ואין זר רואה את הנגעים וא"ת אהרן הסגירה אהרן קרוב הוא ואין קרוב רואה את הנגעים אלא כבוד גדול חלק לה הקב"ה למרים אותה שעה אני כהן ואני מסגירה אני חולטה ואני פוטרה
and a non-priest may not inspect the shades of leprous marks to diagnose them. And if you say that Aaron quarantined her, that is difficult, as Aaron was a relative, Miriam’s brother, and a relative may not inspect the shades of leprous marks. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, bestowed a great honor on Miriam at that time, and said: I Myself am a priest, and I will quarantine her for seven days to see if the shades of leprous marks persist, and I will declare her a leper if she is impure, and I will exempt her if she is not impure.
קתני מיהת משה זר ואין זר רואה את הנגעים
In any event, the midrash teaches: Moses was a non-priest, and a non-priest may not inspect the shades of leprous marks, which contradicts the statement of Rav that Moses was a priest.
אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק שאני מראות נגעים דאהרן ובניו כתובין בפרשה
Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The halakhot of the examination of shades of leprous marks are different, because specifically Aaron and his sons, and not Moses, are written in the passage that discusses them: “Then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests” (Leviticus 13:2). Therefore, there is no proof from this baraita that Moses was not a priest.
מיתיבי חמש שמחות היתה אלישבע יתירה על בנות ישראל יבמה מלך אישה כהן גדול בנה סגן בן בנה משוח מלחמה ואחיה נשיא שבט ואבילה על שני בניה
The Gemara raises an objection to Rav’s statement from a baraita: Elisheva, the daughter of Amminadav and the wife of Aaron, had five more reasons for joy than the other daughters of Israel on the day the Tabernacle was dedicated: Her brother-in-law, Moses, was a king; her husband, Aaron, was the High Priest; her son, Elazar, was the deputy High Priest; her son’s son, Pinehas, was the priest anointed for war, who would lead the army out to battle; and her brother, Nahshon, son of Amminadav, was the prince of the tribe of Judah, who brought his offering on that day, as the first of all the princes. But on that same day of joy she was in mourning for her two sons, Nadav and Avihu, who died on that day.
קתני מיהת יבמה מלך מלך אין כ"ג לא אימא אף מלך
In any event, the baraita teaches: Her brother-in-law, Moses, was a king. From this one can infer that yes, he was a king, but he was not a High Priest, contrary to Rav’s statement. The Gemara responds: Say that the baraita means: Moses was a king as well, in addition to being a High Priest.
כתנאי (שמות ד, יד) ויחר אף ה' במשה רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר כל חרון אף שבתורה נאמר בו רושם וזה לא נאמר בו רושם
The Gemara comments: The question of whether Moses was a High Priest is subject to a dispute among tanna’im, as is taught in a baraita: When Moses was at the burning bush and expressed hesitation to deliver God’s message to Pharaoh, the verse states: “And the anger of the Lord burned against Moses, and He said: Is there not Aaron your brother the Levite? I know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he comes forth to meet you, and when he sees you, he will be glad in his heart” (Exodus 4:14). Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: For every burning anger that is stated in the Torah, its effect is also stated, i.e., the Torah records an action or pronouncement as a consequence of that anger, but in this case no effect of the anger is stated.
ר"ש בן יוחי אומר אף זה נאמר בו רושם שנאמר (שמות ד, יד) הלא אהרן אחיך הלוי והלא כהן הוא הכי קאמר אני אמרתי אתה כהן והוא לוי עכשיו הוא כהן ואתה לוי
Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Even in this case the anger’s effect is stated, as it is stated there: “Is there not Aaron your brother the Levite? I know that he can speak well.” But isn’t Aaron a priest? Why is he referred to as a Levite? This is what God is saying to Moses: I initially said that you would be the priest and he would be the Levite; now he will be the priest and you will be the Levite.
וחכמים אומרים לא נתכהן משה אלא שבעת ימי המלואים בלבד ויש אומרים לא פסקה כהונה אלא מזרעו של משה שנאמר (דברי הימים א כג, יד) ומשה איש האלהים בניו יקראו על שבט הלוי ואומר (תהלים צט, ו) משה ואהרן בכהניו ושמואל בקוראי שמו
And the Rabbis say: Moses became a priest for the seven days of inauguration alone, and after that his priesthood expired. And some say: The priesthood expired only for the descendants of Moses, but Moses himself remained a priest, as it is stated: “But as for Moses the man of God, his sons are named among the tribe of Levi” (I Chronicles 23:14). This verse indicates that it was his sons who were Levites, but he himself remained a priest. And so too the verse states: “Moses and Aaron among His priests, and Samuel among them that call upon His name, did call upon the Lord, and He answered them” (Psalms 99:6).
