שָׁם מוֹשַׁב סֵמֶל הַקִּנְאָה הַמַּקְנֶה״, ״וַיָּבֵא אוֹתִי אֶל חֲצַר בֵּית ה׳ הַפְּנִימִית וְהִנֵּה פֶתַח הֵיכַל ה׳ בֵּין הָאוּלָם וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ אֲחוֹרֵיהֶם אֶל הֵיכַל ה׳ וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ״. מִמַּשְׁמַע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ״וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה״, אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאֲחוֹרֵיהֶם אֶל הֵיכַל ה׳? אֶלָּא, מָה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר ״אֲחוֹרֵיהֶם אֶל הֵיכַל ה׳ — מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיוּ פּוֹרְעִין עַצְמָן וְהָיוּ מַתְרִיזִין כְּלַפֵּי מַטָּה. there was the seat of the image of jealousy, which provokes jealousy” (Ezekiel 8:3). “And he brought me into the inner court of the Lord’s House, and behold at the opening of the Entrance Hall of the Sanctuary of God, between the porch and the altar were about twenty-five men with their backs toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east” (Ezekiel 8:16). The Gemara explains: From the fact that it is stated “and their faces toward the east,” is it not clear that their backs were to the Sanctuary, which is in the west? Rather, what is the meaning when the verse states “their backs toward the Temple of the Lord”? This teaches that they would uncover themselves and defecate downward, toward the Divine Presence. The verse used a euphemism to refrain from vulgar language.
אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמִיכָאֵל: מִיכָאֵל! סָרְחָה אוּמָּתֶךָ. אָמַר לְפָנָיו: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, דַּיִּי לַטּוֹבִים שֶׁבָּהֶם! אָמַר לוֹ: אֲנִי שׂוֹרֵף אוֹתָם וְלַטּוֹבִים שֶׁבָּהֶם, מִיָּד: ״וַיֹּאמֶר (לָאִישׁ) לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיֹּאמֶר בּוֹא אֶל בֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל אֶל תַּחַת לַכְּרוּב וּמַלֵּא חׇפְנֶיךָ גַחֲלֵי אֵשׁ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרוּבִים וּזְרוֹק עַל הָעִיר וַיָּבֹא לְעֵינָי״. מִיָּד: ״וַיִּשְׁלַח הַכְּרוּב אֶת יָדוֹ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרוּבִים אֶל הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר בֵּינוֹת הַכְּרוּבִים וַיִּשָּׂא וַיִּתֵּן אֶל חׇפְנֵי לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיִּקַּח וַיֵּצֵא״. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Michael, the ministering angel of the Jewish people: Michael, your nation has sinned (see Daniel 10:21). He replied: Master of the Universe, may it be enough for the good people among them to save them from destruction. He said to him: I will burn them and the good among them because the good do not rebuke the wicked. Immediately, God spoke to Gabriel: “He spoke to the man clothed in linen and said: Go in between the wheelwork and beneath the cherub, and fill your hands with coals of fire from between the cherubs, and scatter them over the city; and he came before my eyes” (Ezekiel 10:2). Immediately: “And the cherub stretched out his hand from between the cherubs into the fire that was between the cherubs, and took and put it into the hands of him that was clothed in linen, who took it and went out” (Ezekiel 10:7).
אָמַר רַב חָנָא בַּר בִּיזְנָא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן חֲסִידָא: אִילְמָלֵא לֹא נִצְטַנְּנוּ גֶּחָלִים מִיָּדוֹ שֶׁל כְּרוּב לְיָדוֹ שֶׁל גַּבְרִיאֵל — לֹא נִשְׁתַּיְּירוּ מִשּׂוֹנְאֵיהֶן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שָׂרִיד וּפָלִיט. Rav Ḥana bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida said: If it were not for the fact that the embers cooled as they were passed from the hand of the cherub to the hand of Gabriel, instead of Gabriel taking the embers directly himself as he had been told, not a remnant or a refugee of the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, would have survived. The cooling of the embers limited the punishment.
