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Yoma 57a:1יומא נ״ז א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
57aנ״ז א

השתא ברי טמאים אתון דכתיב (איכה א, ט) טומאתה בשוליה אמר ליה תא חזי מה כתיב בהו (ויקרא טז, טז) השוכן אתם בתוך טומאתם אפילו בזמן שהן טמאין שכינה שרויה בינהן

Now you are certainly impure, as it is written about the Jewish people: “Her impurity was in her skirts” (Lamentations 1:9), and the Divine Presence does not dwell upon the Jews when they are impure. Rabbi Ḥanina said to him: Come and see what is written about the Jewish people: “That dwells with them in the midst of their impurity” (Leviticus 16:16). This indicates that even when they are impure, the Divine Presence dwells among them.

וכי דבר הלמד בהיקש חוזר ומלמד בהיקש

The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to the aforementioned halakha. It was stated above that the comparison to the goat teaches that the High Priest sprinkles the bull’s blood once upward; and the seven downward sprinklings of the goat’s blood are derived from the rite of the blood of the bull. Subsequently, the order of sprinkling toward the curtain in the Sanctuary is again derived by means of a similar comparison. The Gemara asks: And does a matter derived by juxtaposition, i.e., a halakha not written explicitly in the Torah but learned by means of a comparison, again teach by juxtaposition? There is a general principle that a halakha derived by juxtaposition with regard to offerings cannot subsequently teach another halakha by juxtaposition.

האי הימנו ודבר אחר הוא ולא הוי היקש

The Gemara answers that the first juxtaposition was not a proper inference by verbal analogy, as this halakha that the High Priest must sprinkle once upward and seven times downward is derived both from that juxtaposition and something else as well. Since the basic requirement that he must sprinkle upward and downward for the bull and the goat is stated explicitly in both cases, and the comparison was necessary only to teach the precise number of sprinklings, this inference is not considered a juxtaposition to the extent that one cannot derive further comparisons from it.

הניחא למאן דאמר לא הוי היקש אלא למאן דאמר הוי היקש מאי איכא למימר

The Gemara continues to question this explanation: It works out well according to the one who said that a juxtaposition that is also inferred from something else is not considered a juxtaposition in this regard; but according to the one who says that this too is called a juxtaposition, what can be said?

מקומות הוא דגמרי מהדדי

The Gemara answers: It is the locations that are derived from one another. The halakha of the blood of the bull was not derived from that of the goat, nor the halakha of sprinkling the bull’s blood outside the curtain from that of sprinkling the bull’s blood inside. Instead, the first comparison equates the sprinkling of the bull’s blood and the goat’s blood, while the second comparison equates the locations, i.e., he sprinkles outside the curtain in the same manner that he sprinkles inside. Consequently, the two juxtapositions are not connected to each other, which means that there is no problem of a halakha derived by juxtaposition itself teaching by juxtaposition.

אי בעית אימא חוץ מבפנים בחדא זימנא גמר

If you wish, say instead a different resolution: The sprinkling outside is derived from the sprinkling inside all at once, i.e., the juxtaposition includes not only the blood of the bull and the goat, but also the manners of sprinkling the blood inside and outside. There are not two comparisons here, one derived from the other, but a single, complex juxtaposition.

תנא כשהוא מזה אינו מזה על הפרוכת אלא כנגד הפרוכת אמר ר' אלעזר בר' יוסי אני ראיתיה ברומי והיו עליה כמה טיפי דמים של פר ושעיר של יום הכפורים

§ A Sage taught: When the High Priest sprinkles the blood, he does not actually sprinkle on the curtain but opposite the curtain. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: I saw the curtain in Rome. After a miracle was performed on his behalf and he healed the daughter of the Roman emperor, Rabbi Elazar was permitted to view the ruler’s treasures and take whatever he wanted. He saw the Temple vessels that the Romans captured, including the curtain. Rabbi Elazar continued: And on the curtain were several drops of blood from the bull and the goat of Yom Kippur. This shows that the blood was actually sprinkled on the curtain.

ודילמא דפר העלם דבר של צבור ושעירי ע"ז הוו

The Gemara questions this conclusion: But how can Rabbi Elazar be sure that these drops of blood were from the bull and goat of Yom Kippur? Perhaps they were from the bull for an unwitting communal sin or the goats for a sin of idolatry, both of whose blood is also sprinkled on the curtain.

