6ו׳
1 א

ברכת הזימון [נ"א המזון] מן התורה שנאמר: (דברים ח) "ואכלת ושבעת וברכת" זו ברכת הזימון. "וברכת את ה' אלהיך" - זו ברכה ראשונה "על הארץ" - זו ברכת הארץ "הטובה" - זו ירושלים וכן הוא אומר (דברים ג) "ההר הטוב הזה". "אשר נתן לך" - זה הטוב והמטיב.

The Beracha (blessing) of Zimun is from the Torah (i.e. a Torah obligation) as it is said, “And you should eat, and be satisfied, and bless…” (Deuteronomy 8:10), this is [a reference to] the Beracha of Zimun. “… Hashem, your God …” (Deuteronomy 8:10), this is [a reference to] the first Beracha [of Birkat Hamazon (Grace After Meals)]. “… for the land …” (Deuteronomy 8:10), this is [a reference to] the Beracha about the land (i.e. the second Beracha) [of Birkat Hamazon]. “… the good …” (Deuteronomy 8:10), this is [a reference to the Beracha about] Jerusalem (i.e. the third Beracha) [of Birkat Hamazon] as it is said “… this good mountain and Levanon.” (Deuteronomy 3:25). “… which He has given you.” (Deuteronomy 8:10), this is [a reference to the Beracha of] Hatov Vehameitiv (The Good and Who does good) (i.e. the fourth Beracha) [of Birkat Hamazon].

2 ב

ומנין שכשם שאתה מברך לאחריו כך אתה מברך לפניו? ת"ל (דברים ח) "אשר נתן לך" - משעה שנתן לך. ומנין שאף על ההרים ועל הגבעות? תלמוד לומר: "על הארץ". ומנין שאף על התורה ועל המצות? ת"ל "אשר נתן לך" ולהלן הוא אומר? (שמות כד) "ואתנה לך את לוחות האבן".

From where [do we know] that just like you have to say a Beracha (blessing) after [eating food] you also have to say a Beracha before [eating food]? The Torah teaches us, “… which He has given you” (Deuteronomy 8:10), [meaning] from the moment that He gave [the food] to you, [you have to say a Beracha on it.] From where [do we know] that [you have to say a Beracha] even on [seeing] mountains and hills? The Torah teaches us, “… for the land …” (Deuteronomy 8:10). From where [do we know] that [you have to say a Beracha] even on [studying and reading] the Torah and on [performing] Mitzvot (commandments)? The Torah teaches us, “… which He has given you” (Deuteronomy 8:10), and it says, “… and I will give you the tablets of stone …” (Exodus 24:12).

3 ג

רבי אומר מנין שכשם שאתה מברך על הטובה כך אתה מברך על הרעה? ת"ל אשר נתן ה' אלהיך [אשר נתן לך] דיינך בכל דין שדנך בין במדת הטוב בין במדת הפורענות.

Rebbi Meir says, “From where [do we know] that just like you have to bless [God] for good [things that happen to you], so too you have to bless [God] for bad [things that happen to you]? The Torah teaches us, ‘… that which Hashem, your God, has given you …’ (Deuteronomy 26:11). “Your God” [meaning] “your Judge”. For every judgment that He judges you, whether positively or negatively.”

4 ד

הרואה ע"ז בארץ ישראל אומר ברוך ארך אפים מקום שנעקרה ממנו ע"ז אומר ברוך שעקר ע"ז מארצנו יהי רצון מלפני ה' שתעקר ע"ז בכל מקומות ישראל ותשיב לב עובדיה [לעובדיך] ובחוצה לארץ אין צריך לומר כן מפני שרובה נכרים ר"ש אומר אף בחו"ל צריך לומר כן מפני שעתידין להתגייר שנא' (צפניה ג) אז אהפוך וגו'.

