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 005 הלכות ספירת העומר

 

Source Sheet by David Kadoch
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Created April 8, 2018 · 503 Views · נוצר 8 April, 2018 · 503 צפיות ·

  1. (א) בְּלֵיל שֵׁנִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח, מַתְחִילִין לִסְפֹּר סְפִירַת הָעֹמֶר. וְסוֹפְרִין מְעֻמָּד. הַמִּצְוָה הוּא לִסְפּוֹר תֵּכֶף בְּהַתְחָלַת הַלַּיְלָה, אַחַר צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים. וּבְדִיעֲבַד, זְמַנָּהּ כָּל הַלָיְלָה. בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב סוֹפְרִין לְאַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ, כְּדֵי לְהַקְדִּים קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם. וּבְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב, סוֹפְרִין קֹדֶם הַבְדָּלָה כְּדֵי לְאַחֵר יְצִיאַת הַיּוֹם. וּכְשֶׁחַל יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, שֶׁאוֹמְרִים קִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה עַל כּוֹס אֶחָד, סוֹפְרִין גַּם כֵּן קֹדֶם כְּדֵי לְאַחֵר אֶת הַהַבְדָּלָה.

    (1) On the second night of Pesach, we begin counting the Omer.1Since this is a mitzvah, that is done only at a certain, specific time, women are exempt from counting the Omer. Magein Avraham says that women have since accepted this mitzvah as an obligation, but Mishnah Berurah says that in our areas, women are not accustomed to count the Omer. He quotes from Shulchan Shlomo that women certainly should not say the berachah. (Mishnah Berurah 489:3) You should stand during the counting.2You should also stand for the berachah. If, however, you did count while sitting, you have still fulfilled your obligation (and you need not count over again). (Ibid. 489:6) The mitzvah requires that the Omer be counted, as soon as possible after nightfall,3Counting the Omer is done after the Maariv prayer, before saying Aleinu. Later Poskim rule, however, once the stars have appeared, the Omer may be counted even before Maariv. (Ibid. 489:2,18) after (three medium-size star) stars begin to appear. If you did not count at the beginning of the evening, you may count the entire night. In the synagogue, on the eve of Shabbos and Yom Tov, we count after the Kiddush is said, in order to give precedence to the (proclamation of the) holiness of the day.4At home, however, we must count the Omer before Kiddush, as it is forbidden to eat before counting the Omer. (Ibid. 489:39) At the conclusion of Shabbos and Yom Tov, we count before the Havdalah is said, in order to delay the end of the day. If the last day of Yom Tov occurs on Shabbos night, when the Kiddush and the Havdalah are said over one [the same] cup of wine, we also count before, in order to postpone the Havdalah.

  2. (ב) מִי שֶׁשָּׁכַח כָּל הַלַּיְלָה וְלֹא סָפַר, יִסְפֹּר בַּיּוֹם בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, וּבַלֵּילוֹת שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ יִסְפֹּר בִּבְרָכָה. וְאִם שָׁכַח גַּם כָּל הַיּוֹם, יִסְפּוֹר אַחַר כָּךְ בְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת בְּלֹא בְרָכָה. וְאִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם סָפַר בַּלַּיְלָה אוֹ לֹא, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא סָפַר בַּיוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו, מִכָּל מָקוֹם יָכוֹל לִסְפּוֹר שְׁאָר הַלֵּילוֹת בִּבְרָכָה.

    (2) If you forgot to count during the night, you should count during the daytime, but without a berachah. On subsequent nights, you may count with a berachah. If you neglected to count an entire day, you should count on all subsequent nights, without saying the berachah.5This law also applies, if you realized you counted the wrong Sefirah yesterday. (Ibid. 489:35) If you are not sure whether or not you counted that night, even though you did not count on the following day, nevertheless, you may count the remaining days with a berachah.

  3. (ג) הַשּׁוֹאֵל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ, כַּמָּה מוֹנִים הַיּוֹם, יֹאמַר לוֹ, אֶתְמוֹל הָיָה כָּךְ וְכָךְ. שֶׁאִם יֹאמַר לוֹ כַּמָּה מוֹנִים הַיּוֹם, אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְבָרֵךְ אַחַר כָּךְ עַל הַסְּפִירָה.

