הוּא אָמַר אַפִּלַת בְּגוֹ עֲשַׂר וְהִיא אָמְרָה לָא אַפֵּלִית אָמַר רַבִּי אַמֵּי אַף בְּזוֹ הִיא נֶאֱמֶנֶת דְּאִם אִיתָא דְּאַפִּלָה נַפְשַׁהּ בְּעַקְרְתָה לָא מַחְזְקָה The Gemara addresses another case in which the court forces a man to divorce his wife who has not had children after ten years. If he said: You miscarried within the ten years of our marriage, and since less than ten years have elapsed since that time he should not have to divorce her, and she said: I did not miscarry, Rabbi Ami said: Even in this case she is believed, because if it is so that she miscarried she would not establish herself as barren through denying his claim.
הִפִּילָה וְחָזְרָה וְהִפִּילָה וְחָזְרָה וְהִפִּילָה הוּחְזְקָה לִנְפָלִים הוּא אָמַר אַפִּילָה תְּרֵי וְהִיא אָמְרָה תְּלָת אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בֵּי מִדְרְשָׁא וַאֲמַרוּ הִיא מְהֵימְנָא דְּאִם אִיתָא דְּלָא אַפִּלָה נַפְשַׁהּ בְּנִיפְלֵי לָא מַחְזְקָה If she miscarried, and then miscarried again, and miscarried again, she has been established to be a woman who is prone to miscarriages, and her husband must divorce her so that he can have children with another woman. If he said she miscarried twice, and she said it occurred three times, Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Elazar said: There was an incident of this kind that was adjudicated in the study hall and they said that she is believed, because if it is so that she had not miscarried a third time she would not establish herself as one who is prone to miscarriages.
מַתְנִי׳ הָאִישׁ מְצֻוֶּוה עַל פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה אֲבָל לֹא הָאִשָּׁה רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה אוֹמֵר עַל שְׁנֵיהֶם הוּא אוֹמֵר וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם [אֱלֹהִים] פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ MISHNA: A man is commanded with regard to the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, but not a woman. Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka says that a woman is also commanded, as the verse states with regard to both of them: “And God blessed them, and God said to them: Be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 1:28).
גְּמָ׳ מְנָא הָנֵי מִילֵּי אָמַר רַבִּי אִילְעָא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אָמַר קְרָא וּמִלְאוּ אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשׁוּהָ אִישׁ דַּרְכּוֹ לְכַבֵּשׁ וְאֵין אִשָּׁה דַּרְכָּהּ לְכַבֵּשׁ GEMARA: From where are these matters derived, that a woman is not obligated in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply? Rabbi Ile’a said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: The verse states: “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the land and conquer it” (Genesis 1:28). It is the manner of a man to conquer and it is not the manner of a woman to conquer. Consequently, it is evident that the entire command, including the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, was given only to men and not to women.
אַדְּרַבָּה וְכִבְשׁוּהָ תַּרְתֵּי מַשְׁמַע אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק וְכׇבְשֶׁהָ כְּתִיב רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר מֵהָכָא אֲנִי אֵל שַׁדַּי פְּרֵה וּרְבֵה וְלָא קָאָמַר פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ The Gemara raises a difficulty. On the contrary, the plural term: “And conquer it [vekhivshuha],” indicates that the two of them are included. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is written in the Torah without the letter vav, so that it can be read: And conquer it [vekhivsha], in the singular. Rav Yosef said: The proof is from here: “And God said to him: I am God Almighty, be fruitful and multiply [perei urvei]” (Genesis 35:11), which is in singular, and it does not state: Be fruitful and multiply [peru urvu] in the plural.
וְאָמַר רַבִּי אִילְעָא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמִּצְוָה עַל אָדָם לוֹמַר דָּבָר הַנִּשְׁמָע כָּךְ מִצְוָה עַל אָדָם שֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִשְׁמָע רַבִּי אַבָּא אוֹמֵר חוֹבָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אַל תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן יִשְׂנָאֶךָּ הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ The Gemara cites other statements made by Rabbi Ile’a in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. And Rabbi Ile’a said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: Just as it is a mitzva for a person to say that which will be heeded, so is it a mitzva for a person not to say that which will not be heeded. One should not rebuke those who will be unreceptive to his message. Rabbi Abba says: It is obligatory for him to refrain from speaking, as it is stated: “Do not reprove a scorner lest he hate you; reprove a wise man and he will love you” (Proverbs 9:8).