[A person] who sees an idol says [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Erech Apayim (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who is merciful). [If a person sees] a place from where an idol was uprooted, he says [the following Beracha:] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Sheakar Avodah Zarah Meartzeinu. Yehi Ratzon Milfanecha, Hashem Eloheinu, Sheteaker Avodah Zarah Meartzeinu Umikol Mekomot Yisrael, Vetashiv Lev Ovdeihem Leavdecha (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, who uprooted an idol from our land. May it be Your will, Hashem our God, that [all] idol worship will be uprooted from our land and from all places where Jews [live], and may You return the heart of their worshipers to Your worship.).

5 ה

הרואה אוכלוסין אומר ברוך חכם הרזים שאין פרצופותיהן דומין זה לזה ואין דעתם [דומה זו לזו] בן זומא ראה אוכלוסין בהר הבית אמר ברוך חכם הרזים וברוך שברא כל אלו לשמשני כמה יגע אדם הראשון ולא טעם מלוגמא אחת עד שחרש וזרע וקצר ועמר ודש וזרה ובירר וטחן והרקיד ולש ואפה ואח"כ אכל ואני עומד שחרית ומוצא כל אלו לפני. [כמה יגע אדם הראשון ולא לבש חלוק אחד עד שגזז וליבן וניפץ וצבע וטווה וארג ותפר ואח"כ לבש ואני עומד שחרית ומוצא כל אלו לפני] כמה אומניות שוקדות ומשכימות ואני עומד שחרית ומוצא כל אלו לפני וכן היה בן זומא אומר אורח טוב מה הוא אומר זכור בעל הבית לטוב כמה מיני יינות הביא לפנינו כמה [מיני] גלוסקאות הביא לפנינו כמה מיני חשובות הביא לפנינו כל מה שעשה לא עשה אלא בשבילי אורח רע מה הוא אומר וכי מה אכלתי לא פת אחת אכלתי ולא חתיכה אחת אכלתי לא כוס אחד שתיתי כל מה שעשה לא עשה אלא בשביל אשתו ובניו על אורח טוב מהו אומר (איוב לו) זכור כי תשגיא פעלו אשר שוררו אנשים.

[A person] who sees large crowds2 [of people] should say [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Chacham Harazim (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who is wise [to know] secrets), because their faces are not similar to each other and their minds are not similar to each other. When Ben Zoma saw large crowds [of people] on the Temple Mount he said, “Blessed be the One who created all of these [people] to serve me. How much the first man toiled before he tasted [even] one mouthful? He planted [grain], ploughed, reaped, bound sheaves, threshed, winnowed, selected, ground, sifted, kneaded, and baked, and [only] after that [he] ate [bread]. And I stand up in the morning and I find all of these [foods] in front of me [already prepared].” How much the first man toiled before he wore a shirt? He sheared [wool], washed, combed, dyed, spun, wove, and sewed, and [only] after that he wore [clothes]. And I stand up in the morning and I find all of these [clothes] in front of me [already made]. How many skilled laborers are anxious to wake up [early to sell their goods], and I stand up in the morning and I find all of these [goods] in front of me [already made].” And also Ben Zoma used to say, “What does a good guest say? ‘May the host be remembered for good! How many different types of wine he brought in front of us? How many different pieces [of meat] he brought in front of us? How many different types of fine white bread he brought in front of us? Everything that he did, he did only for me.’ But what does a bad guest say? And what did I eat of his? I ate [only] one bread of his. I ate [only] one piece [of meat] of his. I drank only one cup [of wine] of his. Everything that he did, he did only for his wife and children.’” And so also it says, “Remember this so that you may extol His work that people have witnessed.” (Job 36:24)

6 ו

הרואה את הכושי ואת הגיחור ואת הלווקן ואת הקיפח ואת הננס ואת הדרניקוס אומר ברוך משנה הבריות את החגר ואת הקיטע ואת הסומא ומוכי שחין ואת פתויי ראש ואת הבהקנין אומר ברוך דיין האמת.