מאי ואומר וכי תימא לדורות הוא דכתיב ואומר משה ואהרן בכהניו
The Gemara asks: What is meant by: And so too the verse states? Why did the tanna need to cite a second proof? The Gemara explains: And if you would say the first verse is written only for future generations, to include Moses’ descendants in the tribe of Levi but not to exclude him, then there is a second proof: And so too, the verse states: “Moses and Aaron among His priests.” The statement of Rav that Moses was a High Priest is in accordance with the opinion in this baraita.
וכל חרון אף שבתורה נאמר בו רושם והכתיב (שמות יא, ח) ויצא (משה) מעם פרעה בחרי אף ולא א"ל ולא מידי אמר ר"ל סטרו ויצא
The Gemara challenges the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: And is it true that for every burning anger that is stated in the Torah, its effect is also stated? But isn’t it written with regard to Moses: “And he went out from Pharaoh in hot anger” (Exodus 11:8)? And Moses did not say anything to Pharaoh. Reish Lakish said: Moses slapped him and left.
ומי אמר ר"ל הכי והכתיב (שמות ז, טו) ונצבת לקראתו על שפת היאור ואמר ר"ל מלך הוא והסביר לו פנים ורבי יוחנן אמר רשע הוא והעיז פניך בו איפוך
The Gemara challenges: And does Reish Lakish actually say this? But isn’t it written: “Go unto Pharaoh in the morning; lo, he goes out unto the water; and you shall stand by the river’s brink to meet him, and the rod which was turned to a serpent shall you take in your hand” (Exodus 7:15); and Reish Lakish says: God meant: Pharaoh is a king, and so you should be amiable toward him, and Rabbi Yoḥanan says: God meant: Pharaoh is wicked, and so you should be insolent toward him. If according to Reish Lakish Moses was commanded to greet Pharaoh with respect, how could he say that Moses slapped Pharaoh? The Gemara answers: Reverse the names of the Sages in this dispute; it is Reish Lakish who says that Moses was commanded to be insolent.
א"ר ינאי לעולם תהא אימת מלכות עליך דכתיב (שמות יא, ח) וירדו כל עבדיך אלה אלי ואילו לדידיה לא קאמר ליה
With regard to the respect accorded to a king, Rabbi Yannai says: Fear of the kingship should always be upon you, even when the king does not deserve respect, as it is written that Moses said to Pharaoh: “And all these your servants shall come down unto me and bow down unto me, saying: Get you out, and all the people that follow you, and after that I will go out” (Exodus 11:8). He mentioned Pharaoh’s servants, but he did not say this of Pharaoh himself, even though this was the eventual outcome. Rather, he spoke to Pharaoh with the respect due to a king.
רבי יוחנן אמר מהכא (מלכים א יח, מו) ויד ה' היתה אל אליהו וישנס מתניו וירץ לפני אחאב
Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Derive the principle from here: “And the hand of the Lord was on Elijah, and he girded up his loins and ran before Ahab to the entrance of Jezreel” (I Kings 18:46). Elijah the prophet ran before the evil king Ahab out of respect.
אמר עולא בקש משה מלכות ולא נתנו לו דכתיב (שמות ג, ה) אל תקרב הלום ואין הלום אלא מלכות שנאמר (שמואל ב ז, יח) מי אנכי ה' אלהים [וגו'] כי הביאתני עד הלום
The Gemara continues to discuss the roles of Moses: Ulla says: Moses requested that he be given the kingship, but it was not given to him, as it is written: “Do not draw hither” (Exodus 3:5); and the word “hither” refers to nothing other than kingship, as it is stated: “Then David the king went in and sat before the Lord, and he said: Who am I, O Lord God, and what is my house, that You have brought me hither”? (II Samuel 7:18).
מתיב רבא רבי ישמעאל אומר יבמה מלך אמר רבא לו ולזרעו קאמר
Rava raises an objection from the baraita cited earlier: Rabbi Yishmael says: Elisheva’s brother-in-law, Moses, was a king. This teaches that Moses was in fact granted kingship. Rava said: Ulla is saying that Moses did not receive kingship for himself and for his descendants, i.e., it was not bequeathed to his sons.
וכל היכא דכתיב הלום לדורות הוא והא גבי שאול דכתיב (שמואל א י, כב) הבא עוד הלום איש הוא אין זרעו לא
The Gemara counters: And is it so that anywhere that it is written “hither” the verse is referring to kingship for future generations as well? But isn’t it written about the kingship of Saul: “They asked of the Lord further: Is there yet a man who comes hither” (I Samuel 10:22), and Saul was indeed a king, but his descendants were not.