וְאָמַר רַבִּי אִילְעָא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מוּתָּר לוֹ לָאָדָם לְשַׁנּוֹת בִּדְבַר הַשָּׁלוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אָבִיךְ צִוָּה וְגוֹ׳ כֹּה תֹאמְרוּ לְיוֹסֵף אָנָּא שָׂא נָא וְגוֹ׳ And Rabbi Ile’a further said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: It is permitted for a person to depart from the truth in a matter that will bring peace, as it is stated: “Your father commanded before he died, saying: So you shall say to Joseph: Please pardon your brothers’ crime, etc.” (Genesis 50:16–17). Jacob never issued this command, but his sons falsely attributed this statement to him in order to preserve peace between them and Joseph.
רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר מִצְוָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֵיךְ אֵלֵךְ וְשָׁמַע שָׁאוּל וַהֲרָגָנִי וְגוֹ׳ Rabbi Natan says: It is a mitzva to depart from the truth in order to preserve peace, as it is stated: “And Samuel said: How can I go, and Saul will hear and kill me” (I Samuel 16:2). God responded in the next verse that Samuel should say he went to sacrifice an offering, indicating that God commands one to lie in order to preserve peace.
דְּבֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל תָּנָא גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם שֶׁאַף הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שִׁינָּה בּוֹ דְּמֵעִיקָּרָא כְּתִיב וַאֲדוֹנִי זָקֵן וּלְבַסּוֹף כְּתִיב וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי It was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: Great is peace, as even the Holy One, Blessed be He, departed from the truth for it. As, initially it is written that Sarah said of Abraham: “And my lord is old” (Genesis 18:12), and in the end it is written that God told Abraham that Sarah said: “And I am old” (Genesis 18:13). God adjusted Sarah’s words in order to spare Abraham hurt feelings that might lead Abraham and Sarah to quarrel.
רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה אוֹמֵר אִתְּמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי חַד אָמַר הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה וְחַד אָמַר אֵין הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה § It is taught in the mishna that Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka says that women are also included in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. It was stated that two amora’im, Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, disagreed concerning this matter. One said that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, and one said that the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka.
תִּסְתַּיַּים דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הוּא דְּאָמַר אֵין הֲלָכָה דִּיתֵיב רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ וְקָאָמַר מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲלָכָה וְאַהְדְּרִינְהוּ רַבִּי אַמֵּי וְרַבִּי אַסִּי לְאַפַּיְיהוּ The Gemara comments: Conclude that it was Rabbi Yoḥanan who said that the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, as Rabbi Abbahu sat and said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, and Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, who were sitting across from him, turned their faces as an indication that they disagreed with this report of Rabbi Yoḥanan’s opinion, but did not want to explicitly contradict Rabbi Abbahu’s statement out of respect for him.
וְאִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר וְאַהְדְּרִינְהוּ רַבִּי אַמֵּי וְרַבִּי אַסִּי לְאַפַּיְיהוּ אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא בִּשְׁלָמָא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ אַמְרַהּ מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד בֵּי קֵיסָר לָא אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ וְלָא מִידֵּי אֶלָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא אַמְרַהּ לֵימְרוּ לֵיהּ לָא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הָכִי And some say a different version of the incident, that it was Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba who said this statement, and Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi turned their faces. Rav Pappa said: Granted, according to the one who said that Rabbi Abbahu said it, it makes sense that due to the honor of Caesar’s court, where Rabbi Abbahu maintained close ties, Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi did not say anything to him and merely hinted at their disagreement. However, according to the one who said that Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said it, let them say to him explicitly: Rabbi Yoḥanan did not say this. In any event, it is clear that according to Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, Rabbi Yoḥanan disagreed with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka.
מַאי הֲוָה עֲלַהּ תָּא שְׁמַע דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ אָמַר רַבִּי אַסִּי עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בִּכְנִישְׁתָּא דְקֵיסָרִי וַאֲמַר יוֹצִיא וְיִתֵּן כְּתוּבָּה וְאִי סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ לָא מְפַקְּדָה כְּתוּבָּה מַאי עֲבִידְתַּהּ The Gemara asks: What conclusion was reached about this issue? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear, as Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said that Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Asi said: There was an incident that came before Rabbi Yoḥanan in the synagogue of Caesarea involving a woman who wanted a divorce from her husband after ten years of childless marriage, and he said that the husband must divorce her and give her the payment for her marriage contract. If it enters your mind to say that she is not commanded to be fruitful and multiply, what is payment for a marriage contract doing here? Why does she have a right to demand to be divorced and to receive the payment for her marriage contract?