    (3) If someone asks you, during twilight or later, "What is tonight's count?" You should tell him, "Yesterday was such-and-such," for if you would tell him today's count, you are not permitted to say the berachah, when you count the Omer later that night.6However, if, for example, you just said the number twelve, without saying today is the twelfth day, you can still count the Omer with a berachah. (Ibid. 489:22)

  4. (ד) לְכַתְּחִלָּה קֹדֶם שֶׁיְבָרֵךְ, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיֵדַע עַל מַה הוּא מְבָרֵךְ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיֵּדַע כַּמָּה יָמִים הוּא בַּסְּפִירָה, וּבְדִיעֲבַד אִם לֹא יָדַע וּפָתַח וּבֵרֵךְ עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּסְפּוֹר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, גַּם כֵּן יָצָא. וְכֵן אִם בֵּרַךְ עַל דַּעַת לִסְפּוֹר אַרְבָּעָה יָמִים, וּלְאַחַר שֶׁבֵּרַךְ נִזְכַּר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִסְפּוֹר חֲמִשָּׁה, סוֹפֵר חֲמִשָּׁה וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ שֵׁנִית. וְכֵן אִם טָעָה בַּסְּפִירָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שִׁשָּה יָמִים וְאָמַר חֲמִֹשָּה יָמִים, אִם נִזְכַּר מִיָּד, סוֹפֵר כָּרָאוּי וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ שֵׁנִית. אֲבָל אִם הִפְסִיק קְצָת, צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ שֵׁנִית.

    (4) Before saying the berachah, you should know what the berachah is for; that is, you should know the exact number of days of the Omer.7The later Poskim rule that it is permitted to count the Omer in any language you understand. If you do not understand, and, thus, you do not know what you are counting, you cannot fulfill your obligation, even if you count in Hebrew. (Ibid. 489:11) However, if you did not know it, and began the berachah with the intention of counting the number you will hear from your neighbor, you have also fulfilled your obligation. Similarly if you say the berachah with the intention of counting four days, but after completing the berachah, you realize that you should have counted five days, you should count five [days], and need not repeat the berachah. Similarly, if you made an error in counting, for example you should have said "six days," but you said "five days," if you realize it immediately,8Toch kedei dibur i.e., within the time it takes to say these three words, sholom olecha Rebbe (Peace be with you Rebbe). you should count the correct number, and you need not repeat the berachah; but if you made a short pause, you must repeat the berachah.

  5. (ה) בְּכָל יוֹם טוֹב אִם חָל לֵיל רִאשׁוֹן בַּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים אָז מַעֲרָבִית, אֲזַי בְּלֵיל שֵׁנִי אוֹמְרִים הַמַּעֲרָבִית מִלֵּיל רִאשׁוֹן, חוּץ מִפֶּסַח, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ חָל לֵיל רִאשׁוֹן בַּשַׁבָּת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּלֵיל שֵׁנִי אוֹמְרִים מַעֲרָבִית שֶׁשַּׁיֶּכֶת לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְדַבֵּר בִּקְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר, שֶׁהָיָה בְּלַיִל זֶה (תפ"ט).

    (5) When the first night of the Yom Tov occurs on Shabbos, ma'aravis are omitted,9Ma’aravis are poetic compositions that are inserted in the Ma’ariv service of Yom Tov. and, on the second night of Yom Tov, we say the ma'aravis of the first night. On Pesach, however, even if the first night occurs on Shabbos, nevertheless, on the second night we say the ma'aravis pertaining to that night, because it deals with the harvesting of the Omer which took place on that night.