איבעית אימא הא הוה איש בשת ואיבעית אימא שאני שאול דאפי' בגויה לא קאים
The Gemara responds: If you wish, say: There was Ish-Bosheth, Saul’s son, who was a king (see II Samuel 2:10), indicating that Saul’s kingship did pass to his son. And if you wish, say instead: Saul is different, because the kingship did not stand even for himself, and this is why it did not pass on to his descendants.
כדר' אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא בשעה שפוסקים גדולה לאדם פוסקים לו ולזרעו עד סוף כל הדורות שנאמר (איוב לו, ז) לא יגרע מצדיק עיניו ואת מלכים לכסא וגו' ואם הגיס דעתו הקב"ה משפילו שנאמר (איוב לו, ח) ואם אסורים בזקים ילכדון בחבלי עוני:
The second response is in accordance with that which Rabbi Elazar says that Rabbi Ḥanina says: When greatness is apportioned to a person in Heaven, it is apportioned to him and to his descendants until the end of all generations, as it is stated: “He withdraws not His eyes from the righteous; but with kings upon the throne He sets them forever, and they are exalted” (Job 36:7). But if he then became arrogant, the Holy One, Blessed be He, humiliates him, as is stated in the next verse: “And if they be bound in fetters, and be held in cords of affliction” (Job 36:8). This was the case with Saul.
בעלי מומין בין בעלי מומין כו': מנא ה"מ דת"ר (ויקרא ו, יא) כל זכר לרבות בעלי מומין
§ The mishna teaches: Blemished priests, whether they are temporarily blemished or permanently blemished, receive a share and partake of offerings, but do not sacrifice them. The Gemara explains: From where are these matters derived? As the Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states with regard to the meal offering: “Every male among the sons of Aaron shall eat it” (Leviticus 6:11). The phrase “every male” serves to include blemished priests.
למאי אי לאכילה הרי כבר נאמר (ויקרא כא, כב) לחם אלהיו מקדשי הקדשים יאכל אלא לחלוקה
The Gemara clarifies: For what matter is this derivation necessary? If one suggests it is for the matter of consumption, it is already stated explicitly: “Any man of the seed of Aaron the priest who has a blemish…He may eat the bread of his God, of the most sacred, and of the sacred” (Leviticus 21:21–22). Rather, Leviticus 6:11 is necessary for the matter of receiving a share, teaching that blemished priests may do so along with the other priests. This is the source for the mishna’s statement.
תניא אידך כל זכר לרבות בעלי מומין למאי אי לאכילה הרי כבר אמור אי לחלוקה הרי כבר אמור שיכול אין לי אלא תם ונעשה בעל מום בעל מום מעיקרו מנין ת"ל כל זכר
It is taught in another baraita: The verse states with regard to the sin offering: “Every male among the priests may eat thereof” (Leviticus 6:22). The phrase “every male” serves to include blemished priests. The Gemara explains: For what matter is this derivation necessary? If one suggests it is for the matter of consumption, isn’t that already stated in Leviticus, chapter 21? If one suggests it is for the matter of receiving a share, isn’t that already stated in verse 6:11? Rather, the verse is necessary because one might have thought that I have derived only the halakha with regard to a priest who was at first unblemished and later became blemished. From where is it derived that one blemished from birth also receives a share? The verse states here: “Every male.”
תניא אידך כל זכר לרבות בעל מום למאי אי לאכילה הרי כבר אמור ואי לחלוקה הרי כבר אמור ואי לבעל מום מעיקרו הרי כבר אמור שיכול אין לי אלא בעל מום קבוע בעל מום עובר מנין ת"ל כל זכר
It is taught in another baraita: The verse states with regard to the guilt offering: “Every male among the priests may eat thereof” (Leviticus 7:6). The phrase “every male” serves to include a blemished priest. The Gemara explains: For what matter is this derivation necessary? If one suggests it is for the matter of eating, isn’t that already stated? And if one suggests it is for the matter of receiving a share, isn’t that already stated? And if one suggests it is for a priest blemished from birth, isn’t that already stated? Rather, the verse is necessary because one might have thought that I have derived only the halakha with regard to a permanently blemished priest. From where is it derived that a temporarily blemished priest also receives a share? The verse states here: “Every male.”
כלפי לייא אמר רב ששת איפוך
The Gemara objects: Isn’t it the opposite [kelapei layya]? Wouldn’t I have thought that a priest with a permanent blemish would be treated more stringently than one with a temporary blemish? Rav Sheshet said: Reverse the wording as follows: One might have thought that I have derived only the halakha with regard to a priest with a temporary blemish; from where is it derived that one with a permanent blemish also receives a share?
רב אשי אמר לעולם לא תיפוך ואיצטריך סלקא דעתך אמינא
Rav Ashi said: Actually, do not reverse the wording, and this is not difficult. It was necessary to teach that even a priest with a temporary blemish receives a share, because it might enter your mind to say