דִּלְמָא בְּבָאָה מֵחֲמַת טַעֲנָה The Gemara responds: Perhaps that was in a case when she came to demand a divorce due to another claim, i.e., she wanted children for a reason other than the fulfillment of the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Since this claim has merit, her husband must divorce her and pay her marriage contract.
כִּי הַהִיא דַּאֲתַאי לְקַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַמֵּי אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ הַב לִי כְּתוּבָּה אֲמַר לַהּ זִיל לָא מִיפַּקְּדַתְּ אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ מִסֵּיבוּ דִּילַהּ מַאי תֶּיהְוֵי עֲלַהּ דְּהָךְ אִתְּתָא אָמַר כִּי הָא וַדַּאי כָּפֵינַן This is like the case of a certain woman who came before Rabbi Ami and requested a divorce due to her husband’s inability to father children. She said to him: Give me the payment for my marriage contract. He said to her: Go away, as you are not commanded to be fruitful and multiply and have no right to demand a divorce. She said to him: In her old age, what will be with this woman, i.e., if I have no children, who will take care of me when I grow old? Rabbi Ami said: In a situation such as this, we certainly force the husband to divorce and her and pay her marriage contract.
הָהִיא דַּאֲתַאי לְקַמֵּיהּ דְּרַב נַחְמָן אֲמַר לַהּ לָא מִיפַּקְּדַתְּ אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ לָא בָּעֲיָא הָךְ אִתְּתָא חוּטְרָא לִידָה וּמָרָה לִקְבוּרָה אֲמַר כִּי הָא וַדַּאי כָּפֵינַן The Gemara relates a similar incident: A certain woman came before Rav Naḥman and requested a divorce due to her husband’s inability to father children. He said to her: You are not commanded to be fruitful and multiply. She said to him: Does this woman not require a staff for her hand and a hoe for her burial? In other words, the woman said that she wanted children so that they could care for her in her old age and bury her when she would die. Rav Naḥman said: In a case such as this, we certainly force the husband to divorce her.
יְהוּדָה וְחִזְקִיָּה תְּאוֹמִים הָיוּ אֶחָד נִגְמְרָה צוּרָתוֹ לְסוֹף תִּשְׁעָה וְאֶחָד נִגְמְרָה צוּרָתוֹ לִתְחִלַּת שִׁבְעָה יְהוּדִית דְּבֵיתְהוּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא הֲוָה לַהּ צַעַר לֵידָה שַׁנַּאי מָנַהּ וַאֲתַאי לְקַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא אֲמַרָה אִתְּתָא מְפַקְּדָא אַפְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה אֲמַר לַהּ לָא אֲזַלָא אִשְׁתְּיָא סַמָּא דַעֲקַרְתָּא The Gemara relates that Rabbi Ḥiyya’s sons, Yehuda and Ḥizkiyya, were twins, but one of them was fully developed after nine months of pregnancy and one was fully developed at the beginning of the seventh month, and they were born two months apart. Yehudit, the wife of Rabbi Ḥiyya, had acute birthing pain from these unusual deliveries. She changed her clothes to prevent Rabbi Ḥiyya from recognizing her and came before Rabbi Ḥiyya to ask him a halakhic question. She said: Is a woman commanded to be fruitful and multiply? He said to her: No. She went and drank an infertility potion.
לְסוֹף אִיגַּלַּאי מִילְּתָא אֲמַר לַהּ אִיכּוֹ יְלַדְתְּ לִי חֲדָא כַּרְסָא אַחְרִיתָא דְּאָמַר מָר יְהוּדָה וְחִזְקִיָּה אַחֵי פַּזִּי וְטָוִי Eventually the matter was revealed, and Rabbi Ḥiyya found out about what Yehudit had done. He said to her: If only you had given birth to one more belly for me, i.e., another set of twins. As the Master said: Yehuda and Ḥizkiyya were twin brothers and became prominent Torah scholars, and Pazi and Tavi, Rabbi Ḥiyya’s daughters,