Mishnayot Seder Moed: Eruvin
1 א

(א) מבוי שהוא גבוה למעלה מעשרים אמה, ימעט. רבי יהודה אומר: אינו צריך. והרחב מעשר אמות, ימעט. ואם יש לו צורת הפתח, אף על פי שהוא רחב מעשר אמות, אין צריך למעט.

(ב) הכשר מבוי - בית שמאי אומרים: לחי וקורה, ובית הלל אומרים: לחי או קורה. רבי אליעזר אומר: לחיין. משום רבי ישמעאל אמר תלמיד אחד לפני רבי עקיבא: לא נחלקו בית שמאי ובית הלל על מבוי שהוא פחות מארבע אמות, שהוא (נתר) או בלחי או בקורה, על מה נחלקו - על רחב מארבע אמות ועד עשר, שבית שמאי אומרים: לחי וקורה, ובית הלל אומרים: או לחי או קורה. אמר רבי עקיבא: על זה ועל זה נחלקו.

(ג) הקורה שאמרו, רחבה כדי לקבל אריח, והאריח חצי לבנה של שלשה טפחים, דיה לקורה שתהא רחבה טפח, כדי לקבל אריח לארכו.

(ד) רחבה כדי לקבל אריח, ובריאה כדי לקבל אריח. רבי יהודה אומר: רחבה אף על פי שאינה בריאה.

(ה) היתה של קש או של קנים, רואין אותה כאלו היא של מתכת. עקמה - רואין אותה כאלו היא פשוטה. עגלה - רואין אותה כאלו היא מרבעת. כל שיש בהקפו שלשה טפחים, יש בו רחב טפח.

(ו) לחיין שאמרו, גבהן עשרה טפחים, ורחבן ועבין כל שהוא. רבי יוסי אומר: רחבן שלשה טפחים.

(ז) בכל עושין לחיין, אפלו בדבר שיש בו רוח חיים, ורבי יוסי אוסר. ומטמא משום גולל, ורבי מאיר מטהר. וכותבין עליו גטי נשים, ורבי יוסי הגלילי פוסל.

(ח) שירא שחנתה בבקעה והקיפוה בכלי בהמה, מטלטלין בתוכה, ובלבד שיהא גדר גבוה עשרה טפחים ולא יהיו פרצות יתרות על הבנין. כל פרצה שהיא כעשר אמות מתרת, מפני שהיא כפתח. יתר מכאן - אסור.

(ט) מקיפין שלשה חבלים זה למעלה מזה וזה למעלה מזה, ובלבד שלא יהא בין חבל לחברו שלשה טפחים. שעור חבלים ועבין יתר על טפח, כדי שיהא הכל עשרה טפחים.

(י) מקיפין בקנים, ובלבד שלא יהא בין קנה לחברו שלשה טפחים. בשירא דברו - דברי רבי יהודה. וחכמים אומרים: לא דברו בשירא אלא בהווה. כל מחצה שאינה של שתי ושל ערב, אינה מחצה - דברי רבי יוסי בר רבי יהודה. וחכמים אומרים: אחד משני דברים. ארבעה דברים פטרו במחנה: מביאין עצים מכל מקום, ופטורים מרחיצת ידים, ומדמאי , ומלערב.

(1) If a mavoy [an alleyway onto which courtyards open] - that [has an entrance with an opening that] is higher than twenty amot [a specific unit of length], one must lower [it in order to separate the mavoy from the public domain]. Rabbi Yehuda says it is not necessary. And if it is wider than ten amot, one must narrow [it in order to separate the mavoy from the public domain]. If there is a tzurat hapetach [two uprights and a crossbar, however slight, halachically effecting a doorway], even though [the entrance] is wider than ten amot, it is not necessary to narrow it.

(2) The required preparation of a mavoy [to consider its fourth side as separated from the public domain]: Beit Shammai says, "A lechi [a vertical strip a the side of an entrance to a mavoy] and a beam [on top of the entrance]." Beit Hillel says, "A lechi or a beam." Rabbi Eliezer says, "Two lechi." In the name of Rabbi Yishmael, said one student in front of Rabbi Akiva, "Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree about [an entrance of] a mavoy that is narrower than four amot, that it is [adequately separated] with either a lechi or a beam. About what did they disagree? About [an entrance of a mavoy] that is from four to ten amot; Beit Shammai says, '[It needs] a lechi and a beam,' but Beit Hillel says, 'Either a lechi or a beam.'" Rabbi Akiva says, "They disagreed about this and that."

(3) The beam that they spoke [about, must be] wide enough to hold an ariach, and an ariach is half a brick [with a whole brick having the width] of three tefachim [a specific unit of length]. It is enough for the beam to be a tefach wide so that it can hold an ariach sideways.

(4) [The beam must be] wide enough to hold an ariach and strong enough to hold an ariach. Rabbi Yehuda says, "[It must only be] wide [enough], even though it is not strong [enough to hold an ariach]."

(5) If [the beam] is [made of] stubble or reeds, we view it as if it were [made out of] metal. [If it is] bent, we view it as if it were straight. [If it is] rounded, we view it as if it were squared off. Anything [round] that has a circumference of three tefachim has a width of one tefach.

(6) The lechaayin that they spoke [about], their height [must be] ten tefachim, and their width and thickness can be anything. Rabbi Yose says, "Their width must be three tefachim."

(7) We can make a lechi from anything - even out of a living thing but Rabbi Yose forbids [doing that]. And [a living thing that is used as a grave cover] imparts impurity according to [the laws of] a grave cover, but Rabbi Meir renders it pure. We [can] write a bill of divorce on [a living animal] but Rabbi Yose Haglili disqualifies [such a bill of divorce].

(8) If a caravan is camped in a valley and they encircled [the camp] with animal tack; we can carry within [that perimeter], but only if the fence [made from the tack] is ten tefachim high and the gaps aren't more than the walls. Any gap that is [up to] ten amot is permitted because it is like an opening [doorway]; larger than that is forbidden.

(9) We may surround [an area] with three ropes, one on top of the other, but only if there is not [a gap of] three tefachim between one rope and another. The required size of the ropes and their width must be more than a tefach, so that the whole thing be ten tefachim.

(10) We surround an area with reeds, but only if there is not [a gap of] three tefachim between one reed and another. They spoke [about allowing these leniencies specifically] concerning a caravan - so says Rabbi Yehuda. The Sages say, "They were only talking about a caravan in the present case [as an example]." Any mechitza [legal partition] which is not [made of] vertical and horizontal [parts] is not a mechitza - so says Rabbi Yose ben Rabbi Yehuda. The Sages say, "[Only] one of [those] two things [is required]." [The Rabbis] gave dispensation for four things in an army camp: We can take wood from any place, we are exempt from hand-washing; from [the prohibition to eat] demai [produce from which it is uncertain whether tithes were already taken]; and from the requirement to make an eruv [halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place][in order to carry within the camp].

2 ב

(א) עושין פסין לביראות ארבעה דיומדין נראין כשמונה - דברי רבי יהודה. רבי מאיר אומר: שמונה נראין כשנים עשר, ארבעה דיומדין וארבעה פשוטין. גבהן עשרה טפחים , ורחבן ששה, ועבין כל שהוא, וביניהן כמלא שתי רבקות של שלש שלש בקר, דברי רבי מאיר. רבי יהודה אומר: של ארבע ארבע, קשורות ולא מתרות, אחת נכנסת ואחת יוצאת.

(ב) מתר להקריב לבאר, ובלבד שתהא פרה ראשה ורבה בפנים ושותה. מתר להרחיק כל שהוא, ובלבד שירבה בפסין.

(ג) רבי יהודה אומר: עד בית סאתים. אמרו לו: לא אמרו בית סאתים אלא לגנה ולקרפף, אבל אם היה דיר או סחר או מקצה או חצר, אפלו בית חמשת כורין, אפלו בית עשרת כורין - מתר. ומתר להרחיק כל שהוא, ובלבד שירבה בפסין.

(ד) רבי יהודה אומר: אם היתה דרך הרבים מפסקתן, יסלקנה לצדדין. וחכמים אומרים: אינו צריך. אחד בור הרבים ובאר הרבים ובאר היחיד - עושין להן פסין, אבל לבור היחיד עושין לו מחצה גבוהה עשרה טפחים, דברי רבי עקיבא. רבי יהודה בן בבא אומר: אין עושין פסין אלא לבאר הרבים בלבד, ולשאר עושין חגורה גבוהה עשרה טפחים.

(ה) ועוד אמר רבי יהודה בן בבא: הגנה והקרפף שהן שבעים אמה ושירים על שבעים אמה ושירים, מקפת גדר גבוה עשרה טפחים, מטלטלין בתוכה, ובלבד שיהא בה שומירה או בית דירה, או שתהא סמוכה לעיר. רבי יהודה אומר: אפלו אין בה אלא בור ושיח ומערה, מטלטלין בתוכה. רבי עקיבא אומר: אפלו אין בה אחת מכל אלו מטלטלין בתוכה, ובלבד שיהא בה שבעים אמה ושירים על שבעים אמה ושירים. רבי אליעזר אומר: אם היה ארכה יתר על רחבה אפלו אמה אחת, אין מטלטלין בתוכה. רבי יוסי אומר: אפלו ארכה פי שנים ברחבה, מטלטלין בתוכה.

(ו) אמר רבי אלעאי, שמעתי מרבי אליעזר: ואפלו היא כבית כור. וכן שמעתי ממנו: אנשי חצר ששכח אחד מהן ולא ערב, ביתו אסור מלהכניס ומלהוציא לו, אבל להם מתר. וכן שמעתי ממנו: שיוצאין בעקרבנין בפסח. וחזרתי על כל תלמידיו ובקשתי לי חבר, ולא מצאתי.

(1) We [may] make pasin [quasi-partitions] for wells [in order for the the well and the area around it to be considered a single domain: the pasin must be made of] four double boards, [placed at the corners of the well so] that [they] appear like eight - so says Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir says, "Eight [boards must be used], which appear like twelve, [namely] four double boards and four single ones." Their height must be ten tefachim [a specific unit of length] and their width six [tefachim], and their thickness anything and [the gap] between them [must not be wider] than the width of two teams of cattle, each team consisting of three cattle - so says Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says, "[Each team] of four." [The width is the space taken by cattle] yoked together and not unyoked, [in such a way that when] one [team] enters, [the other] one exits.

(2) It is permitted to move the [pasin] closer to the well, but only if the cow's head and the greater part of its body is within [them] as it drinks. It is permitted to move [the pasin] away from the well, but only if one adds more pasin.