[A person] that sees a black [person], a Borek, a redhead [person], an albino [person], a hunchback [person], a midget, a deaf [person], a mentally retarded [person], and a drunk [person] says [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Meshane Habriyot (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who changes creatures). [A person that sees] a cripple [person], a lame [person], a blind [person], and a [person] afflicted with boils, says [the following Beracha:] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Dayan Haemet (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, the true Judge)

7 ז

ראה בני אדם נאין ואילנות נאין אומר ברוך שברא בריות נאות.

[A person] that sees beautiful people and beautiful trees says [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Mi Shekacha Lo Beriot Naot (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has such beautiful creations [in His world]).

8 ח

הרואה את הקשת בענן אומר נאמן בבריתו ברוך זוכר הברית.

[A person] that sees a rainbow in the cloud says [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Neeman Bevrito Zocher Habrit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who is trustworthy in His covenant [and] remembers the covenant).

9 ט

היה הולך בבית הקברות אומר ברוך יודע מספר כולכם הוא יודע הוא עתיד לדון הוא עתיד להקימכם ברוך מחיה מתים במאמרו.

[A person] that was walking in the cemetery says [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Yodeah Mispar Kulchem. Hu Atid Ladun Etchem Vehu Atid Lehakimchem Badin. Baruch [Ata Hashem] Neeman Bidvaro Mechayeh Hametim (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who knows the number of all of you. He will judge you and He will raise you up in judgment. Blessed are You Hashem, Who is trustworthy in His word [and] Who revives the dead).

10 י

את החמה ואת הלבנה ואת הכוכבים ואת המזלות כסדרן אומר ברוך עושה בראשית ר' יהודה אומר המברך על החמה זו דרך אחרת וכן היה רבי יהודה אומר הרואה את הים תדיר ונשתנה בו דבר צריך לברך.

[A person] that sees the sun, the moon, the planets and the constellations says [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Oseh Bereishit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who performs creation). Rebbi Yehudah says, “[If] a person says a Beracha on the sun, [he follows] a foreign way.” And also Rebbi Yehudah used to say, “[If a person] sees the sea constantly and [then suddenly] something changed in it, he needs to say a Beracha [on seeing the sea].”

11 יא

היה ר"מ אומר הרי הוא אומר (דברים ו) ואהבת את ה' אלהיך בכל לבבך וגו' בשני יצריך ביצר טוב וביצה"ר בכל נפשך אפי' נוטל את נפשך וכה"א (תהילים מד) עליך הורגנו כל היום ד"א בכל נפשך בכל נפש ונפש שברא בך שנאמר (תהילים קיט) תחי נפשי ותהללך ואומר (תהילים לה) כל עצמותי [תאמרנה] בן עזאי אומר תן נפשך על מצותיו.

Rebbi Meir used to say, ‘It says [in the Torah], “And you should love Hashem, your God, with all of your heart …” (Deuteronomy 6:5) [That means that you should love God] with both of your inclinations, with the good inclination and with the evil inclination. “… and with all of your soul …” (Deuteronomy 6:5) [That means that] even if He takes away your soul [you should still love Him]. And so also it says, “Because for Your sake we are killed all the time …” (Psalms 44:23) [But there is also] another explanation. “With all of your soul” [means] with the soul that He created within you, as it says “Let my soul live and I will praise You …” (Psalms 119:175) And [also] it says, “All my bones will say,’Hashem, Who is like You?”’ (Psalms 35:10)’ Ben Azzai says, “’With all of your soul’ [means that] you should give over your soul to [the performance] of the commandments.”

12 יב

יש דברים שהן תפלות שוא כיצד כונס מאה כורין ואומר יהי רצון שיהו מאתים כונס מאה חביות ואומר יהי רצון שיהיו מאתים הרי זו תפלת שוא אבל מתפלל הוא שתכנס בהן ברכה ולא שתכנס בהן מארה.

