Rambam, Mishneh Torah, Laws Pertaining to Robbery and [the Return of] Lost Articles, 1:4
1 א
רמבם משנה תורה הלכות גזילה ואבידה פרק ראשון הלכה ד
2ב
אי זהו עושק זה שבא ממון חבירו לתוך ידו ברצון הבעלים וכיון שתבעוהו כבש הממון אצלו בחזקה ולא החזירו. כגון שהיה לו ביד חבירו הלואה או שכירות והוא תובעו ואינו יכול להוציא ממנו מפני שהוא אלם וקשה. ועל זה נאמר לא תעשוק את רעך:
What is meant by withholding a colleague's due? It refers to a person who was given money willingly by a colleague and then, when it was demanded of that person, he forcefully maintained possession of it and refused to return it. For example, a person was given a loan or had hired a colleague, and when payment was demanded, she forcefully refused to pay. Concerning this we were commanded, Leviticus 19:13: "Do not withhold money from your colleague." [Translation by Eliyahu Touger. Edited for gender neutrality]
3 ג

Suggested Discussion Questions:

1. What is the Rambam’s question on this verse in Leviticus? How does he answer it?

2. What is the difference between the two examples provided? What can we learn from each?

3. How do people violate this commandment today? What can we do to help prevent this violation?

4 ד
Time Period: Medieval (Geonim through the 16th Century)