Rashi, Leviticus 25:15
1 א
2 ב
במספר שנים אחר היובל תקנה: זהו פשוטו ליישב מקרא על אופניו על האונאה בא להזהיר, כשתמכור או תקנה קרקע דע כמה שנים יש עד היובל. ולפי השנים ותבואות השדה שהיא ראויה לעשות ימכור המוכר ויקנה הקונה, שהרי סופו להחזירה לו בשנת היובל. ואם יש שנים מועטות וזה מוכרה בדמים יקרים הרי נתאנה לוקח, ואם יש שנים מרובות ואכל ממנה תבואות הרבה ולקחה בדמים מועטים הרי נתאנה מוכר, לפיכך צריך לקנותה לפי הזמן. וזהו שנאמר במספר שני תבואות ימכר לך, לפי מנין שני התבואות שתהא עומדת ביד הלוקח תמכור לו. ורבותינו דרשו מכאן, שהמוכר שדהו אינו רשאי לגאול פחות משתי שנים, שתעמוד שתי שנים ביד הלוקח מיום ליום, ואפילו יש שלש תבואות באותן שתי שנים, כגון שמכרה לו בקמותיה. ושני אינו יוצא מפשוטו, כלומר מספר שנים של תבואות, ולא של שדפון, ומעוט שנים שנים:
“According to the number of years after the Jubilee, you shall purchase” The following is its simple meaning, to explain the verse according to its context: [The text] comes to warn against wronging [by overcharging, thereby linking verses 14-16 together (Mizrachi)], [namely, that] when you sell or purchase land, you should be aware of how many years remain until the [next] Jubilee, and according to [that number of] years and the crops that it is fit to yield, the seller should sell and the buyer should buy. For indeed, he will eventually return it to him in the Jubilee year. Thus, if there are [only] a few years [left until the next Jubilee year], and this one sells it for a high price, the purchaser has been wronged. And if there are many years [left until the next Jubilee year], and he will eat many crops from it [until Jubilee-if the purchaser had purchased the land for a low price], the seller has been wronged. Therefore, it must be purchased according to the time[left until the next Jubilee]. And this is [the meaning of] what it says, “according to the number of years of crops, he shall sell to you.” “According to the number of years of crop yields that it will remain in the hands of the purchaser, you shall sell it to him.” Now, [the word can mean “years of” or can mean “two.” Thus,] our Rabbis have expounded from here (see end of this Rashi for clarification), that one who sells his field is not permitted to redeem it in less than two years, that it must remain in the purchaser’s possession for exactly two years to the day, even if there are three crops during those two years, for example, if he sold it to him with crop standing in it [and then the ensuing years brought two more yields of produce. In that case, the seller cannot redeem after one year, claiming that two years’ crops have been issued,] for the word [which could mean two, i.e., two yields] does not leave its simple meaning [that it means years,] referring to [the number of years that elapse and] specifically, years that elapse with a yield of crop, but not years of blight. [Now, if the word means “years” and not two, then how do our Rabbis expound it to mean “two years”?] Because [the term is plural, and] the minimum quantity implied by is two. — [Arachin 29b; Mizrachi] [translation by Judaica Press]
3 ג

Suggested Discussion Questions:

How are justice and the needs of the land interwoven in this teaching?

4 ד
Time Period: Medieval (Geonim through the 16th Century)