(3) Rabbi Yehuda said, "[The distance from the well, at which it is permitted to place the pasin is] up until beit se'atayim [a measure of area, equivalent to that area of land large enough to require a se'atayim of seeds to sow it]." [The Sages] said to him, "They didn't say beit se'atayim except concerning a garden or a karpef [an enclosed area outside of a town or village], but if [the area that was being enclosed] was a pen or a fold or a field [behind the house] or a yard [in front of the house], even if is five beit kor [the same as a beit se'atayim but for a kor of seeds], even if it is ten beit kor, it is permissible [to set up pasin around it]. It is permitted to distance [the pasin] any amount, but only if one adds more pasin."

(4) Rabbi Yehuda said, "If a public thoroughfare intersects the pasin, one should move it to [one of] the sides." The sages say, "It is not necessary." It is the same [if it is a] public cistern or a public well or a private well, we [only need to] make pasin for them; but for a private cistern, we make a [full] mechitza [legal partition] of ten tefachim [a specific unit of length] - so says Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yehuda ben Baba says, "We can only make pasin for a public well, but for all others we [are required to] make a [full] partition ten tefachim high."

(5) Rabbi Yehuda ben Baba also said, "If a garden or karfef be seventy amot [specific unit of length] and a bit [long] by seventy amot and a bit [wide and] is encircled by a fence ten amot high, we [may] move [carry things] within it, but only if there is a guardbooth or dwelling within it, or if it is close to the town." Rabbi Yehuda said, "Even if there is nothing within it except a cistern or a ditch or a cave, we [may] move [carry things] within it." Rabbi Akiva says, "Even if there is not [even] one of all these [items] within it, we [may] move [carry things] within it, but only if it [is no more than] seventy amot and a bit [long] by seventy amot and a bit [wide]." Rabbi Eliezer said, "If its length exceeds its width by even a single amah, we do not move [carry things] within it [as it would be forbidden]." Rabbi Yose says, "Even if its length is twice its width, we [may] move [carry things] within it."

(6) Rabbi Elai said, "I heard from Rabbi Eliezer, 'Even [if a garden or a karpef is as large as] a beit kor [it is permitted to move things within it].' I also heard from him, 'If one of the householders of a courtyard had forgotten, and did not [participate in] the eruv [halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place], it is forbidden for him to carry any thing out of, or into, his house; but for them [the other residents of the courtyard] it is permitted [to do so].' I also heard from him, 'We [may] fulfill our obligation [to eat bitter herbs] on Passover with akrvanim [a type of green].' And I searched among all his disciples and sought a companion [who had likewise heard him expound these positions], but I could not find [any one]."

3 ג

(א) בכל מערבין ומשתתפים, חוץ מן המים ומן המלח. והכל נקח בכסף מעשר, חוץ מן המים ומן המלח. הנודר מן המזון, מתר במים ובמלח. מערבין לנזיר ביין ולישראל בתרומה. סומכוס אומר: בחלין. ולכהן בבית הפרס. רבי יהודה אומר: אפלו בבית הקברות, מפני שיכול לילך לחוץ ולאכול.

(ב) מערבין בדמאי, ובמעשר ראשון שנטלה תרומתו, ובמעשר שני והקדש שנפדו, והכהנים בחלה (ובתרומה). אבל לא בטבל, ולא במעשר ראשון שלא נטלה תרומתו, ולא במעשר שני והקדש שלא נפדו. השולח ערובו ביד חרש שוטה וקטן, או ביד מי שאינו מודה בערוב - אינו ערוב. ואם אמר לאחר לקבלו ממנו, הרי זה ערוב.

(ג) נתנו באילן: למעלה מעשרה טפחים - אין ערובו ערוב, למטה מעשרה טפחים - ערובו ערוב. נתנו בבור: אפלו עמוק מאה אמה, ערובו ערוב. נתנו בראש הקנה או בראש הקנדס: בזמן שהוא תלוש ונעוץ, אפלו גבוה מאה אמה, הרי זה ערוב. נתנו במגדל ואבד המפתח, הרי זה ערוב. רבי אליעזר אומר: אם אינו יודע שהמפתח במקומו, אינו ערוב.

(ד) נתגלגל חוץ לתחום, ונפל עליו גל, או נשרף, או תרומה ונטמאת - מבעוד יום, אינו ערוב. משחשכה, הרי זה ערוב. אם ספק - רבי מאיר ורבי יהודה אומרים: הרי זה חמר גמל. רבי יוסי (ורבי שמעון) אומרים: ספק ערוב - כשר. אמר רבי יוסי: אבטלמוס העיד משום חמשה זקנים על ספק ערוב שכשר.

(ה) מתנה אדם על ערובו ואומר: אם באו גוים מן המזרח, ערובי למערב. מן המערב - ערובי למזרח. אם באו מכאן ומכאן, למקום שארצה אלך. לא באו לא מכאן ולא מכאן, הריני כבני עירי. אם בא חכם מן המזרח, ערובי למזרח. מן המערב - ערובי למערב. בא לכאן ולכאן, למקום שארצה אלך. לא לכאן ולא לכאן, הריני כבני עירי. רבי יהודה אומר: אם היה אחד מהן רבו, הולך אצל רבו, ואם היו שניהם רבותיו, למקום שירצה ילך.

(ו) רבי אליעזר אומר: יום טוב הסמוך לשבת, בין מלפניה ובין מלאחריה, מערב אדם שני ערובין ואומר: ערובי הראשון למזרח, והשני למערב. הראשון למערב, והשני למזרח. ערובי הראשון, והשני כבני עירי. ערובי השני, והראשון כבני עירי. וחכמים אומרים: מערב לרוח אחת, או אינו מערב כל עקר. או מערב לשני ימים, או אינו מערב כל עקר. כיצד יעשה, מוליכו בראשון ומחשיך עליו ונוטלו ובא לו. בשני מחשיך עליו ואוכלו. ונמצא משתכר בהליכתו ומשתכר בערובו. נאכל בראשון, ערובו לראשון ואינו ערוב לשני. אמר להם רבי אליעזר: מודים אתם לי שהן שתי קדשות.

(ז) רבי יהודה אומר: ראש השנה שהיה ירא שמא תתעבר, מערב אדם שני ערובין ואומר: ערובי בראשון למזרח ובשני למערב, בראשון למערב ובשני למזרח. ערובי בראשון, ובשני כבני עירי. ערובי בשני, ובראשון כבני עירי. ולא הודו לו חכמים.

(ח) ועוד אמר רבי יהודה: מתנה אדם על הכלכלה ביום טוב ראשון ואוכלה בשני. וכן ביצה שנולדה בראשון, תאכל בשני. ולא הודו לו חכמים.

(ט) רבי דוסא בן הרכינס אומר: העובר לפני התבה ביום טוב של ראש השנה אומר: החליצנו ה' אלהינו את יום ראש החדש הזה, אם היום אם למחר. ולמחר הוא אומר: אם היום אם אמש. ולא הודו לו חכמים.

(1) We may use all [food and drink] to make an eruv [halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place] or a shituf [ the same as an eruv when connecting different alleys and streets], exception for water and except for salt. And all [food and drink] may be bought with money [that must be used on food or drink in place] of ma'aser [sheni] [the second tithe of produce, which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there], except for water and except for salt. Someone who has vowed [to abstain] from food is permitted [to partake] of water and salt. We [may] make an eruv for a nazir [a person who vows to avoid corpse impurity, refrain from cutting his hair and abstain from all grape products] with wine [even though he is prohibited from drinking it], and for a [common] Israelite with terumah [a portion of a crop given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household][even though he is prohibited from eating it]. Sumchos said, "[We can only make an eruv for an Israelite] with chulin [produce or food permitted for general consumption]." And [we may place the eruv] of a Kohen [member of priestly caste, subgroup of tribe of Levi, uniquely responsible for maintaining and carrying out the sacrificial services in the Temple] in a Beit Haperas [a field in which a grave has been plowed over]. Rabbi Yose says, "[We can] even [place it] in a graveyard, because he [the Kohen] may go outside [the graveyard] and eat [it]."

(2) We may make an eruv with demai [produce from which it is uncertain whether tithes were already taken]; and with ma'aser rishon [the first tithe of produce, which must be given to the Levi] from which terumah has been taken; and with ma'aser sheni and hekdesh [property, living or inanimate, devoted by its owner for sacred purposes, by which action he ceases to be its owner] which have been redeemed; and for Kohanim with challah [a portion of a batch of bread dough given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household], and with terumah. But [we may] not [make an eruv] with tevel [produce from which the various tithes have not yet been separated]; and not with ma'aser rishon, from which terumah has not been taken; or with ma'aser sheni and hekdesh which have not been redeemed. If someone sends his eruv via the hand of a deaf and dumb person, a mental retard, a minor or one who does not acknowledge [the legal validity of] an eruv, it is not [considered] an eruv: but if he has told another person [not of the categories just mentioned] to receive it from [his messenger from those categories], behold it is [considered] an eruv.

(3) If he has put [his eruv] in a tree, if [the eruv was placed] higher than ten tefachim [a specific unit of length] [from the ground], it is not [considered] an eruv; [but if he puts it] lower than ten tefachim, it is [considered] an eruv. If he has put it into a pit, even if it is a hundred amot [a specific unit of length] deep, his eruv is [considered] an eruv. If he put it on the top of a cane or pole, in the case that it is detached [from actually growing in the ground but] is stuck [therein], even [if it is] a hundred amot high, behold it is [considered] an eruv. If he put it into a closet [which he locked] and lost the key, behold it is [considered] an eruv. Rabbi Eliezer says, "If he does not know that the key is in its place, it is not [considered] an eruv."

(4) If the eruv rolled out of the techum [the area around a person or community within which it is permissible to travel on Shabbat], or if a heap [of stones] fell on it, or if it got burned, or if [it was] terumah and became impure; [if any of these happen] while [it is] yet day, [before the Shabbat comes in], it is not [considered] an eruv; [but if it happens] after it got dark, behold it is [considered] an eruv. If there is a doubt [about the time when it happened], Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda say, "This is [like at once driving] an ass [and leading a] camel [which make the person get stuck between them]." Rabbi Yose and Rabbi Shimon say, "An eruv about which there is a doubt is [considered] valid." Rabbi Yose further said, "Avtulmos testified, in the name of five elders, that an eruv about which there is a doubt is [considered] valid."

