Mishnah Sanhedrin 1:5
אין מוציאין למלחמת הרשות, אלא על פי בית דין של שבעים ואחד.
We are only permitted to go to a permitted/optional war by authority of a court of seventy one judges. [Translation by Righteous Indignation]

Suggested Discussion Questions:

1. What is a permitted/optional war? Why might a nation want to engage in one?

2. What is the nature of the authority of the court? Why do we need their permission to go to war?

3. What does this text teach us about the ethics of war and responsibility?

Time Period: Rabbinic (Maccabees through the Talmud)