וּכְתִיב: ״וְהִנֵּה הָאִישׁ לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר הַקֶּסֶת בְּמׇתְנָיו מֵשִׁיב דָּבָר לֵאמֹר עָשִׂיתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי״. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה הוֹצִיאוּ לְגַבְרִיאֵל מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַפַּרְגּוֹד, וּמַחְיוּהוּ שִׁיתִּין פּוּלְסֵי דְנוּרָא. אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ: אִי לָא עֲבַדְתְּ — לָא עֲבַדְתְּ, אִי עֲבַדְתְּ — אַמַּאי לָא עֲבַדְתְּ כִּדְפַקְּדוּךְ? וְעוֹד: דַּעֲבַדְתְּ, לֵית לָךְ אֵין מְשִׁיבִין עַל הַקַּלְקָלָה? The Gemara continues. And it is written: “And behold, the man clothed in linen with the slate by his side, reported the matter saying: I have done as You have commanded me” (Ezekiel 9:11). Rabbi Yoḥanan said: At that moment, they cast out Gabriel from behind the curtain [pargod], where the inner angels reside, and they struck him with sixty blows [pulsei] of fire. They said to him: If you did not do it, you did not do it; if you did do it, why did you not do it according to what you were commanded but deviated from what you were instructed to do? Moreover, after you already did it, do you not have knowledge of the principle: One should not deliver a report about destruction? If one is sent on a mission of destruction, he should not deliver a detailed report of its success but should only hint at it.
אַיְיתוּהּ לְדוּבִּיאֵל שָׂרָא דְפָרְסָאֵי וְאוֹקְמוּהּ בַּחֲרִיקֵיהּ, וְשַׁמֵּשׁ עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם. הַיְינוּ דִּכְתִיב: ״וְשַׂר מַלְכוּת פָּרַס עוֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים בָּא לְעׇזְרֵנִי וַאֲנִי נוֹתַרְתִּי שָׁם אֵצֶל מַלְכֵי פָרָס״, יְהַבוּ לֵיהּ עֶשְׂרִין וְחַד מַלְכֵי וּפַרְווֹתָא דְּמַשְׁהִיג. They then brought Dubiel, the ministering angel of the Persians and put him in the place of [baḥarikei] Gabriel and he served for twenty-one days. As it is written: “But the prince of the kingdom of Persia stood opposed to me for twenty-one days, but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me and I remained there beside the kings of Persia” (Daniel 10:13). Corresponding to those twenty-one days, they gave him, the ministering angel of Persia, twenty-one kings who ruled and the seaport of Mashhig.
אֲמַר: כְּתִיבוּ לִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאַכְּרָגָא. כְּתַבוּ לֵיהּ. כְּתִיבוּ לִי רַבָּנַן בְּאַכְּרָגָא. כְּתַבוּ לֵיהּ. בְּעִידָּנָא דְּבָעוּ לְמִיחְתַּם, עָמַד גַּבְרִיאֵל מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַפַּרְגּוֹד וְאָמַר: ״שָׁוְא לָכֶם מַשְׁכִּימֵי קוּם מְאַחֲרֵי שֶׁבֶת אוֹכְלֵי לֶחֶם הָעֲצָבִים כֵּן יִתֵּן לִידִידוֹ שֵׁנָא״, מַאי ״כֵּן יִתֵּן לִידִידוֹ שֵׁנָא״? אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: אֵלּוּ נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁל תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים שֶׁמְּנַדְּדוֹת שֵׁינָה בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְזוֹכוֹת לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, וְלֹא הִשְׁגִּיחוּ עָלָיו. The ministering angel of the Persians said: Write for me that the Jews must pay taxes [akarga] to the Persians. They wrote it for him as he asked. He said: Write for me that the Sages must pay taxes. They wrote this for him. When they wanted to sign the documents, Gabriel stood from behind the curtain and said: “It is vain for you who rise early who sit up late to eat the bread of sorrow, for He gives His beloved sleep” (Psalms 127:2). What does “for He gives His beloved sleep” mean? Rav Yitzḥak said: These are the wives of Torah scholars who disturb their sleep in this world by staying up waiting for their husbands, who rise early and return late from learning Torah, and they thereby merit the World-to-Come. Gabriel asked: Is this the reward they deserve, to pay more taxes? They did not listen to Gabriel.