There are prayers that are frivolous. How so? [If a person] gathered one hundred Kor [of grain, and then] said [to God] “May it be Your will that there will be two hundred [Kor of grain]. [A person] obtained one hundred barrels [of wine and then] said [to God] “May it be Your will that there will be two hundred [barrels of wine].” All of this is a prayer in vain. But a person may pray that they (i.e. the grain or the barrels) should be blessed and not be cursed.

13 יג

דוסתאי ברבי ינאי אמר משום ר"מ הרי הוא אומר ביצחק (בראשית כו) וברכתיך והרבתי את זרעך דרש יצחק הואיל ואין ברכה שורה אלא במעשה ידיו עמד וזרע שנא' (שם) ויזרע יצחק בארץ ההיא וימצא [וגו' מאה מנין מאה שערים מאה דגנים ומאה דגנים ששערום מאה פעמים ונמצא על אחת מאה במה ששיערו].

Rebbi Dostai Bar Yanai says in the name of Rebbi Meir, ‘It says [in the Torah] regarding Yitzchak “… and I will bless you and I will make your seed abundant for the sake of Avraham, My servant.” (Genesis 26:24) Yitzchak expounded and said, “A blessing only settles [on a person] through physical deeds.” [Then] he got up and he planted [seeds in the field], as it says, “And Yitzchak planted in that land, and he founded in that year Mea Shearim (literally: One Hundred Gates), and Hashem blessed him.” (Genesis 26:12) One hundred [is referring to] types [of seeds that Yitzchak planted. In that case why does the verse say] Mea Shearim (i.e. One Hundred Gates and not One Hundred Types of Seeds)? [Because the word Shearim is not referring to gates, but rather to measurements,] that they (i.e. Yitzchak’s workers) measured a hundred times [more than they planted]. It comes out [that] for every one [seed that they planted, they received back] a hundred [units of crops] according to what they measured.

14 יד

העושה כל המצות צריך לברך העושה סוכה לעצמו אומר ברוך שהגיענו לזמן הזה נכנס לישב בה אומר ברוך לישב בסוכה ומשברך עליה יום ראשון שוב לא יברך.

[When a person] performs any Mitzvah (commandment) he has to say a Beracha (blessing) on it. [If a person] makes a Sukkah (booth) for himself he says [the following Beracha after completing it]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Shehigiyanu Lazman Hazeh (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has helped us reach this time). [When a person] entered [the Sukkah] in order to dwell in it he says [the following Beracha]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Leishev Basukkah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to dwell in the Sukkah). And once he has said the Beracha on [dwelling in the Sukkah] on the first day [of the holiday of Sukkot] he does not need to say [this] Beracha anymore.

15 טו

העושה לולב לעצמו אומר ברוך שהגיענו לזמן הזה וכשהוא נוטלו אומר על נטילת לולב וצריך לברך עליו כל שבעה. העושה ציצית [לעצמו] אומר ברוך שהגיענו וכשהוא מתעטף אומר להתעטף [בציצית] העושה תפילין [לעצמו] אומר ברוך שהגיענו וכשהוא מניחן אומר [אשר קדשנו] להניח תפילין. מאימתי מניחן בשחרית לא הניחן בשחרית מניחן כל היום.

[If a person] makes a Lulav (date palm branch) for himself he says [the following Beracha (blessing) after completing it]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Shehigiyanu Lazman Hazeh (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has helped us reach this time). When he takes it (i.e. the Lulav) [on the holiday of Sukkot] he says [the following Beracha]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Al Netilat Lulav (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to take the Lulav). And he must say this Beracha [before taking] it all seven days [of Sukkot]. [If a person] makes [a garment] with Tzitzit (fringes) [on it] for himself he says [the following Beracha after completing it]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Shehigiyanu Lazman Hazeh (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has helped us reach this time). When he wraps himself in it he says [the following Beracha]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Lehitatef Batzitzit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to wrap in Tzitzit). And he must say this Beracha [before he puts on the garment with Tzitzit] every day. [If a person] makes Tefillin (Phylacteries) for himself he says [the following Beracha after completing it]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Shehigiyanu Lazman Hazeh. When he puts it on he says [the following Beracha]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Lehaniach Tefillin (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to put on Tefillin). When does he put them (i.e. Tefillin) on? In the morning. [If] he did not put them on in the morning he [can] put them on the whole day.