(5) A man may make his eruv conditional and say, "If [hostile] gentiles come from the east, my eruv [shall extend my techum] to the west; [if they come] from the west, my eruv [shall extend my techum] to the east; if they come from both directions, I [will be permitted to] go to the place [direction] that I want; [if] they don't come from either direction, I am like [the rest of] my townsmen [concerning the preexisting techum]; should a sage come from the east, my eruv [shall extend my techum] to the east; [should one come] from the west, my eruv [shall extend my techum] to the west; [if one] come from each direction, I [will be permitted to] go to the place [direction] that I want; [if] none [come] from either direction, I am like the rest of my townsmen [concerning the preexisting techum]." Rabbi Yehuda says, "If one of them [the two sages who come] was his teacher, he goes to his teacher; and if both were his teachers, he [will be permitted to] go to the place [direction] that he wants."

(6) Rabbi Eliezer says, "[In the case of] a festival that is adjacent to a Shabbat, whether [it is] before it or after it, a man may set two eruvin, and say, 'My first eruv [shall extend my techum] to the east, and the second [one] to the west; the first [one] to the west, and the second [one] to the east; my eruv [is for] the first [day], and the second [day I am] like my townsmen; my eruv [is for] the second [day], and the first [day I am] like my townsmen.'" But the sages say, "He can [only] set his eruv for one direction, or he can not set his eruv at all; he can [only] set his eruv for both days, or he can not set his eruv at all. How should he do [it]? He carries it [the eruv] out [to the place where he means to set it] on the [eve of the] first [day], and remains with it until dark and [then] he takes it and comes [back]; he [brings the eruv out again] on the second [day], remains with it until dark, and then eats it. It comes out [that in this way] he gains in his walking [beyond the preexisting techum], and he gains in [eating] his eruv. If [his eruv] is eaten on the first [day] his eruv is [considered an eruv] for the first [day], but is not [considered] an eruv for the second [day]." Rabbi Eliezer said to them, "[That means that] you admit to me that [an adjacent holiday and Shabbat] are two [distinct] realms of holiness."

(7) Rabbi Yehuda says, "If one is afraid that Rosh Hashana will be extended [to two days], he may make two eruvin and say, 'My first eruv [shall extend my techum] to the east, and the second [one] to the west; the first [one] to the west, and the second [one] to the east; my eruv [is for] the first [day], and the second [day I am] like my townsmen; my eruv [is for] the second [day], and the first [day I am] like my townsmen.'" But the Sages did not concede to him.

(8) And Rabbi Yehuda also said, "A man may conditionally [tithe] the basket [of tevel produce] on the first festival day [of Rosh HaShanah], and eat it on the second [day]; and so too, an egg which is laid on the first [day] may be eaten on the second." But the Sages did not concede to him.

(9) Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinus says, "He who [stands] before the reading-desk [to lead the prayers] on the [first] festival day of Rosh Hashana, should say, 'Strengthen [support] us, Lord our God, on this day of Rosh Chodesh, whether today or tomorrow [be the true one].' And on the next day he says [the same prayer, with the variation], 'whether this day or yesterday [be the true one].'" But the Sages did not concede to him.

4 ד

(א) מי שהוציאוהו גוים או רוח רעה, אין לו אלא ארבע אמות. החזירוהו, כאילו לא יצא. הוליכוהו לעיר אחרת, נתנוהו בדיר או בסהר - רבן גמליאל ורבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומרים: מהלך את כלה. רבי יהושע ורבי עקיבא אומרים: אין לו אלא ארבע אמות. מעשה שבאו מפרנדיסין והפליגה ספינתם בים, רבן גמליאל ורבי אלעזר בן עזריה הלכו את כלה, רבי יהושע ורבי עקיבא לא זזו מארבע אמות, שרצו להחמיר על עצמן.

(ב) פעם אחת לא נכנסו לנמל עד שחשכה. אמרו לו לרבן גמליאל: מה אנו לירד. אמר להן: מתרים אתם, שכבר הייתי מסתכל, והיינו בתוך התחום עד שלא חשכה.

(ג) מי שיצא ברשות, ואמרו לו: כבר נעשה מעשה - יש לו אלפים אמה לכל רוח, אם היה בתוך התחום, כאלו לא יצא, שכל היוצאים להציל, חוזרין למקומן.

(ד) מי שישב בדרך, ועמד וראה והרי הוא סמוך לעיר, (הואיל) ולא היתה כונתו לכך, לא יכנס, דברי רבי מאיר. רבי יהודה אומר: יכנס. אמר רבי יהודה: מעשה היה ונכנס רבי טרפון בלא מתכון.

(ה) מי שישן בדרך ולא ידע שחשכה, יש לו אלפים אמה לכל רוח, דברי רבי יוחנן בן נורי. וחכמים אומרים: אין לו אלא ארבע אמות. רבי אליעזר אומר: והוא באמצען. רבי יהודה אומר: לאיזה רוח שירצה ילך. ומודה רבי יהודה שאם ברר לו, שאינו יכול לחזור בו.

(ו) היו שנים, מקצת אמותיו של זה בתוך אמותיו של זה, מביאין ואוכלין באמצע, ובלבד שלא יוציא זה מתוך שלו לתוך של חברו. היו שלשה, והאמצעי מבלע ביניהן, הוא מתר עמהן והן מתרין עמו, ושנים החיצונים אסורין זה עם זה. אמר רבי שמעון: למה הדבר דומה, לשלש חצרות הפתוחות זו לזו ופתוחות לרשות הרבים, ערבו שתיהן עם האמצעית - היא מתרת עמהן והן מתרות עמה, ושתים החיצונות אסורות זו עם זו.

(ז) מי שבא בדרך וחשכה לו, והיה מכיר אילן או גדר, ואמר: שביתתי תחתיו - לא אמר כלום. שביתתי בעקרו, מהלך ממקום רגליו ועד עקרו אלפים אמה ומעקרו ועד ביתו אלפים אמה. נמצא מהלך משחשכה ארבעת אלפים אמה.

(ח) אם אינו מכיר, או שאינו בקי בהלכה, ואמר: שביתתי במקומי - זכה לו מקומו אלפים אמה לכל רוח. עגלות - דברי רבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס. וחכמים אומרים: מרבעות, כטבלא מרבעת, כדי שיהא נשכר לזויות.

(ט) וזו היא שאמרו: העני מערב ברגליו. אמר רבי מאיר: אנו אין לנו אלא עני. רבי יהודה אומר: אחד עני ואחד עשיר, לא אמרו מערבין בפת אלא להקל על העשיר, שלא יצא ויערב ברגליו.

(י) מי שיצא לילך בעיר שמערבין בה והחזירו חברו, הוא מתר לילך וכל בני העיר אסורין, דברי רבי יהודה. רבי מאיר אומר: כל שהוא יכול לערב ולא ערב, הרי זה חמר גמל.

(יא) מי שיצא חוץ לתחום, אפלו אמה אחת, לא יכנס. רבי אליעזר אומר, שתים - יכנס, שלש - לא יכנס. מי שהחשיך חוץ לתחום, אפלו אמה אחת, לא יכנס. רבי שמעון אומר: אפלו חמש עשרה אמות - יכנס, שאין המשוחות ממצין את המדות, מפני הטועין.

(1) If [hostile] gentiles, or an evil spirit [a fit of insanity], caused a man to go out [of the techum - the area around a person or community within which it is permissible to travel on Shabbat], he must not [when recovering his own free agency] move further than four amot [a specific unit of length]; if they [the gentiles or the fit] bring him back [within the techum], it is as if he had not gone out. If they carried him into another town, or put him into a pen or fold [for cattle], Rabban Gamaliel, and Rabbi Eliezer ben Azariah say, "He may walk [throughout] all of it." But Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Akiva say, "He only has four amot within which to move." It once happened that they [these four sages] came from Perendisin, and their ship went out to sea [on Shabbat]: Rabban Gamliel and Rabbi Eliezer ben Azariah walked [throughout] all of [the vessel]; but Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Akiva did not move beyond four amot, since they wanted to be strict upon themselves.

(2) Once [on a Shabbat-eve] they [the above Sages were on board a ship that] did not enter the harbor until it became dark; they said to Rabban Gamaliel, "What are we [to do, regarding] descending [from the ship]?" He said [back] to them, "You are permitted; for I already observed that we had entered [within] the techum before it got dark."

(3) He who went out [of the techum] with permission [of the Rabbis on an important matter], and they said to him, "The thing has already been done," has [is allowed to go] two thousand amot in any direction. If he was still within the techum, it is as if he had not gone out; since all those who go out to save [lives] are [permitted to] return to their place [on Shabbat].

(4) He who sat down on the road [towards dusk on the Shabbat-eve], and [then] stood up and saw, behold, he is near a town, since it had not been his intention to [enter the town], he may not enter - so says Rabbi Meir; Rabbi Yehuda says, "He may enter." Rabbi Yehuda said, "It once happened that Rabbi Tarfon entered [a town], without [the] intention [to do so]."

(5) He who fell asleep on the road [towards dusk on the Shabbat-eve], and did not know that it had become dark [night had set in], has [the right to move] two thousand amot in any direction. - so says Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri. The Sages say, "He only has [the right to move within] four amot." Rabbi Eliezer says, "And he is in [forms] the center [of these four amot]." Rabbi Yehuda says, "He can go [four amot] in whichever direction he pleases." But Rabbi Yehuda conceded, that if he [that person] chose [a direction] for himself, he may not [afterwards] go back upon it [and change his mind].

(6) If there were two [people situated in such a way] that part of the four amot [permitted] to each are within the limits of the other, they may take and eat their meal in the middle [within their joint space]; but only if neither of them take out [his food] from his [limits] and into those of his fellow. If there were three [people so situated], and [the four amot belonging to] the middle one is subsumed by them [forms part of the limits belonging to each of the two outer ones], he is permitted [to bring food to a common space and eat] with them, and they are permitted [to bring food to a common space and eat] with him; but the two outer ones are forbidden [to bring food together to a common space and eat] with each other. Rabbi Shimon says, "What is this like? [It is like] three courtyards that open into each other and [also] open into the public domain; if the two [outer] ones have made an eruv [halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place] with the middle one, [the middle courtyard] is permissible to [carry to and from] them, and them [from and into] it; but the two outer ones are forbidden one to the other."

(7) He who came upon the road, and it was becoming dark [on the Shabbat eve], if he recognized [singled out] a tree or hedge, and said, "Under it [I will take] my Shabbat rest," [it is as if] he did not say anything. [But if he said], "At its trunk [I will take] my Shabbat rest," he may go from the spot of his feet [where he is standing] to its trunk, [up to] two thousand amot, and from its trunk to his home two thousand amot [more]; it comes out that, after it got dark, he may go four thousand amot.

(8) If he did not recognize [single out a tree or a hedge], or is not conversant with the halacha, and says, "[I will take] my Sabbath rest on my place [where I stand]," the place [where he stands] obtains for him two thousand amot in every direction; in a circle - so says Rabbi Hanina ben Antigonus. But the Sages say, "[Those two thousand amot are] squared [off] like a square table, in order that he gains the angles [the corners].