  6. (ו) בִּימֵי הַסְּפִירָה מֵתוּ תַּלְמִידֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא בְּל"ג יוֹם, וְלָכֵן נוֹהֲגִין בְּיָמִים אֵלּוּ קְצָת אֲבֵלוּת, שֶׁאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין נָשִׁים וְאֵין מִסְתַּפְּרִים. וְיֵשׁ חִלּוּקֵי מִנְהָגִים בְּמִסְפַּר ל"ג יָמִים הָאֵלֶּה, יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁחוֹשְׁבִין אוֹתָן מִיּוֹם רִאשׁוֹן דִּסְפִירָה, וְלָכֵן אוֹסְרִין עַד ל"ג בָּעֹמֶר. אַךְ כְּשֶׁחַל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אִיָּר בַּשַׁבָּת, דְּיֵשׁ בּוֹ שְׁתֵּי קְדֻשּׁוֹת, קְדֻשַׁת שַׁבָּת וּקְדֻשַּׁת רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ, אָז מַתִּירִין לִשָּׂא, וְכֵן לְהִסְתַּפֵּר בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. וּבְיוֹם ל"ג בָּעֹמֶר, וְכֵן מִשָּׁם וָאֵילֵךְ מַתִּירִין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבְּיוֹם ל"ג בָּעֹמֶר פָּסְקוּ מִלָּמוּת, וְלָכֵן מַרְבִּים בּוֹ קְצָת שִׂמְחָה, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים בּוֹ תַּחֲנוּן. וְאַף שֶׁגַּם בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם מֵתוּ קְצָת, אָמְרִינָן מִקְּצָת הַיּוֹם כְּכֻלּוֹ, וְלָכֵן אֵין לְהִסְתַּפֵּר אוֹ לִשָֹּא עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁהֵאִיר הַיּוֹם, וְלֹא מִבָּעֶרֶב. אַךְ כְּשֶׁחַל ל"ג בָּעֹמֶר בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן, מִסְתַּפְרִין בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שֶׁלְּפָנָיו, לִכְבוֹד הַשַׁבָּת.

    (6) During [the first] thirty-three days of the Sefirah period (the counting of the Omer), the disciples of Rabbi Akiva perished. Therefore, it is the custom during these days to observe a partial state of mourning:10Should the need arise, it is permitted to say the berachah, שֶׁהֶתֱיָנוּ (shehechiyanu) during these days. (Ibid. 493:2) Marriages should not be performed and you should not take a haircut (or shave).11Those that are permitted to shave on Chol Hamoed, are also permitted to shave during Sefirah. (See Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 104:11) (Ibid. 493:1) There are various customs regarding (the day on which to begin) to count these thirty-three days. Some communities have the custom of counting them beginning with the first day of the Omer, and, therefore, they forbid [weddings and haircuts] until Lag ba'omer (the 33rd day of the Omer). But when Rosh Chodesh Iyar occurs on Shabbos, which has two levels of kedushah (sanctity), the kedushah of Shabbos and the kedushah of Rosh Chodesh, they permit marriages and haircuts on erev Shabbos. On Lag ba'omer and from that day on, the restrictions are permitted, because on Lag ba'omer [Rabbi Akiva's disciples] ceased to die. We, therefore, rejoice somewhat, and we do not say Tachanun on that day. Although on that very day some of them died (mourning need not be observed for a full day), for the Halachah states, a part of a day is considered as a full day; therefore, you should not take a haircut, nor should weddings be held; until after dawn (of Lag ba'omer), but not in the evening. But if Lag ba'omer occurs on Sunday, you may take a haircut on the preceding erev Shabbos, in honor of Shabbos.

  7. (ז) וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמַּתִּירִין עַד רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אִיָּר וְעַד בִּכְלָל, שֶׁהֵן שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם, וְנִשְׁאָרִים ל"ג יוֹם בְּאִסּוּר עַד חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת (וּמִסְתַּפְּרִין בְּעֶרֶב הָחָג). וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּיוֹם ל"ג בָּעֹמֶר בְּעַצְמוֹ מַתִּירִין. (וּכְשֶׁחָל בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן, מַתִּירִין בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי לְעֵיל). וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמַּתִּירִין עַד רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אִיָּר וְלֹא עַד בִּכְלָל, וּבְיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן דְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ מַתְחִיל הָאִסּוּר, וְיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן דְּהַגְבָּלָה הוּא יוֹם הַלּ"ג, וְאַמְרֵינָן בּוֹ, מִקְּצָת הַיּוֹם כְּכֻלּוֹ, וּמֻתָּרִין לִשָּׂא וּלְהִסְתַּפֵּר בָּהֶן, וְגַם בְּיוֹם ל"ג בָּעֹמֶר מֻתָּרִין (וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי לְעֵיל), וּצְרִיכִין לִנְהֹג בְּכָל קְהִלָּה מִנְהָג אֶחָד, וְלֹא יְשַׁנּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מִקְּצָתָן כָּךְ וּמִקְּצָתָן כָּךְ.