16 טז

השוחט צריך ברכה לעצמו ברוך על השחיטה המכסה דם צריך ברכה לעצמו על כסוי הדם.

[Even if a person] slaughters [an animal] for himself he needs to say a Beracha (blessing) [in the form as if it was slaughtered for others]. He says [the following Beracha:] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Al Hashechitah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the slaughter). [Even if a person] covers blood [after slaughtering a wild animal or a bird] for himself he needs to say a Beracha [in the form as if the blood was covered for others]. He says [the following Beracha:] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Al Kisui Hadam Beafar (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding covering of the blood with dirt).

17 יז

המל צריך ברכה לעצמו על המילה אבי הבן צריך ברכה לעצמו ברוך אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו להכניסו בבריתו של אברהם אבינו והעומדין אומרים כשם [שהכנסיתו לברית כן תכניסהו] לתורה לחופה ולמעשים טובים המברך אומר אשר קידש ידיד מבטן וחוק בשארו שם וצאצאיו חתם באות ברית קודש על כן בשכר זאת אל חי חלקנו צורנו צוה להציל ידידות שארנו משחת למען בריתו אשר שם בבשרנו ברוך כורת הברית.

[If a person] circumcises [a baby boy for someone else] (i.e. not his own son) he needs to say a Beracha (blessing) for himself (i.e. for his act of circumcision) [even though it is the father who is obligated to circumcise his own son]. He says [the following Beracha:] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Al Hamilah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the circumcision). The father of the boy has to say a Beracha for himself [regardless if he is or is not the one who performed the circumcision].6 He says [the following Beracha:] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Lehachniso Bivrito Shel Avraham Avinu (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to bring him into the covenant of Avraham, our father). And the people who stand there [in the presence of the circumcision] say [in response to the father’s Beracha:] Keshem Shehichnisato Lebrit Kach Tachnisehu Letorah Ulechupah Ulemaasim Tovim (Just like you have brought him to the circumcision so too may you bring him to the Torah, to the Chupah (Wedding Canopy) and to [performing] good deeds). [The person] who says the Beracha [over the ceremony of the circumcision] says [the following Beracha: Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kidesh Yedid Mibeten, Vechok Besheiro Sam, Vetzeetzaav Chatam Beot Berit Kodesh. Al Ken Bischar Zot, El Chai Chelkeinu Tzureinu Tziva Lehatzil Yedidot Sheereinu Mishachat. Baruch [Ata Hashem] Koret Haberit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified the beloved one from the womb, and placed the mark of the law on his descendant, and sealed his offspring with the sign of the holy covenant. Therefore, as a reward for this, The Living God, Our Portion, Our Rock, command to save the beloved people of our remnant from destruction. Blessed are You Hashem, Who establishes the covenant).

18 יח

המל [גרים אומר] במצותיו וצונו למול את הגרים להטיף מהן דם ברית שאלמלא דם ברית לא נתקיים שמים וארץ שנא' (ירמיהו לג) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה וגו' ברוך כורת הברית. המל את העבדים אומר ברוך על המילה המברך אומר ברוך אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו למול את העבדים ולהטיף מהן דם ברית וכו'.