(9) This is what [the Rabbis meant when they] said a poor person may make an eruv with his feet. Rabbi Yehuda says, "Both a poor person and a wealthy one [may do so]; they did not say that we may make an eruv with bread except in order to unencumber the wealthy person, that he need not go out and make an eruv with his feet [by walking to it.]"

(10) He who [on the eve of Shabbat has been dispatched by his townsmen and] goes out to another town that is usually combined to his by means of an eruv [in order to set the eruv] and is brought back [advised to return] by his fellow [before he has completed his errand], he is permitted to go [to the second town]; but all his townsmen are forbidden [to go there] - so says Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir says, "Whoever can make an eruv but does not make an eruv is [like at once driving] an ass [and leading a] camel [which make the person get stuck between them]."

(11) He who went out [beyond] the techum, even [the distance of] one amah, may not re-enter [the techum]. Rabbi Eliezer says, "[If he has gone] two amot [beyond the techum] he may re-enter; [but if] three, he may not re-enter." Rabbi Shimon says, "Even [if he goes] fifteen amot [beyond the techum] he may re-enter, since the land-surveyors [who fix the techum] are not very exact in the measurements, because [they are concerned about] those who err [and might otherwise overshoot the techum."

5 ה

(א) כיצד מעברין את הערים, בית נכנס בית יוצא, פגום נכנס פגום יוצא. היו שם גדודיות גבוהות עשרה טפחים, וגשרים ונפשות שיש בהן בית דירה - מוציאין את המדה כנגדן, ועושין אותה כמין טבלא מרבעת, כדי שיהא נשכר את הזויות.

(ב) נותנין קרפף לעיר, דברי רבי מאיר. וחכמים אומרים: לא אמרו קרפף, אלא בין שתי עירות, אם יש לזו שבעים אמה ושירים, ולזו שבעים אמה ושירים, עושה קרפף לשתיהן להיותן כאחת.

(ג) וכן שלשה כפרים המשלשין: אם יש בין שנים החיצונים מאה וארבעים ואחד ושליש, עשה אמצעי את שלשתן להיותן כאחד.

(ד) אין מודדין אלא בחבל של חמשים אמה, לא פחות ולא יותר. ולא ימדוד אלא כנגד לבו. היה מודד והגיע לגיא או לגדר, מבליעו וחוזר למדתו. (הגיע להר, מבליעו וחוזר למדתו), ובלבד שלא יצא חוץ לתחום. אם אינו יכול להבליעו - בזו אמר רבי דוסתאי בר רבי ינאי משום רבי מאיר: שמעתי שמקדרין בהרים.

(ה) אין מודדין אלא מן הממחה. רבה למקום אחד ומעט למקום אחר, שומעין למקום שרבה. רבה לאחד ומעט לאחר, שומעין למרבה. אפלו עבד, אפלו שפחה, נאמנין לומר: עד כאן תחום שבת, שלא אמרו חכמים את הדבר להחמיר אלא להקל.

(ו) עיר של יחיד ונעשית של רבים - מערבין את כלה. ושל רבים ונעשית של יחיד - אין מערבין את כלה, אלא אם כן עשה חוצה לה כעיר חדשה שביהודה, שיש בה חמשים דיורים, דברי רבי יהודה. רבי שמעון אומר: שלש חצרות של שני בתים.

(ז) מי שהיה במזרח ואמר לבנו: ערב לי במערב, במערב ואמר לבנו: ערב לי במזרח - אם יש הימנו ולביתו אלפים אמות ולערובו יותר מכאן, מתר לביתו ואסור לערובו. לערובו אלפים אמה ולביתו יותר מכאן, אסור לביתו ומתר לערובו. הנותן את ערובו בעבורה של עיר, לא עשה ולא כלום. נתנו חוץ לתחום, אפלו אמה אחת, מה שנשכר הוא מפסיד.

(ח) אנשי עיר גדולה מהלכין את כל עיר קטנה, ואין אנשי עיר קטנה מהלכין את כל עיר גדולה. כיצד, מי שהיה בעיר גדולה ונתן את ערובו בעיר קטנה, בעיר קטנה ונתן את ערובו בעיר גדולה - מהלך את כלה וחוצה לה אלפים אמה. ורבי עקיבא אומר: אין לו אלא ממקום ערובו אלפים אמה.

(ט) אמר להן רבי עקיבא: אי אתם מודים לי בנותן ערובו במערה, שאין לו ממקום ערובו אלא אלפים אמה. אמרו לו: אימתי, בזמן שאין בה דיורין, אבל יש בה דיורין, מהלך את כלה וחוצה לה אלפים אמה. נמצא קל תוכה מעל גבה. ולמודד שאמרו, נותנין לו אלפים, שאפלו סוף מדתו כלה במערה.

(1) How can the boundaries of a town be enlarged [extended]? If one house recede and [another] house jut out, or one attachment recede and [another] attachment jut out, or fragments of a wall ten tefachim [a specific unit of length] high [that jut out], or if there be any bridges or monuments [a section of which juts out], with dwelling-houses thereon, the measurement of the town goes out in front of [their outermost point]; and we make [the area that extends to its sides] like a type of square table ,in order that it gains the angles [the corners].

(2) We give [an allowance for] a karpef [an enclosed area outside of a town] to [extend the boundaries of] a town - so says Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say, "[The Rabbis] didn't say [that there is an allowance for a] karpef except [when it would be] between two towns; if the one has [up to] seventy and a fraction amot [a specific unit of length] outside of it and the other one [also] has [up to] seventy and a fraction amot outside of it [such that there is one hundred and forty one and a third amot from the end of one town to the other; in that case] one makes [the allowance of] a karpef for both of them, so that they become as one."

(3) And so too, if three villages form a triangle, and the two outer ones have one hundred and forty one and a third amot between them, the [third] one between them [makes] the three of them become as one.

(4) They are not to measure [the techum - the area around an individual or community within which it is permissible to carry on Shabbat], except with a rope [exactly] fifty amot, not shorter and not longer; and he [who measures] must not measure except from in front of his heart [his chest]. If he was measuring and reached a valley or [an obstruction], he incorporates it [by measuring above it in a straight line] and resumes his [standard procedure of] measurement; if he reached a mountain, he incorporates it [by measuring above it in a straight line] and resumes his [standard procedure of] measurement, so long as he does not step out of the techum [in doing so]. If he cannot incorporate it [by measuring above it in a straight line because it is too high], Rabbi Dostai bar Yannai said of such [a circumstance] in the name of Rabbi Meir, "I have heard that they [who measure] cut straight through mountains."

(5) We don't measure except [by using] an expert [surveyor. If the techum has been measured] farther in one place, and closer in another, we follow the farther [measurement]. If one [surveyor has measured the limit] farther and another [has measured it] closer, we follow the farther [measurement]. Even a slave or a maidservant is [considered] reliable [if either] say, "Until here is the techum of Shabbat;" for the Rabbis did not say the matter [the laws of techumim] to be strict but [rather] to be lenient.

(6) If a town [originally the property] of a single individual, becomes [the property] of the many, we make an eruv for all of it [meaning that all of the householders residing there should participate in making it. If a town originally the property] of the many, becomes [the property] of one individual, we don't make an eruv for all of it [meaning the householders residing there may not participate in making it], unless [a number of dwellers who live adjacent] be left out, [that number being] like the town, Chadasha in Yehuda, in which there are fifty dwellings - so says Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon says, "[It is sufficient if] three courtyards of two houses [each are left out]."

(7) He who was [on the eve of Shabbat] to the east [of his habitation], and says to his son, "Place my eruv to the west;" or [being] to the west [of his habitation], and says to his son, "Place my eruv to the east;" if there is from him [the place where he is standing] to his home [no more than] two thousand amot, and if there is more than that to his eruv, he is permitted [to use the techum of] his house, but forbidden [to use the techum of] his eruv; [if the distance] to his eruv is [no more than] two thousand amot, and if there is more than that to his home, he is permitted [to use the techum of] his eruv, but forbidden [to use the techum of] his home. If he placed his eruv within the extension of the town, he has not done [anything], and it is not anything; if he has placed it [the eruv] out of the techum, even one amah, whatever [extent of ground] he gains [in this direction], he loses [in the opposite one].

(8) The inhabitants of a large town may traverse the whole of a small town [that lies within their techum], but the inhabitants of the small [town] may not traverse the whole of the large town [that is only partially within their techum]. How is this? He who was in the large town and placed his eruv in the small town, or in the small town and placed his eruv in the large town, may traverse all of the town wherein he has placed his eruv and two thousand amot beyond it. Rabbi Akiva says, "He only has [the right to walk] two thousand amot from the place where he deposited his eruv."

(9) Rabbi Akiva said to them [the Sages], "Will you not concede to me, [in the case of] he who places his eruv in a cave, that he has not [the right to walk] further than two thousand amot [from his eruv]?" They said to him "[True; but] when is this the case? If there are no dwellings within [the cave]; but if there are dwellings within it, he may traverse the whole of the cave and [also] two thousand amot outside of it. It comes out that the [law pertaining to the] interior [of a cave] is more lenient than the [law pertaining to the the space] above it. As to the one who measures [a techum of two thousand amot] that they spoke about, he is only allowed two thousand amot [from the place where he started], even though the end of his measurement should terminate in a cave."

6 ו

(א) הדר עם הנכרי בחצר, או עם מי שאינו מודה בערוב, הרי זה אוסר עליו (דברי רבי מאיר). רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר: לעולם אינו אוסר, עד שיהו שני ישראלים אוסרין זה על זה.

(ב) אמר רבן גמליאל: מעשה בצדוקי אחד שהיה דר עמנו במבוי בירושלים, ואמר לנו אבא: מהרו והוציאו את הכלים למבוי עד שלא יוציא ויאסור עליכם. רבי יהודה אומר בלשון אחר: מהרו ועשו צרכיכם במבוי עד שלא יוציא ויאסור עליכם.

(ג) אנשי חצר ששכח אחד מהן ולא ערב, ביתו אסור מלהכניס ומלהוציא לו ולהם, ושלהם מתרין לו ולהם. נתנו לו רשותן - הוא מתר והן אסורין. היו שנים, אוסרין זה על זה, שאחד נותן רשות ונוטל רשות, שנים נותנים רשות, ואין נוטלין רשות.

(ד) מאימתי נותנין רשות, בית שמאי אומרים: מבעוד יום, ובית הלל אומרים: משחשכה. מי שנתן רשותו והוציא, בין בשוגג בין במזיד, הרי זה אוסר, דברי רבי מאיר. רבי יהודה אומר: במזיד אוסר, בשוגג אינו אוסר.