    (7) In other communities, they permit (weddings and haircuts) until Rosh Chodesh Iyar, inclusive, which adds up to sixteen days. This leaves thirty-three days, during which these things are forbidden, [that is] until Shavuos, (but they permit haircuts on erev Shavuos). Nevertheless, on Lag ba'omer they permit (weddings and haircuts); (and if Lag ba'omer occurs on Sunday, they permit them on erev Shabbos, as I have written above.) In still other communities, they permit (these things) until Rosh Chodesh Iyar, exclusive of that day, and on the first day of Rosh Chodesh, the restrictions begin to apply. On the first of the three days of Hagbalah [the three days preceding Shavuos,] which is the thirty-third day (of the period the restrictions are in effect), they apply the rule, "A part of day is considered as a full day," and they, therefore, permit marriages and haircuts during these three days, as well as on Lag ba'omer, (as I have written above). It is essential that the entire community follow the same custom, and not that some follow one custom and others follow a different custom.

  8. (ח) הַסַּנְדָּק (הוּא הַתּוֹפֵס אֶת הַתִּינוֹק בִּשְׁעַת מִילָה) וְהַמּוֹהֵל, וַאֲבִי הַבֵּן, מֻתָּרִין לְהִסְתַּפֵּר בְּיּוֹם שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַמִּילָה סָמוּךְ לָעֶרֶב קֹדֶם הֲלִיכָה לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת.

    (8) The Sandak, (the person who holds the infant during the bris circumcision), the mohel, and the father of the infant, are permitted to take a haircut (and shave) on the day before the bris, towards evening, before going to the synagogue.12If the bris (circumcision) will be held on Shabbos, they are permitted to take a haircut or shave on Friday, even before midday. (Ibid. 493:13)

  9. (ט) לַעֲשׂוֹת שִׁדּוּכִין אֲפִלּוּ בַּסְּעוּדָּה, מֻתָּרִין בְּכָל הַיָּמִים. אַךְ רִקּוּדִין וּמְחוֹלוֹת, אֲסוּרִין.

    (9) Engagement parties, even with a meal, are permitted during all the Sefirah days; but dancing is forbidden.

  10. (י) נוֹהֲגִים שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים כָּל יְמֵי הַסְּפִירָה מִשְּׁקִיעַת הַחַמָּה עַד לְאַחַר סְפִירַת הָעֹמֶר, וְרֶמֶז לָזֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת, מִלְּשׁוֹן שְׁבוֹת, שֶׁבִּזְמַן הַסְּפִירָה, דְּהַיְנוּ מִשְּׁקִיעַת הַחַמָּה וָאֵילֵךְ, יֵשׁ לִשְׁבוֹת מִמְּלָאכָה עַד לְאַחַר הַסְּפִירָה (סִימָן תצ"ג).

    (10) It is the custom that no work is performed, by either men or women during the Sefirah days, from sunset, until after the counting of the Omer. There is an allusion for this (in the Torah), because it is said, "Seven weeks" (Leviticus 23:15). [The word shabbasos, meaning weeks,] is derived from shevos, denoting rest, indicating that during the time we count the Omer, that is from sunset on, you should rest [refrain] from doing any work, until after you have counted the Omer.

  11. (יא) בְּלֵיל רִאשׁוֹן דְּשָׁבוּעוֹת, מְאַחֲרִין מִלְּהִתְפַּלֵּל עַד צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים. שֶׁאִם יִתְפַּלְּלוּ קוֹדֵם וִיקַבְּלוּ קְדֻשַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב, חָסֵר מְעַט מִמ"ט יְמֵי הַסְּפִירָה. וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימוֹת תִּהְיֶינָה.

    (11) On the first night of Shavuos, the Maariv service is delayed, until the stars come out, for, if we would hold the service before this time, and usher in the Yom Tov, a bit of time will be lacking from the forty-nine days of the Sefirah, and the Torah says, "They shall be seven complete weeks" (Leviticus 23:15).

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