[A person] who circumcises converts [to Judaism for their conversion] says [the following Beracha (blessing): Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu {Al Hamilah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the circumcision). [The person] who says the Beracha [over the ceremony of the circumcision of converts] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu} Lamul Et Hagerim {U}Lehatif Mehen Dam Brit Sheilmaleh Dam Brit Lo Nitkayem Shamayim Vaaretz Sheneemar Im Lo Briti Yomam Valailah [Chukot Shamaim Vaaretz Lo Samti]. Baruch [Ata Hashem] Koret Habrit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to circumcise converts and to draw from them the blood of the covenant, because if not for the blood of the covenant heaven and earth would not exist as it is said, “If not for My covenant day and night I would not upkeep the laws of heaven and earth.” (Jeremiah 33:25) Blessed are You Hashem, Who establishes the covenant). [A person] who circumcises slaves [when they get bought by a Jew] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu] Al Hamilah (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the circumcision). [The person] who says the Beracha [over the ceremony of the circumcision of slaves] says [the following Beracha:] Baruch Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam Asher Kideshanu] Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Lamol Et Haavadim {U}Lehatif Mehen Dam Brit Sheilmaleh Dam Brit Lo Nitkayem Shamayim Vaaretz Sheneemar Im Lo Briti Yomam Valailah [Chukot Shamaim Vaaretz Lo Samti]. Baruch [Ata Hashem] Koret Habrit (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to circumcise slaves and to draw from them the blood of the covenant, because if not for the blood of the covenant heaven and earth would not exist as it is said, “If not for My covenant day and night I would not upkeep the laws of heaven and earth.” (Jeremiah 33:25) Blessed are You Hashem, Who establishes the covenant).

19 יט

היה [מהלך להפריש תרומה ומעשרות אומר [ברוך אשר קדשנו] להפריש תרומה ומעשר מאימתי מברך עליהן משעה שמפרישן.

[A person] who was walking to separate Terumah (heave-offering) and Maaserot (tithes) says [the following Beracha (blessing) before he arrived to do the separation]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Shehigiyanu Lazman Hazeh (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has brought us to this time). As he separates them he says [the following Beracha]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Lehafrish Terumah Umaasrot (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to separate Terumah and Maaserot). When does he say the Beracha on them (i.e. Terumah and Maaserot)? At the time that he separates them.

20 כ

עשרה שהיו עושין עשר מצות כל א' [ואחד] מברך לעצמו היו עושין כולן מצוה אחת אחד מברך לכולן יחיד שהיה עושה עשר מצות מברך על כל אחת ואחת היה עושה מצוה כל היום אינו מברך אלא אחת היה מפסיק ועושה מפסיק ועושה [מברך] על כל אחת ואחת.

[If] ten [people] were doing ten [different] Mitzvot (commandments) [while being together, then] each [person] says a Beracha (blessing) [on each Mitzvah (commandment)] for himself. [If] all of them were doing one Mitzvah [together, then] one [person] says [one] Beracha [on that Mitzvah] for everyone. One [person] that was doing ten [different] Mitzvot says a [separate] Beracha on each [Mitzvah]. One [person] that was doing one Mitzvah the whole day [without interruption] only says one Beracha [on it, in the beginning]. [However, if] he was stopping [in the middle of the performance of the Mitzvah] and then doing it [again] he says a [new] Beracha on each [new performance of that Mitzvah].

21 כא

הנכנס לכרך [מברך] שתים אחת בכניסתו ואחת ביציאתו בן עזאי אומר ארבע שתים בכניסתו ושתים ביציאתו בכניסתו מהו אומר יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שאכנס בשלום נכנס בשלום אומר מודה אני לפניך ה' אלהי שהכנסתני בשלום כן יהי רצון מלפניך שתוציאני לשלום יצא לשלום אומר מודה אני לפניך ה' אלהי שהוצאתני לשלום כך יהי רצון מלפניך שאגיע למקומי [בשלום].

[A person] who enters a city [should] pray two [prayers], one when he enters [the city] and one when he exits [the city]. Rebbi Shimon says, “[He should pray] four [prayers], two [prayers] when he enters [the city] and two [prayers] when he exits [the city].” What [prayer should] he say [right before] he enters [the city]? “May it be Your will, Hashem, my God, that You will bring me into this city in peace.” [After] he has entered [the city] in peace, he [should] say [the following prayer]: “I thank You, Hashem, My God, that You brought me in peace. May it be Your will, Hashem, my God, that You will take me out from this city in peace.” [After] he has exited [the city] in peace, he [should] say [the following prayer]: “I thank You, Hashem, my God, that you took me out in peace. May it be Your will, Hashem, my God, that You will [allow] me to reach my place [of residence] in peace.”