אָמַר לְפָנָיו: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם! אִם יִהְיוּ כׇּל חַכְמֵי אוּמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם בְּכַף מֹאזְנַיִם, וְדָנִיֵּאל אִישׁ חֲמוּדוֹת בְּכַף שְׁנִיָּה, לֹא נִמְצָא מַכְרִיעַ אֶת כּוּלָּם?! אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: מִי הוּא זֶה שֶׁמְּלַמֵּד זְכוּת עַל בָּנַי? אָמְרוּ לְפָנָיו: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, גַּבְרִיאֵל. אָמַר לָהֶם: יָבֹא. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וַאֲנִי בָאתִי בִּדְבָרֶיךָ״. אֲמַר לְהוּ: לֵיעוּל. אַעַיְילוּהוּ. He said before Him: Master of the Universe, if all the wise men of other nations were placed on one side of the scale, and Daniel the beloved man were on the other side, would he not outweigh them? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Who is the one who teaches the virtue of My children? They said to Him: Master of the Universe, it is Gabriel. He said to them: Let him come from behind the partition, as it is stated: “And I have come due to your words” (Daniel 10:12), meaning that Gabriel was permitted to enter from behind the partition because he mentioned Daniel’s name. God then said to the other angels: Let him ascend. They brought him up.
אֲתָא, אַשְׁכְּחֵיהּ לְדוּבִּיאֵל דְּנָקֵט לֵיהּ לְאִיגַּרְתֵּיהּ בִּידֵיהּ, בְּעָא לְמִרְמַא מִינֵּיהּ, בַּלְעַהּ. אִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי: מִיכְתָּב הֲוָה כְּתִיבָא, מִיחְתָּם לָא הֲוָה חֲתִימָא. אִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי: אַף מִיחְתָּם נָמֵי הֲוָה חֲתִימָא, כִּדְבַלְעַהּ, מְחֵיק לַהּ מִינֵּיהּ. הַיְינוּ דִּבְמַלְכוּתָא דְפָרַס, אִיכָּא דְּיָהֵיב כְּרָגָא וְאִיכָּא דְּלָא יָהֵיב כְּרָגָא: ״וַאֲנִי יוֹצֵא וְהִנֵּה שַׂר יָוָן בָּא״, עַוִּי עַוִּי וְלֵיכָּא דְּאַשְׁגַּח בֵּיהּ. He came and found Dubiel the ministering angel of the Persians holding the letter in his hand. Gabriel wanted to take the letter from him, but Dubiel swallowed it. Some say the letter was written, but it was not signed. Some say it was also signed, but when he swallowed it, the signature was erased. The Gemara comments: This is why, in the kingdom of Persia, there are those who pay taxes and there are those who do not pay taxes, as the decree was not finalized. It also states there: “And when I depart from him, the prince of Greece comes” (Daniel 10:20). Gabriel screamed and screamed that the kings of Greece should not rule over the Jews, but no one listened to him.
וְאִי בָּעֵית אֵימָא: רְחִיצָה דְּאִיקְּרִי עִנּוּי מְנָא לַן — מֵהָכָא, דִּכְתִיב: ״וּלְאֶבְיָתָר הַכֹּהֵן אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ עֲנָתוֹת לֵךְ עַל שָׂדְךָ כִּי אִישׁ מָוֶת אָתָּה וּבַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לֹא אֲמִיתֶךָ כִּי נָשָׂאתָ [אֶת] אֲרוֹן ה׳ לִפְנֵי דָּוִד אָבִי וְכִי הִתְעַנִּיתָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הִתְעַנָּה אָבִי״. וּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ בְּדָוִד: ״כִּי אָמְרוּ הָעָם רָעֵב וְעָיֵף וְצָמֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר״. רָעֵב מִלֶּחֶם, וְצָמֵא מִמַּיִם, עָיֵף מִמַּאי — לָאו מֵרְחִיצָה? וְדִילְמָא מִנְּעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל? § The Gemara returns to the issue of whether refraining from bathing is considered affliction. If you wish, say instead: The fact that bathing is considered affliction, from where do we derive this? As it is written: “And to Ebiathar the priest the king said: Get to Anatoth to your fields, for you are deserving of death. But I will not put you to death today, because you carried the Ark of the Lord God before David my father, and because you have been afflicted in all that my father was afflicted” (I Kings 2:26). And it is written with regard to David: “For they said the people is hungry, and weary, and thirsty in the wilderness” (II Samuel 17:29). Hunger means from lack of bread to eat, and thirst means from lack of water to drink. The word weary means lack from what? Is it not from bathing? The comparison of the verses suggests that that too is affliction. The Gemara challenges: And perhaps “weary” means from lack of wearing shoes? Therefore, this does not teach us that refraining from bathing is considered an affliction.
