַד־שַׁ֥עֲרֵי מָֽוֶת׃ (יט) וַיִּזְעֲק֣וּ אֶל־ה' בַּצַּ֣ר לָהֶ֑ם מִ֝מְּצֻֽקוֹתֵיהֶ֗ם יוֹשִׁיעֵֽם׃ (כ) יִשְׁלַ֣ח דְּ֭בָרוֹ וְיִרְפָּאֵ֑ם וִֽ֝ימַלֵּ֗ט מִשְּׁחִיתוֹתָֽם׃ (׆) (כא) יוֹד֣וּ לַה' חַסְדּ֑וֹ וְ֝נִפְלְאוֹתָ֗יו לִבְנֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃ (׆) (כב) וְ֭יִזְבְּחוּ זִבְחֵ֣י תוֹדָ֑ה וִֽיסַפְּר֖וּ מַעֲשָׂ֣יו בְּרִנָּֽה׃ (׆) (כג) יוֹרְדֵ֣י הַ֭יָּם בָּאֳנִיּ֑וֹת עֹשֵׂ֥י מְ֝לָאכָ֗ה בְּמַ֣יִם רַבִּֽים׃ (׆) (כד) הֵ֣מָּה רָ֭אוּ מַעֲשֵׂ֣י ה' וְ֝נִפְלְאוֹתָ֗יו בִּמְצוּלָֽה׃ (׆) (כה) וַיֹּ֗אמֶר וַֽ֭יַּעֲמֵד ר֣וּחַ סְעָרָ֑ה וַתְּרוֹמֵ֥ם גַּלָּֽיו׃ (׆) (כו) יַעֲל֣וּ שָׁ֭מַיִם יֵרְד֣וּ תְהוֹמ֑וֹת נַ֝פְשָׁ֗ם בְּרָעָ֥ה תִתְמוֹגָֽג׃ (כז) יָח֣וֹגּוּ וְ֭יָנוּעוּ כַּשִּׁכּ֑וֹר וְכָל־חָ֝כְמָתָ֗ם תִּתְבַּלָּֽע׃ (כח) וַיִּצְעֲק֣וּ אֶל־ה' בַּצַּ֣ר לָהֶ֑ם וּֽ֝מִמְּצֽוּקֹתֵיהֶ֗ם יוֹצִיאֵֽם׃ (כט) יָקֵ֣ם סְ֭עָרָה לִדְמָמָ֑ה וַ֝יֶּחֱשׁ֗וּ גַּלֵּיהֶֽם׃ (ל) וַיִּשְׂמְח֥וּ כִֽי־יִשְׁתֹּ֑קוּ וַ֝יַּנְחֵ֗ם אֶל־מְח֥וֹז חֶפְצָֽם׃ (לא) יוֹד֣וּ לַה' חַסְדּ֑וֹ וְ֝נִפְלְאוֹתָ֗יו לִבְנֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃ (לב) וִֽ֭ירֹמְמוּהוּ בִּקְהַל־עָ֑ם וּבְמוֹשַׁ֖ב זְקֵנִ֣ים יְהַלְלֽוּהוּ׃ (לג) יָשֵׂ֣ם נְהָר֣וֹת לְמִדְבָּ֑ר וּמֹצָ֥אֵי מַ֝֗יִם לְצִמָּאֽוֹן׃ (לד) אֶ֣רֶץ פְּ֭רִי לִמְלֵחָ֑ה מֵ֝רָעַ֗ת יֹ֣שְׁבֵי בָֽהּ׃ (לה) יָשֵׂ֣ם מִ֭דְבָּר לַֽאֲגַם־מַ֑יִם וְאֶ֥רֶץ צִ֝יָּ֗ה לְמֹצָ֥אֵי מָֽיִם׃ (לו) וַיּ֣וֹשֶׁב שָׁ֣ם רְעֵבִ֑ים וַ֝יְכוֹנְנ֗וּ עִ֣יר מוֹשָֽׁב׃ (לז) וַיִּזְרְע֣וּ שָׂ֭דוֹת וַיִּטְּע֣וּ כְרָמִ֑ים וַ֝יַּעֲשׂ֗וּ פְּרִ֣י תְבֽוּאָה׃ (לח) וַיְבָרֲכֵ֣ם וַיִּרְבּ֣וּ מְאֹ֑ד וּ֝בְהֶמְתָּ֗ם לֹ֣א יַמְעִֽיט׃ (לט) וַיִּמְעֲט֥וּ וַיָּשֹׁ֑חוּ מֵעֹ֖צֶר רָעָ֣ה וְיָגֽוֹן׃ (׆) (מ) שֹׁפֵ֣ךְ בּ֭וּז עַל־נְדִיבִ֑ים וַ֝יַּתְעֵ֗ם בְּתֹ֣הוּ לֹא־דָֽרֶךְ׃ (מא) וַיְשַׂגֵּ֣ב אֶבְי֣וֹן מֵע֑וֹנִי וַיָּ֥שֶׂם כַּ֝צֹּ֗אן מִשְׁפָּחֽוֹת׃ (מב) יִרְא֣וּ יְשָׁרִ֣ים וְיִשְׂמָ֑חוּ וְכָל־עַ֝וְלָ֗ה קָ֣פְצָה פִּֽיהָ׃ (מג) מִי־חָכָ֥ם וְיִשְׁמָר־אֵ֑לֶּה וְ֝יִתְבּֽוֹנְנ֗וּ חַֽסְדֵ֥י ה'׃
(1) “Praise the LORD, for He is good; His steadfast love is eternal!” (2) Thus let the redeemed of the LORD say, those He redeemed from adversity, (3) whom He gathered in from the lands, from east and west, from the north and from the sea. (4) Some lost their way in the wilderness, in the wasteland; they found no settled place. (5) Hungry and thirsty, their spirit failed. (6) In their adversity they cried to the LORD, and He rescued them from their troubles. (7) He showed them a direct way to reach a settled place. (8) Let them praise the LORD for His steadfast love, His wondrous deeds for mankind; (9) for He has satisfied the thirsty, filled the hungry with all good things. (10) Some lived in deepest darkness, bound in cruel irons, (11) because they defied the word of God, spurned the counsel of the Most High. (12) He humbled their hearts through suffering; they stumbled with no one to help. (13) In their adversity they cried to the LORD, and He rescued them from their troubles. (14) He brought them out of deepest darkness, broke their bonds asunder. (15) Let them praise the LORD for His steadfast love, His wondrous deeds for mankind, (16) For He shattered gates of bronze, He broke their iron bars. (17) There were fools who suffered for their sinful way, and for their iniquities. (18) All food was loathsome to them; they reached the gates of death. (19) In their adversity they cried to the LORD and He saved them from their troubles. (20) He gave an order and healed them; He delivered them from the pits. (21) Let them praise the LORD for His steadfast love, His wondrous deeds for mankind. (22) Let them offer thanksgiving sacrifices, and tell His deeds in joyful song. (23) Others go down to the sea in ships, ply their trade in the mighty waters; (24) they have seen the works of the LORD and His wonders in the deep. (25) By His word He raised a storm wind that made the waves surge. (26) Mounting up to the heaven, plunging down to the depths, disgorging in their misery, (27) they reeled and staggered like a drunken man, all their skill