(ה) בעל הבית שהיה שתף לשכנים, לזה ביין ולזה ביין, אינם צריכים לערב. לזה ביין ולזה בשמן, צריכים לערב. רבי שמעון אומר: אחד זה ואחד זה, אינם צריכים לערב.

(ו) חמש חבורות ששבתו בטרקלין אחד, בית שמאי אומרים: ערוב לכל חבורה וחבורה, ובית הלל אומרים: ערוב אחד לכלן. ומודים, בזמן שמקצתן שרויין בחדרים או בעליות, שהן צריכין ערוב לכל חבורה וחבורה.

(ז) האחין השתפין שהיו אוכלין על שלחן אביהם וישנים בבתיהם, צריכין ערוב לכל אחד ואחד. לפיכך, אם שכח אחד מהם ולא ערב, מבטל את רשותו. אימתי, בזמן שמוליכין ערובן במקום אחר, אבל אם היה ערוב בא אצלן, או שאין עמהן דיורין בחצר, אינן צריכין לערב.

(ח) חמש חצרות פתוחות זו לזו ופתוחות למבוי - ערבו בחצרות ולא נשתתפו במבוי, מתרין בחצרות ואסורין במבוי. ואם נשתתפו במבוי, מתרין כאן וכאן. ערבו בחצרות ונשתתפו במבוי, ושכח אחד מבני חצר ולא ערב, מתרין כאן וכאן. מבני מבוי ולא נשתתף, מתרין בחצרות ואסורין במבוי, שהמבוי לחצרות כחצר לבתים.

(ט) שתי חצרות זו לפנים מזו: ערבה הפנימית ולא ערבה החיצונה - הפנימית מתרת והחיצונה אסורה, החיצונה ולא הפנימית - שתיהן אסורות. ערבה זו לעצמה וזו לעצמה - זו מתרת בפני עצמה, וזו מתרת בפני עצמה. רבי עקיבא אוסר החיצונה, שדריסת הרגל אוסרתה, וחכמים אומרים: אין דריסת הרגל אוסרתה.

(י) שכח אחד מן החיצונה ולא ערב - הפנימית מתרת והחיצונה אסורה. מן הפנימית ולא ערב - שתיהן אסורות. נתנו ערובן במקום אחד, ושכח אחד, בין מן הפנימית בין מן החיצונה, ולא ערב - שתיהן אסורות. ואם היו של יחידים - אינן צריכין לערב.

(1) Someone who dwells [together] in a courtyard with a gentile, or with someone who does not acknowledge [the validity of] an eruv [the halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place], behold [the residence there of] such [an individual] forbids hims [from carrying there] - so says Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaacov says, "[Truly such an individual's residence] does not forbid him, until there are [also] two Israelites [the residence of which] forbid each other."

(2) Said Rabban Gamliel, "It happened that a Sadducee dwelt with us in a mavoy [an alleyway onto which courtyards open] in Jerusalem; and father said to us [on the Shabbat eve], 'Hurry and take out all the vessels into the mavoy, before [the Sadducee] brings out [his], and [by so doing] forbids it to you [to carry there].'" Rabbi Yehudah says [it] with a variation in the language: "Hurry and do [take care of] your needs in the mavoy, before [the Sadducee] brings out [his vessels], and [by so doing] forbids it to you [to carry there].'"

(3) If one of the householders of a courtyard forget, and not join in the eruv, it is forbidden for him and for them [the other residents of the courtyard] to carry into or out of his home; but their [homes] are permissible for him and for them [to carry into and out of]; if they [the other residents] gave him their [rights to the courtyard], he is permitted [to carry in and out of it], but they are forbidden [to do so]. If there were two [householders who have neglected to join in the eruv], they [by so doing] forbid each other [from carrying to and from their homes], since one [individual] can give [his rights to the courtyard], and can acquire [the rights of others to the courtyard]; but two [though they can jointly] give [their rights], cannot [jointly] acquire [the rights of others to the use of the courtyard].

(4) [Until] when may we give [our rights to the courtyard]? Beit Shammai says, "While it is still day [before the onset of Shabbat]." But Beit Hillel says, "[Even] from dusk." He who gives his [rights to the courtyard], and [afterwards] carries out [into or from the courtyard], whether inadvertently or intentionally, behold [by so doing] he forbids [the other residents of the courtyard from carrying into or out of it] - so says Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says, "[If he does it] intentionally, he forbids [it for them]; inadvertently, he does not forbid [it]."

(5) If a householder was a partner in [one cask of] wine with two of his neighbors [residing in the same mavoy], they are not required to make an eruv [technically, a shituf, which is its equivalent, in order to carry into the mavoy]; if he is [a partner] with one in wine, and with one in oil, they are required to make an eruv. Rabbi Shimon says, "In the one [case] as in the other, they do not require an eruv."

(6) If five [different] groups took their Shabbat-rest in one chamber [large hall], Beit Shammai says, "A [separate] eruv should be made for each and every group." But Beit Hillel says, "One eruv [is sufficient] for [them] all." And [Beit Hillel] concedes, that when some of these groups occupy distinct rooms, or attics, [then] they require a [separate] eruv for each and every group.

(7) If brothers or partners eat at their father's [or at one] table, but [each] sleep in their [separate] homes [in the same courtyard], they are each and every one required to [individually participate in the] eruv. Therefore, if one of them forgot, and did not [participate in the] eruv, he [should] nullify his [rights to the common courtyard]. When [is this the case?] When they place their eruv in another place; but if the eruv has come to [have been placed with] them, or if there are no other dwellings in the courtyard, they need not [participate in or] make an eruv.

(8) If five courtyards open into one another, and [also] open into the mavoy, if they [the householders therein] made eruvin for the courtyards, but did not make a shituf [an eruv used to join together alleys and streets] for the mavoy, they are permitted [to carry to and from] the courtyards, but are prohibited [to do so] in the mavoy; but if they made a shituf in the mavoy, they are permitted in both [the courtyards and the mavoy]. If they made an eruv for the courtyards and a shituf for the mavoy, if one of the householders of the courtyards forgot and did not participate in the eruv, they are [nevertheless] permitted [to carry] in both [the courtyards and the mavoy]; if one of the householders of the mavoy forgot to participate in the shituf, they are permitted [to carry] in the courtyards, but are forbidden [to do so] in the mavoy, since the mavoy is [in the same relation] to the courtyards, as the courtyards [are] to the homes [within them].

(9) If there are two courtyards, one which is behind the other, if the [residents of the] inner courtyard made an eruv, and [those of] the outer courtyard did not make an eruv, [the residents of] the inner courtyard are permitted [to carry to and from it], but [those of] the outer courtyard are forbidden [to do so]; if [those of] the outer [courtyard made an eruv], but [those of] the inner [courtyard did] not, both [courtyards] are prohibited; if each made its own eruv, the [residents of] each are permitted [to carry to and from] its own [courtyard]. Rabbi Akiva forbids the outer courtyard [in that case], since the right of thoroughfare [possessed by the inner courtyard] forbids it. But the Sages say, "The right of thoroughfare does not forbid [the outer courtyard]."

(10) If one [of the householders] of the outer courtyard forgot and did not participate in the eruv, the inner courtyard is permitted, but the outer courtyard is prohibited; if [one of the householders] of the inner courtyard [forgot and] did not participate in the eruv, both are prohibited. If [both courtyards] place their eruvin in one place, and one [of the householders], whether from the inner or from the outer [courtyard], forgot and did not participate in the eruv, both are prohibited. And if [each courtyard] belong to [single] individuals, they do need to make an eruv [in order to carry into and from their own courtyards].

7 ז

(א) חלון שבין שתי חצרות, ארבעה על ארבעה, בתוך עשרה - מערבין שנים, ואם רצו, מערבין אחד. פחות מארבעה על ארבעה, או למעלה מעשרה - מערבין שנים ואין מערבין אחד.

(ב) כתל שבין שתי חצרות גבוה עשרה ורחב ארבעה - מערבין שנים ואין מערבין אחד. היו בראשו פרות - אלו עולין מכאן ואוכלין ואלו עולין מכאן ואוכלין, ובלבד שלא יורידו למטה. נפרץ הכתל עד עשר אמות, מערבין שנים, ואם רצו מערבין אחד, מפני שהוא כפתח. יותר מכאן, מערבין אחד ואין מערבין שנים.

(ג) חריץ שבין שתי חצרות עמוק עשרה ורחב ארבע - מערבין שנים ואין מערבין אחד, אפלו מלא קש או תבן. מלא עפר או צרורות - מערבין אחד, ואין מערבין שנים.

(ד) נתן עליו נסר שהוא רחב ארבעה טפחים, וכן שתי גזזטראות זו כנגד זו - מערבין שנים, ואם רצו מערבין אחד. פחות מכאן - מערבין שנים ואין מערבין אחד.

(ה) מתבן שבין שתי חצרות גבוה עשרה טפחים - מערבין שנים ואין מערבין אחד. אלו מאכילין מכאן ואלו מאכילין מכאן. נתמעט התבן מעשרה טפחים - מערבין אחד ואין מערבין שנים.

(ו) כיצד משתתפין במבוי, מניח את החבית ואומר: הרי זו לכל בני המבוי, ומזכה להן על ידי בנו ובתו הגדולים ועל ידי עבדו ושפחתו העברים ועל ידי אשתו, אבל אינו מזכה לא על ידי בנו ובתו הקטנים ולא על ידי עבדו ושפחתו הכנענים, מפני שידן כידו.

(ז) נתמעט האוכל - מוסיף ומזכה, ואין צריך להודיע. נתוספו עליהם - מוסיף ומזכה, וצריך להודיע.

(ח) כמה הוא שעורו, בזמן שהן מרבין - מזון שתי סעודות לכלם. בזמן שהן מעטין - כגרוגרת, להוצאת שבת, לכל אחד ואחד.

(ט) אמר רבי יוסי: במה דברים אמורים, בתחלת ערוב, אבל בשירי ערוב, כל שהוא. ולא אמרו לערב בחצרות אלא כדי שלא לשכח את התינוקות.

(י) בכל מערבין ומשתתפין, חוץ מן המים ומן המלח, דברי רבי אליעזר. רבי יהושע אומר: ככר הוא ערוב. אפלו מאפה סאה והיא פרוסה, אין מערבין בה. ככר באסר והוא שלם, מערבין בו.

(יא) נותן אדם מעה לחנוני ולנחתום כדי שיזכה לו ערוב, דברי רבי אליעזר. וחכמים אומרים: לא זכו לו מעותיו. ומודים בשאר כל אדם שזכו לו מעותיו, שאין מערבין לאדם אלא מדעתו. אמר רבי יהודה: במה דברים אמורים, בערובי תחומין, אבל בערובי חצרות מערבין לדעתו ושלא לדעתו, לפי שזכין לאדם שלא בפניו, ואין חבין לאדם שלא בפניו.