22 כב

הנכנס לבית המרחץ מתפלל שתים אחת בכניסתו ואחת ביציאתו בכניסתו מהו אומר יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שתכניסני לשלום ותוציאני לשלום ואל יארע בי דבר קלקלה ואם יארע בי דבר קלקלה יהא מיתתי כפרתי עלי והצילני מזה ומכיוצא בזה לעתיד לבוא יצא לשלום אומר מודה אני לפניך ה' אלהי שיצאתי לשלום כן יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שאגיע לביתי לשלום.

[A person] who enters into a bathhouse [should] pray two [prayers], one as he enters [the bathhouse] and one as he exits [the bathhouse]. As he enters [the bathhouse] he says [the following prayer]: May it be Your will, Hashem, my God, that you will bring me in peace and you will take me out in peace. And may there not happen with me a disaster. But if a disaster will happen to me may my death be a forgiveness for all of my sins. [However] save me from this and anything similar to it in the future. [If] he exited in peace he says [the following prayer]: I thank You, Hashem, my God, that you took me out in peace. So may it be Your will, Hashem, my God, that I will come to my place [of residence] in peace.

23 כג

ר' יהודה אומר שלש ברכות צריך לברך בכל יום ברוך שלא עשני גוי ברוך שלא עשני אשה [ברוך] שלא עשני בור. גוי (ישעיהו מ) כל הגוים כאין נגדו אשה אין אשה חייבת במצות בור שאין ירא חטא ולא עם הארץ חסיד משל למה הדבר דומה למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדו לבשל לו תבשיל הוא לא בשל לו תבשיל מימיו סוף שמקדיח את התבשיל ומקניט את רבו לחפות לו חלוק והוא לא חיפת לו חלוק מימיו סוף שמלכלך את החלוק ומקניט את רבו.

Rebbi Yehudah says, “A person is obligated to say [the following] three Berachot (blessings) every day: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Shelo Asani Goy (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, for not making me a gentile), Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Shelo Asani Isha (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, for not making me a woman), Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Shelo Asani Bur (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, for not making me a boor). [The reason for saying a Beracha for not making him] a gentile is because it says ‘All nations are like nothing to Him. He considers them to be empty and void.’ (Isaiah 40:17) [The reason for saying a Beracha for not making him] a woman is because women are not obligated in Mitzvot (commandments).” [The reason for saying a Beracha for not making him] a boor is because a boor is not afraid of sin. They have said a parable to what this is similar to. [It is similar] to a king of flesh and blood who said to his servant to cook him [some] food, but he (i.e. the servant) has never cooked food in his life. In the end he ruins the food and angers his master. [Or the king told the servant] to hem for him a robe, but he (i.e. the servant) has never hemmed a robe in his life. In the end he [causes] the robe to get dirty and angers his master.

24 כד

לא יכנס אדם [בהר הבית במעות הצרורות לו בסדינו ובאבק שעל רגליו באפונדתו החגורה לו] מבחוץ שנאמר (קוהלת ד) שמור רגלך כאשר תלך אל בית האלהים.

A person should not enter the Temple Mount2 with money bundled in his cloak, and with dust on his feet, and with his money-belt tied on him on the outside as it is said, “Watch your feet when you go to the House of God …” (Ecclesiastes 4:17)

25 כה

ולא יעשה קפנדריא ורקיקה מק"ו שאין [בו] דרך בזיון אמרה תורה כך על אחת כמה וכמה [וקל וחומר שיש בו דרך בזיון ר' יהודה בר' יוסי] אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר כי אין לבא אל שער המלך בלבוש שק בא וראה על אחת כמה וכמה קלין וחמורין בדבר אם לפני מלך בשר ודם אין עושין כן לא כ"ש לפני מלך מלכי המלכים הקב"ה.