אֶלָּא אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק, מֵהָכָא: ״מַיִם קָרִים עַל נֶפֶשׁ עֲיֵפָה״. וְדִילְמָא מִשְּׁתִיָּה? מִי כְּתִיב ״בְּנֶפֶשׁ עֲיֵפָה״? ״עַל נֶפֶשׁ עֲיֵפָה״ כְּתִיב. Rather, another source needs to be found. Rav Yitzḥak said: It can be derived from here: “As cold water on a weary soul, so is good news from a far country” (Proverbs 25:25). This implies that the word weary is used to describe someone who has not bathed. The Gemara asks: But perhaps the verse is referring to weariness from not drinking? The Gemara rejects this: Is it written: As cold water in a weary soul? That would mean that it entered one like a drink. Rather, “on a weary soul” is written, which implies bathing.
וּנְעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל מְנָא לַן? דִּכְתִיב: ״וְדָוִד עוֹלֶה בְמַעֲלֵה הַזֵּיתִים עוֹלֶה וּבוֹכֶה וְרֹאשׁ לוֹ חָפוּי (וְהוֹלֵךְ) יָחֵף״, יָחֵף מִמַּאי — לָאו מִנְּעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל? וְדִילְמָא מִסּוּסְיָא וּמַרְטְקָא. § The Gemara clarifies the next point in the mishna: The fact that not wearing shoes is considered an affliction, from where do we derive this? As it is written: “And David went up by the ascent of the Mount of Olives, and wept as he went up, and he had his head covered, and was walking barefoot” (II Samuel 15:30). Barefoot implies a lack of what? Is it not a lack of wearing shoes? All these deprivations are described as affliction. The Gemara rejects this: No, perhaps he was barefoot from a horse and whip. Even if he was wearing shoes, a king without a horse and whip was considered as if he were going barefoot.
אֶלָּא אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק, מֵהָכָא: ״לֵךְ וּפִתַּחְתָּ הַשַּׂק מֵעַל מׇתְנֶיךָ וְנַעַלְךָ תַחֲלוֹץ מֵעַל רַגְלֶךָ״, וּכְתִיב: ״וַיַּעַשׂ כֵּן הָלוֹךְ עָרוֹם וְיָחֵף״. יָחֵף מִמַּאי — לָאו מִנְּעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל? וְאֵימָא בְּמִנְעָלִים הַמְטוּלָּאִים? דְּאִי לָא תֵּימָא הָכִי, ״עָרוֹם״ — עָרוֹם מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא בִּבְגָדִים בְּלוּיִים, הָכָא נָמֵי בְּמִנְעָלִים הַמְטוּלָּאִים. Rather, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: We learn it from here, as it states: “Go and loose the sackcloth from your loins, and remove your shoe from your foot” (Isaiah 20:2). And it is written: “And he did so, walking naked and barefoot” (Isaiah 20:2). Barefoot implies a lack of what? Is it not a lack of wearing shoes? The Gemara challenges: And say that perhaps the meaning of barefoot is that Isaiah walked with patched shoes. Because if you do not say this, but you claim that the verse is to be understood literally, does “naked” mean actually naked? Rather, the meaning is that Isaiah walked in ragged garments. Here too, the meaning is that he walked in patched shoes.
אֶלָּא אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק, מֵהָכָא: ״מִנְעִי רַגְלֵךְ מִיָּחֵף וּגְרוֹנֵךְ מִצִּמְאָה״, מִנְעִי עַצְמְךָ מִן הַחֵטְא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא רַגְלְךָ לִידֵי יִחוּף, מִנְעִי לְשׁוֹנֵךְ מִדְּבָרִים בְּטֵלִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא גְּרוֹנֵךְ לִידֵי צִמְאָה. Rather, a different source must be found. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said that we derive it from here: It states: “Withhold your foot from being barefoot, and your throat from thirst” (Jeremiah 2:25), meaning: Keep yourself from sin, so that your feet will not come to be barefoot; keep your tongue from idle talk, so that your throat will not come to be thirsty. Consequently, we learn that being barefoot is considered an affliction.
תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה דְּאִיקְּרִי עִנּוּי מְנָא לַן? דִּכְתִיב: ״אִם תְּעַנֶּה אֶת בְּנוֹתַי וְאִם תִּקַּח נָשִׁים״. § The Gemara continues to clarify another of the afflictions of Yom Kippur: From where do we derive the halakha that refraining from conjugal relations is called affliction? As it is written, Laban said to Jacob: “If you shall afflict my daughters, and if you shall take other wives beside my daughters” (Genesis 31:50).