to no avail. (28) In their adversity they cried to the LORD, and He saved them from their troubles. (29) He reduced the storm to a whisper; the waves were stilled. (30) They rejoiced when all was quiet, and He brought them to the port they desired. (31) Let them praise the LORD for His steadfast love, His wondrous deeds for mankind. (32) Let them exalt Him in the congregation of the people, acclaim Him in the assembly of the elders. (33) He turns the rivers into a wilderness, springs of water into thirsty land, (34) fruitful land into a salt marsh, because of the wickedness of its inhabitants. (35) He turns the wilderness into pools, parched land into springs of water. (36) There He settles the hungry; they build a place to settle in. (37) They sow fields and plant vineyards that yield a fruitful harvest. (38) He blesses them and they increase greatly; and He does not let their cattle decrease, (39) after they had been few and crushed by oppression, misery, and sorrow. (40) He pours contempt on great men and makes them lose their way in trackless deserts; (41) but the needy He secures from suffering, and increases their families like flocks. (42) The upright see it and rejoice; the mouth of all wrongdoers is stopped. (43) The wise man will take note of these things; he will consider the steadfast love of the LORD.
4 ד
מאי מברך אמר רב יהודה ברוך גומל חסדים טובים אביי אמר וצריך לאודויי קמי עשרה דכתיב וירוממוהו בקהל עם וגו׳ מר זוטרא אמר ותרין מינייהו רבנן שנאמר ובמושב זקנים יהללוהו מתקיף לה רב אשי ואימא כולהו רבנן מי כתיב בקהל זקנים בקהל עם כתיב ואימא בי עשרה שאר עמא ותרי רבנן קשיא רב יהודה חלש ואתפח על לגביה רב חנא בגדתאה ורבנן אמרי ליה בריך רחמנא דיהבך ניהלן ולא יהבך לעפרא אמר להו פטרתון יתי מלאודויי
The Gemara asks: What blessing does he recite? Rav Yehuda said: Blessed is…Who bestows acts of loving-kindness. Abaye said: And he must offer thanks before ten people, as it is written in the same chapter: “Let them exalt Him also in the congregation of the people and praise Him in the assembly of the elders” (Psalms 107:32), and congregation indicates a group of at least ten. Mar Zutra said: Two of them must be Sages, as it is stated there: “And praise Him in the assembly of elders.” These elders are the Sages, and the use of the plural indicates a minimum of two. Rav Ashi strongly objects to this: Say that all of them must be Sages. The Gemara rejects this: Is it written: In the congregation of elders? In the congregation of the people is written; and the Sages are among them. Yet there is still room to object: Say that ten are from the rest of the people, and in addition there must be two Sages. No satisfactory answer was found, and the question remains difficult, although the halakha was not rejected. The Gemara relates: Rav Yehuda fell sick and recovered, Rav Ḥana of Baghdad and the Sages entered to visit him. They said to him: Blessed is God Who gave you to us and did not give you to the dust. He said to them: You have exempted me from offering thanks, as your statement fulfilled my obligation to recite a blessing.
5 ה
אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי הרואה את חבירו לאחר שלשים יום אומר ברוך שהחיינו וקיימנו והגיענו לזמן הזה לאחר שנים עשר חדש אומר ברוך מחיה המתים אמר רב אין המת משתכח מן הלב אלא לאחר שנים עשר חדש שנאמר נשכחתי כמת מלב הייתי ככלי אובד
Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who sees his friend after thirty days have passed since last seeing him recites: Blessed…Who has given us life, sustained us and brought us to this time. One who sees his friend after twelve months recites: Blessed…Who revives the dead. As Rav said: A dead person is only forgotten from the heart after twelve months have elapsed, as it is stated: “I am forgotten as a dead man out of mind; I am like a lost vessel” (Psalms 31:13), and with regard to the laws of lost objects, it is human nature to despair of recovering a lost object after twelve months (see Bava Metzia 28a).