(1) If there is a window [opening] between two courtyards [that is] four [tefachim - a specific unit of length] by four [tefachim], and within ten [tefachim from the ground, the residents of each courtyard may] make two [separate] eruvin [the halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place]; or if they want, they may make one eruv [together]. If the window be less than four by four, or above ten, they may make two eruvin and may not make one eruv [together].

(2) If there is a wall between two courtyards [that is] ten [tefachim] high and four [tefachim] wide, they [the residents of each courtyard] may make two [separate] eruvin and may not make one eruv [together]. If there were fruit on top of [the wall], the [residents] from each side may go up and eat [them], but only if they don't bring [the fruit] down [from off the wall]. If the wall is breached [and has a gap] up until ten amot [a specific unit of length], they may make two eruvin; or if they want, they may make one eruv [together], because it [the breach] is considered as an opening [doorway]. [Should the breach be] wider than this, they may make one eruv [together] and may not make two eruvin.

(3) If there was a ditch between two courtyards [that is] ten [tefachim] deep, and four [tefachim] wide, they [the residents of each courtyard] may make two [separate] eruvin and may not make one eruv [together], even if [the trench] is filled with stubble or with straw. If it is [however] filled with dirt or rocks, they may make one eruv [together] and may not make two eruvin.

(4) If one places a board four tefachim wide over [the ditch], and likewise [if one does so between] two projecting balconies that face each other, [the residents of the courtyards] may make two eruvin; or if they want, they may make one eruv [together; but if the board be] less [wide] than this, they may make two eruvin and may not make one eruv [together].

(5) If there was a heap of straw between two courtyards ten tefachim high, [the residents of the courtyards] may make two eruvin and may not make one eruv [together]. They may feed [their animals] from both sides. If the heap becomes lessened from being ten tefachim, they may make one eruv [together] and may not make two eruvin.

(6) How do we make a shituf [an eruv used to join together alleys and streets] for a mavoy [an alleyway onto which courtyards open]? One places a cask of wine [in a designated place] and says, "Behold, this is [the possession] of all the residents of the mavoy;" and he may give them rights [to the wine] through [the agency of] his grown-up son or daughter, through his Hebrew slave or maid-servant, or through his wife; but he may not give them rights [to the wine] through [the agency of] his minor son or daughter, or through his Canaanite slave or maid-servant, because their hand [agency] is [limited to be] like his [and so they cannot acquire anything from him].

(7) If the [quantity of] food [required for the shituf] becomes lessened, he may [himself] add [to it], and give [the other residents] rights [to this addition], and he need not inform [them]; if [new residents of the courtyard] were added to [the previous ones], he may [himself] add [sufficient food to make up the quantity required], and give them rights [to this addition], and he must inform [them].

(8) How much is [the] required quantity [of food to make a shituf]? When they [the residents] are numerous, nourishment [that is sufficient] for [one person eating] two meals [is sufficient] for all of them; when they are few, the size of a dried fig - [which is also the quantity of food prohibited] to carry out on Shabbat - for each and every one of them.

(9) Rabbi Yose said, "To what does this [preceding law] apply? To the beginning of the eruv [when it is first made]; but to remnants of the eruv [later when some of it has been lessened], any quantity [is sufficient]." And the Rabbis did not say to make an eruv for [several] courtyards [where it is already subsumed by a shituf], except so that the children not forget [the concept of an eruv].

(10) We may use all [food and drink] to make an eruv or a shituf, except for water and except for salt - these are the words of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Yehoshua says, "[Nothing but] a [whole] loaf of bread is [considered an] eruv. Even if one bakes a [whole] se'ah [a specific unit of volume of flour] but it is a portion [and not a whole loaf], we may not make an eruv with it; [whereas] a [small] loaf made from [flour bought with] an issar [a specific unit of money], and it is whole, we may make an eruv with it."

(11) A man may give [money] to a storekeeper or baker, in order that [the latter] acquire him rights in the eruv - so says Rabbi Eliezer. But the Sages say, "His money did not acquire him rights [in the eruv]." But they concede that [if he has given] his money to any other person [to be his agent], it will acquire for him rights [in the eruv; though in the case of a shopkeeper or baker it will not be effective] since we cannot [participate in] an eruv for [another] man without his knowledge. Rabbi Yehuda said, "To what does this [preceding law] apply? In eruvin of techumim [areas around individuals or communities within which it is permissible to travel on Shabbat]; but in eruvin of courtyards, we may [participate in] an eruv [for another man] with his knowledge or without his knowledge; since we may confer rights on a man not in his presence, whereas, we may not confer obligations on a man not in his presence"

8 ח

(א) כיצד משתתפין בתחומין, מניח את החבית ואומר: הרי זה לכל בני עירי, לכל מי שילך לבית האבל או לבית המשתה. וכל שקבל עליו מבעוד יום - מתר. משתחשך - אסור, שאין מערבין משתחשך.

(ב) כמה הוא שעורו, מזון שתי סעודות לכל אחד. מזונו לחל ולא לשבת, דברי רבי מאיר. רבי יהודה אומר: לשבת ולא לחל. וזה וזה מתכונין להקל. רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר: מככר בפנדיון מארבע סאין בסלע. רבי שמעון אומר: שתי ידות לככר משלש לקב. חציה לבית המנגע, וחצי חציה לפסול את הגויה.

(ג) אנשי חצר ואנשי מרפסת ששכחו ולא ערבו, כל שגבוה עשרה טפחים - למרפסת. פחות מכאן - לחצר. חלית הבור והסלע, גבוהים עשרה טפחים - למרפסת, פחות מכאן - לחצר. במה דברים אמורים, בסמוכה. אבל במפלגת, אפלו גבוהה עשרה טפחים - לחצר. ואיזו היא סמוכה, כל שאינה רחוקה ארבעה טפחים.

(ד) הנותן את ערובו בבית שער, אכסדרה ומרפסת, אינו ערוב. והדר שם אינו אוסר עליו. בבית התבן ובבית הבקר ובבית העצים ובבית האוצרות, הרי זה ערוב, והדר שם אוסר (עליו). רבי יהודה אומר: אם יש שם תפיסת יד של בעל הבית, אינו אוסר (עליו).

(ה) המניח את ביתו והלך לשבות בעיר אחרת, אחד נכרי ואחד ישראל, הרי זה אוסר, דברי רבי מאיר. רבי יהודה אומר: אינו אוסר. רבי יוסי אומר: נכרי אוסר, ישראל אינו אוסר, שאין דרך ישראל לבוא בשבת. רבי שמעון אומר: אפלו הניח את ביתו והלך לשבות אצל בתו באותה העיר, אינו אוסר, שכבר הסיע מלבו.

(ו) בור שבין שתי חצרות, אין ממלאין ממנו בשבת, אלא אם כן עשו לו מחיצה גבוהה עשרה טפחים, (בין מלמעלה) בין מלמטה בין מתוך אגנו. רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר: בית שמאי אומרים - מלמטה, ובית הלל אומרים - מלמעלה. אמר רבי יהודה: לא תהא מחיצה גדולה מן הכתל שביניהם.

(ז) אמת המים שהיא עוברת בחצר, אין ממלאין הימנה בשבת, אלא אם כן עשו לה מחיצה גבוהה עשרה טפחים בכניסה וביציאה. רבי יהודה אומר: כתל שעל גבה תדון משום מחיצה. אמר רבי יהודה: מעשה באמה של אבל שהיו ממלאין ממנה על פי זקנים בשבת. אמרו לו: מפני שלא היה בה כשעור.

(ח) גזזטרא שהיא למעלה מן המים, אין ממלאין הימנה בשבת, אלא אם כן עשו לה מחיצה גבוהה עשרה טפחים, בין מלמעלה בין מלמטה. וכן שתי גזזטראות זו למעלה מזו. עשו לעליונה ולא עשו לתחתונה - שתיהן אסורות עד שיערבו.

(ט) חצר שהיא פחותה מארבע אמות, אין שופכין בתוכה מים בשבת, אלא אם כן עשו לה עוקה מחזקת סאתים מן הנקב ולמטה, בין מבחוץ בין מבפנים, אלא שמבחוץ צריך לקמור, מבפנים אין צריך לקמור.

(י) רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר: ביב שהוא קמור ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים, שופכין לתוכו מים בשבת. וחכמים אומרים: אפלו גג או חצר מאה אמה - לא ישפוך על פי הביב, אבל שופך מגג לגג, והמים יורדין לביב. החצר והאכסדרה מצטרפין לארבע אמות.

(יא) (וכן) שתי דיוטאות זו כנגד זו. מקצתן עשו עוקה ומקצתן לא עשו עוקה - את שעשו עוקה מתרין, ואת שלא עשו עוקה אסורין.

(1) How are techumin [the area around a person or community within which it is permissible to travel on Shabbat] to be combined? A man places a cask [of wine, oil or food], and says, "Behold this is for all my townsmen, for all who go to the house of mourning, or to the house of feasting." Whoever accepted upon himself [to make use of this and carry in the combined techumim] while it is yet day [before Shabbat], is permitted [to carry in the enlarged area; but if he does so ] after dark, he is forbidden [from doing so], because one cannot create an eruv [halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place] after dark.

(2) How much is its legal quantity [of food required to effect the combination of techumim]? Food for two meals for every one [who participates], for weekday meals, but not for Shabbat meals – so says Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says, “For Shabbat meals, but not for weekday meals;” and both intend to render lenient decisions. Rabbi Yochanan ben Beroka says, “[It is sufficient to effect the combination if each person has] a loaf [that is sold] for a fundyon [a specific amount of money], when the price of four seein [a specific unit of volume] of flour is one sela [a specific amount of money].” Rabbi Shimon says, “two-thirds of a loaf [such as is produced when making] three [loaves] with one kav [a specific unit of volume] of flour. [The time it takes to eat] half [of such a loaf is the time that it takes for someone’s clothes to become impure] in a leprous house; and [impure food that is] the half of a half [of the quantity needed to make such a loaf will suffice] to make the body [of a priest] unfit [for the consumption of terumah – a portion of a crop given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household].”