דחזא דעבידי כסדרן ותנן נמי גבי פר העלם דבר של צבור כי האי גוונא כשהוא מזה לא היו נוגעין בפרוכת ואם נגעו נגעו

The Gemara explains that he saw that these sprinklings of blood were performed in their order, one drop after another, a sequence that is followed only in the Yom Kippur service. And we also learned in a mishna about a case like this with regard to the bull for an unwitting communal sin: When he sprinkles, the blood would not touch the curtain, but if it did touch, it touched, and this did not invalidate the service.

אמר רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי אני ראיתיה ברומי והיו עליה כמה טיפי דמים של פר העלם דבר של צבור ושעירי ע"ז ודילמא דפר ושעיר של יום הכפורים נינהו דחזנהו דעבידי שלא כסדרן

Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: I saw the curtain in Rome, and there were several drops of blood on it from the bull for an unwitting communal sin and the goats for a sin of idolatry. The Gemara asks: But how could he identify the source of the blood; perhaps they were from the bull and goat of Yom Kippur? The Gemara answers: He saw that they were performed not in their order and inferred that they must be sprinklings from communal sin-offerings, which are not presented in a sequence.

נתערבו לו דמים בדמים אמר רבא נותן אחת למעלה ושבע למטה ועולה לו לכאן ולכאן

The Gemara asks a question: What should the High Priest do if the blood of the bull became mixed with the blood of the goat before he finished all the sprinklings? Rava said: He should present from the mixture once upward and seven times downward, and that counts toward both this one and that one, as he has sprinkled from both of them.

אמרוה קמיה דרבי ירמיה אמר בבלאי טפשאי משום דדיירי בארעא דחשוכא אמרי שמעתא דמחשכן הא קא יהיב למעלה דשעיר מקמי מטה דפר והתורה אמרה (ויקרא טז, כ) וכלה מכפר את הקדש כלה דם הפר ואחר כך כלה דם השעיר

They said this answer before Rabbi Yirmeya in Eretz Yisrael, whereupon he said: Foolish Babylonians! Because they live in a dark, low land, they speak darkened halakhot, devoid of logic. If this solution is followed, when the High Priest sprinkles the mixture of bull and goat blood, he thereby presents the upward sprinklings of the goat before he sprinkles the downward presentations of the bull; and the Torah said: “And when he has finished atoning for the sacred place” (Leviticus 16:20), which teaches: He finishes the blood of the bull by sprinkling upward and downward, and only afterward he finishes the blood of the goat.

אלא אמר רבי ירמיה נותן אחת למעלה ושבע למטה לשם הפר וחוזר ונותן אחת למעלה ושבע למטה לשם השעיר

Rather, Rabbi Yirmeya said that the High Priest proceeds as follows: He presents once upward and seven times downward for the purpose of sprinkling the blood of the bull, as the blood of the bull is in this mixture. And he again presents once upward and seven times downward for the purpose of sprinkling the blood of the goat. Although the blood is mixed together and by sprinkling for the purpose of the bull’s blood he also sprinkles some of the goat’s blood, since he has only the bull’s blood in mind it is as though he did not sprinkle the blood of the goat at all.

נתערבו לו דמים בדמים במתנות האחרונות סבר רב פפא קמיה דרבא למימר נותן שבע למטה לשם פר ולשם שעיר וחוזר ונותן אחת למעלה לשם שעיר

The Gemara asks another question: What should the High Priest do if the blood of the bull became mixed with the blood of the goat during the final presentations that he performs in the Sanctuary? Rav Pappa, who was sitting before Rava, thought to say: He presents seven times downward for the purpose of the bull and for the purpose of the goat, and he again presents once upward for the purpose of the goat.

אמר ליה רבא עד השתא קרו לן טפשאי והשתא טפשאי דטפשאי דקא מגמרינן להו ולא גמירי והא קא יהיב מטה דשעיר מקמי מעלה דשעיר והתורה אמרה תן למעלה ואחר כך למטה

Rava said to him: Until now they called us Babylonians merely foolish, and now they will call us the foolish of the foolish, as they will say that we teach them and yet they do not learn. In response to your statement one could simply repeat Rabbi Yirmeya’s previous argument: But he presents downward sprinklings for the goat before the upward sprinklings for the goat, and the Torah said: Present upward and then downward.