(3) If the [other] inhabitants of a courtyard and the inhabitants of a gallery [in the courtyard] forgot to make an eruv [the halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place], whatever is above ten tefachim high [from the ground] is considered as belonging to the gallery; and whatever is less than ten tefachim high [from the ground] is considered as belonging to the courtyard. [If either] the ring of [dirt surrounding] a cistern, or a stone [be] ten tefachim high, [it belongs] to the gallery; [but if] less than this [it belongs] to the courtyard. When is this the case [that the ring or stone can be considered as belonging to the gallery]? When [the ring or stone is] close [to the gallery], but if [they are] separated, even though it is ten tefachim high, [it belongs] to the courtyard. What is [considered as] close? Whatever is less distant than four tefachim.

(4) One who places his eruv [in order to permit carrying in the courtyard] in a gateway [porter's lodge], in a portico [entry hall], or in a gallery, it is not [considered] an eruv; and if one lives there [even if has not joined in the eruv], he cannot forbid [the courtyard] to [its owner, meaning he does not prevent the courtyard’s other resident or residents from carrying within it. If one places his eruv] in a straw warehouse, in a barn, in a wood-shed, or in a granary, it is [considered] an eruv; and if one lives there [if he has not joined in the eruv], he forbids the courtyard to [its owner to carry there]. Rabbi Yehuda says, "If the owner [of the courtyard] has reserved to himself the right of keeping his utensils there [in such a space that is being rented out], he [the renter who does not participate in the eruv] does not forbid the courtyard to [its owner to carry there]."

(5) If a person leaves his house, and goes to spend Shabbat in another town [without joining in the eruv], whether he be a gentile or an Israelite, he forbids the courtyard [for the other residents to carry in] – so says Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says, "He does not forbid it." Rabbi Yose says, "A gentile forbids it [in such a case], but an Israelite does not, as it is not the custom of an Israelite to return on the Shabbat." Rabbi Shimon says, "Even though he has left his house, and went to spend Shabbat with his daughter in the same town, he does not forbid [the courtyard], since he has in thought renounced [habitation in his house for that Shabbat]."

(6) If a cistern is between two courtyards, we may not draw water from it on Shabbat, unless there is a mechitza [legal partition] ten tefachim high, either above [at the top of the cistern] or below [within the water], or in the basin. Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says, "Beit Shammai says, '[The mechitza must be made] below [within the water];' but Beit Hillel says, 'Above [on top the well].'" Said Rabbi Yehuda, "The mechitza is not greater [more effective] than the wall which is between [the two courtyards]."

(7) If a streamlet of water runs through a courtyard, we may not draw water from it, unless there is a mechitza ten tefachim high, where it [the streamlet] flows in [to the courtyard], and [another] where it flows out [again]. Rabbi Yehudah says, "The wall above it is to be considered a mechitza." Rabbi Yehuda [further] said, "It so happened, that, in [the town of] Ebal, they drew water from a streamlet on Shabbat, with the sanction of the Elders." [The Sages] said [back] to him, "[That was] because it did not hold the legal size [of a karmelit – a rabbinically-defined domain which is neither a Biblically-defined public or private domain, in which and into which it is forbidden to carry on Shabbat]."

(8) If there is a balcony over the water, we may not draw from it on Shabbat, unless a mechitza is made for it [that is] ten tefachim high, either above or below [the balcony]. And so too [is the law], if there are two balconies, one above the other. If [a mechitza] was made for the upper [balcony], but not for the lower [one], both are forbidden [to draw water], until they make an eruv [and so combine the two areas].

(9) If a courtyard is less than four [square] amot [a specific unit of length], we may not pour any water into it on Shabbat, unless a sewer be made that is capable of holding two seah below the outlet, either outside of, or within, the courtyard. If [however the sewer] be outside, it must be vaulted [over; whereas if it is] inside, it need not be vaulted [over].

(10) Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says, "If a gutter is vaulted over [the length of] four amot in the public domain, we may pour into it on Shabbat." But the Sages say, "Even though the courtyard or the roof be one hundred amot long [and the gutter pass through that entire length], one may not pour [directly] into the gutter; but one may pour out from one roof to another, [so that] the water descends into the gutter." The portico [entrance hall] may be added to the [courtyard in computing the] four amot [mentioned in the preceding Mishna].

(11) And so too, if there are two row houses facing each other [in one courtyard], and the residents of the one [row house] have made a sewer, but the residents of the other have not [joined in making it], those who made the sewer are permitted [to pour water down into the courtyard]; but those who did not make it are forbidden [from doing so].

9 ט

(א) כל גגות העיר רשות אחת, ובלבד שלא יהא גג גבוה עשרה או נמוך עשרה, דברי רבי מאיר. וחכמים אומרים: כל אחד ואחד רשות בפני עצמו. רבי שמעון אומר: אחד גגות ואחד חצרות ואחד קרפיפות - רשות אחת לכלים ששבתו לתוכן, ולא לכלים ששבתו בתוך הבית.

(ב) גג גדול סמוך לקטן - הגדול מתר והקטן אסור. חצר גדולה שנפרצה לקטנה - הגדולה מתרת והקטנה אסורה, מפני שהיא כפתחה של גדולה. חצר שנפרצה לרשות הרבים - המכניס מתוכה לרשות היחיד או מרשות היחיד לתוכה, חיב, דברי רבי אליעזר. וחכמים אומרים: מתוכה לרשות הרבים, או מרשות הרבים לתוכה - פטור, מפני שהיא ככרמלית.

(ג) חצר שנפרצה לרשות הרבים משתי רוחותיה, וכן בית שנפרץ משתי רוחותיו, וכן מבוי שנטלו קורותיו או לחייו - מתרין באותה שבת ואסורין לעתיד לבוא, דברי רבי יהודה. רבי יוסי אומר: אם מתרין לאותה שבת, מתרין לעתיד לבוא, ואם אסורין לעתיד לבוא, אסורין לאותה שבת.

(ד) הבונה עליה על גבי שני בתים, וכן גשרים המפלשים, מטלטלין תחתיהן בשבת, דברי רבי יהודה. וחכמים אוסרין. ועוד אמר רבי יהודה: מערבין למבוי המפלש. וחכמים אוסרין.

(1) All the roofs of a town [form] one domain, so long as there isn't a roof, ten [tefachim - a specific unit of length] higher or ten [tefachim] lower [than the rest] - so says Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say, "Each and every [roof] is a domain by itself." Rabbi Shimon says, "Roofs, as well as courtyards as well as karpeifot [enclosed areas outside of a town or village] are [considered] one domain for [the carrying of] all [such] utensils [as were actually] therein [when] the Shabbat [began], but not for those utensils [which were] in the house [when] the Shabbat [began]."

(2) If a large roof adjoins onto a small one, the large [roof] is permitted [to carry from it to the house and from the house to it], but the small [roof] is prohibited [to do so]; if a large courtyard is breached [and now opens] onto a small one,[the residents of] the large [courtyard] are permitted [to continue carrying to and from the courtyard], but [the residents of] the small [courtyard] are prohibited [to do so], because it [the breach] is considered as an opening [doorway] to the large [courtyard or roof]. If a courtyard is breached [and now opens] onto the public domain, one who carries from [the courtyard] into a private domain, or from a private domain into [the courtyard] is guilty [of violating a Torah prohibition] - so says Rabbi Eliezer. But the Sages say, "[One who carries] from [the courtyard] into the public domain, or from the public domain into [the courtyard] is absolved [from having violated a Torah prohibition]; since [now as a result of the breach] the courtyard is like a karmelit [A rabbinically-defined domain which is neither a Biblically-defined public or private domain, in which and into which it is forbidden to carry on Shabbat]."

(3) If a courtyard is breached [on Shabbat and now opens onto the public domain] on two sides; or also if a house is breached [on Shabbat and now opens onto the public domain] on two sides; or also the entrance of a mavoy [an alleyway onto which courtyards open], the beams and lechayim [vertical strip at the side of an entrance] of which have been removed [and so remove the separation between it and the public domain], it is permitted [to continue carrying to and from these places] on that [particular] Shabbat; but it is prohibited [to do so] for the future, [on any subsequent Shabbat] - so says Rabbi Yehuda. But Rabbi Yose says, "If they are permitted on that [particular] Sabbath, they are [also] permitted for the future; and if they are prohibited for the future, they are also prohibited on that [particular] Sabbath."

(4) One who builds an attic over two houses [situated across from each other]; or also bridges which are open at both ends, we may carry under them on Shabbat - so says Rabbi Yehuda. But the Sages forbid it. And Rabbi Yehuda further said, "We can make an eruv [the halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place] in a mavoy that is open at both ends." But the Sages forbid it.

10 י

(א) המוצא תפלין מכניסן זוג זוג. רבן גמליאל אומר: שנים שנים. במה דברים אמורים, בישנות. אבל בחדשות פטור. מצאן צבתים או כריכות - מחשיך עליהן ומביאן. ובסכנה - מכסן והולך לו.

(ב) רבי שמעון אומר: נותנן לחברו וחברו לחברו, עד שמגיע לחצר החיצונה. וכן בנו, נותנו לחברו וחברו לחברו, אפלו מאה. רבי יהודה אומר: נותן אדם חבית לחברו וחברו לחברו, אפלו חוץ לתחום. אמרו לו: לא תהלך זו יותר מרגלי בעליה.

(ג) היה קורא בספר על האסקפה, נתגלגל הספר מידו - גוללו אצלו. היה קורא בראש הגג ונתגלגל הספר מידו - עד שלא הגיע לעשרה טפחים, גוללו אצלו. משהגיע לעשרה טפחים, הופכו על הכתב. רבי יהודה אומר: אפלו אין מסלק מן הארץ אלא כמלא מחט - גוללו אצלו, רבי שמעון אומר: אפילו בארץ עצמו - גוללו אצלו, שאין לך דבר משום שבות עומד בפני כתבי הקדש.

(ד) זיז שלפני חלון נותנין עליו ונוטלין ממנו בשבת. עומד אדם ברשות היחיד ומטלטל ברשות הרבים, ברשות הרבים ומטלטל ברשות היחיד, ובלבד שלא יוציא חוץ מארבע אמות.

(ה) לא יעמוד אדם ברשות היחיד וישתין ברשות הרבים, ברשות הרבים וישתין ברשות היחיד. וכן לא ירוק. רבי יהודה אומר: אף משנתלש רקו בפיו, לא יהלך ארבע אמות עד שירוק.

(ו) לא יעמוד אדם ברשות היחיד וישתה ברשות הרבים, ברשות הרבים וישתה ברשות היחיד, אלא אם כן הכניס ראשו ורבו למקום שהוא שותה. וכן בגת. קולט אדם מן המזחילה למטה מעשרה טפחים. ומן הצנור - מכל מקום שותה.

(ז) בור ברשות הרבים וחליתו גבוהה עשרה טפחים, חלון שעל גביו ממלאין הימנו בשבת. אשפה ברשות הרבים גבוהה עשרה טפחים, חלון שעל גבה שופכין לתוכה מים בשבת.

(ח) אילן שהוא מסך על הארץ, אם אין נופו גבוה מן הארץ שלשה טפחים - מטלטלין תחתיו. שרשיו גבוהין מן הארץ שלשה טפחים - לא ישב עליהן. הדלת שבמקצה וחדקים שבפרצה ומחצלות - אין נועלין בהן, אלא אם כן גבוהים מן הארץ.

(ט) לא יעמוד אדם ברשות היחיד ויפתח ברשות הרבים, ברשות הרבים ויפתח ברשות היחיד, אלא אם כן עשה מחיצה גבוהה עשרה טפחים, דברי רבי מאיר. אמרו לו: מעשה בשוק של פטמין שהיה בירושלים, שהיו נועלין ומניחין את המפתח בחלון שעל גבי הפתח. רבי יוסי אומר: שוק של צמרים היה.

(י) נגר שיש בראשו גלסטרא - רבי אליעזר אוסר, ורבי יוסי מתיר. אמר רבי אליעזר: מעשה בכנסת שבטבריא שהיו נוהגין בו התר, עד שבא רבן גמליאל והזקנים ואסרו להן. רבי יוסי אומר: אסור נהגו בה. בא רבן גמליאל והזקנים והתירו להן.

(יא) נגר הנגרר, נועלים בו במקדש, אבל לא במדינה. והמנח - כאן וכאן אסור. רבי יהודה אומר: המנח מתר במקדש, והנגרר במדינה.

(יב) מחזירין ציר התחתון במקדש, אבל לא במדינה. והעליון - כאן וכאן אסור. רבי יהודה אומר: העליון - במקדש, והתחתון - במדינה.

(יג) מחזירין רטיה במקדש, אבל לא במדינה. אם בתחלה, כאן וכאן אסור. קושרין נימא במקדש, אבל לא במדינה. אם בתחלה, כאן וכאן אסור. חותכין יבלת במקדש, אבל לא במדינה. ואם בכלי, כאן וכאן אסור.

(יד) כהן שלקה באצבעו - כורך עליה גמי במקדש, אבל לא במדינה. אם להוציא דם, כאן וכאן אסור. בוזקין מלח על גבי הכבש בשביל שלא יחליקו, וממלאים מבור הגולה ומבור הגדול בגלגל בשבת, ומבאר הקר ביום טוב.

(טו) שרץ שנמצא במקדש, כהן מוציאו בהמינו, שלא לשהות את הטמאה, דברי רבי יוחנן בן ברוקא. רבי יהודה אומר: בצבת של עץ, שלא לרבות את הטמאה. מהיכן מוציאין אותו, מן ההיכל ומן האולם ומבין האולם ולמזבח, דברי רבי שמעון בן ננס. רבי עקיבא אומר: מקום שחיבין על זדונו כרת ועל שגגתו חטאת - משם מוציאין אותו, ושאר כל המקומות כופין עליו פסכתר. רבי שמעון אומר: מקום שהתירו לך חכמים, משלך נתנו לך, שלא התירו לך אלא משום שבות.

(1) One who finds tefillin [on the road on Shabbat], must bring them in [into the town or village], one pair [consisting of one for the head and one for the arm] at a time. Rabban Gamliel says, "He must bring them in two pairs at a time." To what does this [previous law] apply? To old ones [such as have been already tied], but [if they be] new ones, he is absolved [from the obligation to bring them in to the town or village]. If he found [many tefillin] in pairs or all tied together, he must remain with them until dusk [when Shabbat ends], and [then] bring them [in]; but in [a time of] danger, he must [only] cover them and may [then continue to] walk on.

(2) Rabbi Shimon says, "He must hand them to his fellow [who is next to him], and his fellow [hands them] to his fellow [who is next to him, and so on, from hand to hand], until [the tefilllin] reach the outmost courtyard [of the town or village]; and also, his child, [if, for example, it is born on the field or road on Shabbat], he must hand it to his fellow [who is next to him], and his fellow [hands it] to his fellow [who is next to him, and so on], even [if it have to pass through] a hundred [sets of hands]." Rabbi Yehuda says, "A man may hand a cask to his fellow [who is next to him], and his fellow [hands it] to his fellow [who is next to him, and so on], even beyond the techum [the area around a person or community within which it is permissible to travel on Shabbat]." The Sages said [back] to him, "[The cask] cannot move further than the allowance of its owners."

(3) If one was reading from a book [a scroll] on the threshold [of the house], and the book [unrolls] from his hand, he may roll it [back] towards him. If he was reading on top of the roof [of the house], and the book unrolls from his hand; until it reaches ten tefachim [a specific unit of length][from the ground], he may roll it [back] towards him; from when it reaches ten tefachim, he must turn over the written side [downwards, to the wall, and leave it until nightfall]. Rabbi Yehuda says, "Even if it is [only] removed from the ground [a distance] like the breadth of a needle, he may roll it [back] towards him." Rabbi Shimon says, "Even if it is on the ground itself, he may roll it [back] towards him, since no shevut [restrictions established by the Sages regarding Shabbat to prevent violation of Torah-level Shabbat prohibitions, and to increase its sanctity] stands in front of [is not trumped by the respect due to] the Holy Writings."

(4) If there is a ledge outside of a window [opening], we may place [things from the house there] and remove them [and bring them into the house] on Shabbat. A man may stand in the private domain, and [reach in and] move [things that are] in the public domain; [or he may stand] in a public domain, and [reach in and] move [things that are] in the private domain; so long as he [who is moving things in the public domain] not move them beyond four amot [a specific unit of length].

(5) A man may not stand in a private domain and urinate into the public domain, [nor may he stand] in the public domain and urinate into a private domain. And also, he may not [stand in one domain and] spit [into another]. Rabbi Yehuda says, "Even from when the spit has been separated in his mouth, he may not walk four amot before he spits."

(6) A man may not stand in a private domain and drink in the public domain, [nor stand] in the public domain and drink in a private domain, unless he places his head and the greater part of his body into the place where he drinks. And so also is [the law with respect] to a wine press. A man may collect [water dropping] from a drain spout below ten tefachim from the ground; but from a projecting spout [pipe], he may drink in any place [or way].

(7) If there is a cistern that is in the public domain and its ring [of earth surrounding it] is ten tefachim high, if there is a window [opening] that is above it, we may draw water from [the cistern] on Shabbat. A dunghill in the public domain, which is ten tefachim high, if there is a window [opening] that is above it, we may pour water [onto the dunghill] on Shabbat.

(8) If [branches of] a tree [droop], and cover the ground [around it], if the branches are not three tefachim from the ground, we may carry beneath it. If its roots [project and] are taller than three tefachim high from the ground, one may not sit on them. The door of a storage space, or thorn bunches [that are used to put] into gaps [in the wall to fill them up], or reed mats, may not be shut, unless they are [situated somewhat] above the ground.

(9) A man may not stand in a private domain and [use a key] to open [a door] in the public domain, [nor may he stand] in the public domain, and [use a key] to open [a door] in a private domain, unless he has previously made a mechitza [legal partition] ten tefachim high [around the spot on which he stands] - so says Rabbi Meir. [The Sages] said [back] to him, it so happened in the stall-feeders’ market in Jerusalem, that they would lock up [their shops], and place the key in the window [opening] above the opening [doorway]." Rabbi Yose says, "It was in the wool-market."

(10) If there is a loose bolt, with a knob to it, Rabbi Eliezer forbids [one to use it to lock the door of a building on Shabbat]: but Rabbi Yose permits [it]. Rabbi Eliezer said, "It happened in the synagogue in Tiberias that they were accustomed to [treat] it as permitted, until Rabban Gamliel and the elders came and forbade [it] to them." Rabbi Yose said, "[On the contrary;] as forbidden they were accustomed to [treat] it , until Rabban Gamliel and the elders came and permitted [it] to them."

(11) If there is a loose bolt that [is fastened to a rope and part of it] drags [on the ground], we may [use it to] lock [a door] in the Temple, but not in the [rest of the] country; but a bolt that rests [completely on the floor] is forbidden in either place. Rabbi Yehuda says, "[Even] one that rests is permitted in the Temple, and one that drags [is permitted also] in the [rest of the] country."

(12) We may refasten the lower hinge [of a door] in the Temple, but not in the [rest of the] country; but [to refasten] the upper [hinge] is forbidden in either place. Rabbi Yehuda says, "[Even] the upper one [may be refastened] in the Temple, and the lower one [also] in [the rest of the] country."

(13) We may refashion a bandage [dressing] in the Temple, but not in the [rest of the] country. [To put a new bandage] to begin with, is forbidden in either place. We may tie a string [of an instrument, which broke on Shabbat] in the Temple, but not in the [rest of the] country. [To tie a new string] to begin with, is forbidden in either place. We may cut [off] a wart in the Temple, but not in the [rest of the] country. But if [we cut it off] with an instrument, [it is] forbidden in either place.

(14) If a Kohen [member of the priestly caste, a subgroup of tribe of Levi, which is uniquely responsible for maintaining and carrying out the sacrificial services in the Temple] is injured on his finger, he may bind reeds upon [this wound] in the Temple [on the Shabbat], but not in the [rest of the] country. If [he does so] to squeeze out blood, [it] is forbidden in either place. We may strew salt on the ramp [of the altar on Shabbat], so that they [the ministering priests] don't slip; and we may draw water from the Golah Cistern and from the Large Cistern, with a rolling wheel, [even] on Sabbat, and from the Cold Well on a festival day [but not on Shabbat].

(15) If a [dead] sheretz [a specific type of small animal, such as some insects, reptiles, or rodents, which move by scurrying, creeping, slithering, etc., the vast majority of which are prohibited for consumption] is found in the Temple [on Shabbat], the Kohen removes it with his belt, so as not to prolong the impurity [within the Temple] - so says Rabbi Yochanan ben Beroka. Rabbi Yehuda says, "[He should remove it] with wooden pincers, so as not to increase [create more contamination from] the impurity." From where [in the Temple] must we remove it? From the sanctuary, from the vestibule, and from between the vestibule and the altar - so says Rabbi Shimon ben Nanas. Rabbi Akiva said, "Every place, [in which if we entered while impure], if intentionally, we would be liable to be cut off; and if inadvertently, to bring a sin-offering, from there it must be removed. In all other places, it, we must cover it with a copper vessel [until after Shabbat, when it is removed]." Rabbi Shimon says, "[Whatever] the Sages permitted, they [only] gave you [permission to do] what is yours [not forbidden by the Torah]; since they only permitted you [that which is] a shevut [restrictions established by the Sages regarding Shabbat to prevent violation of Torah-level Shabbat prohibitions, and to increase its sanctity]."