Rebbi Yossi Ben Rebbi Yehudah says, “It says [in the verse], ‘… because you cannot come into the gate of the king in sackcloth.’ (Esther 4:2) For sure there are many more Kal Vechomer (a derivation from minor to major) derivations in this case.” And spitting [is forbidden on the Temple Mount] from a Kal Vechomer. Even though a shoe has nothing disgraceful about it, [and still] the Torah says not to go with a shoe [on to the Temple Mount], it is a Kal Vechomer to spitting which is disgraceful, [that it should be for sure forbidden on the Temple Mount].

26 כו

הפותח ביו"ד וה"א וחותם ביו"ד וה"א הרי זה חכם באל"ף למ"ד וחותם ביו"ד וה"א ה"ז בינוני באל"ף למ"ד וחותם באל"ף למ"ד הרי זה בור ביו"ד וה"א וחותם באל"ף למ"ד הרי זו דרך אחרת.

[A person] who begins [his Berachot (blessings)] with [God’s name that is represented by Hebrew letters] Yud Heh (i.e. Adonai) and ends [his Berachot] with [God’s name that is represented by Hebrew letters] Yud Heh (i.e. Adonai) is a wise person. [A person who begins his Berachot] with [God’s name that is represented by Hebrew letters] Aleph Lamed (i.e. El or Elohim), but ends [his Berachot] with [God’s name that is represented by Hebrew letters] Yud Heh (i.e. Adonai) is an average person. [A person who begins his Berachot] with [God’s name that is represented by Hebrew letters] Yud Heh (i.e. Adonai), but ends [his Berachot] with [God’s name that is represented by Hebrew letters] Aleph Lamed (i.e. El or Elohim) is a boor. [A person who begins his Berachot] with [God’s name that is represented by Hebrew letters] Aleph Lamed (i.e. El or Elohim), and ends [his Berachot] with [God’s name that is represented by Hebrew letters] Aleph Lamed (i.e. El or Elohim) follows a foreign way.

27 כז

כל חותמי הברכות שבמקדש היו אומרים עד העולם משקלקלו המינים ואמרו אין עולם אלא אחד התקינו שיהו אומרים מן העולם ועד העולם. ומודיעין שהעולם הזה בפני העוה"ב כפרוזדור לפני החדר.

All endings of Berachot (blessings) that were [said] in the Bet Hamikdash (Temple) [included the phrase] Ad Haolam (until the [next] world). After the heretics became more virulent [and] they said that there is only one world, [the Rabbis] decreed that [in the Bet Hamikdash in the endings of Berachot] they should say Min Haolam Vead Haolam (from [this] world and until the [next] world). And [thus] they would let [everyone] know that this world in front of the World to Come is like a vestibule in front of the banquet hall.

28 כח

אין עונין אמן במקדש שנאמר (נחמיה ט) קומו וברכו את ה' אלהיכם מן העולם ועד העולם [ויברכו שם כבודך ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה] מנין על כל ברכה [וברכה] תלמוד לומר ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה על כל ברכה וברכה תן לו תהלה.

[The people] do not answer Amen in the Bet Hamikdash (Temple) [after Berachot, but rather say instead Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuto Leolam Vaed (Blessed be His glorious Name forever and ever)]. And from where [do we know] that they do not answer Amen in the Bet Hamikdash? As it is said, “Get up, bless Hashem, your God, from the world until the world.” (Nehemiah 9:5) And it says, “And let them bless Your glorious name.” (ibid.) And from where [do we know that] for every single blessing and for every single praise [and not just at the conclusion of all blessings of Shemoneh Esreh, they say instead of Amen, Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuto Leolam Vaed]? The verse teaches us, “… and exalted beyond every blessing and praise.” (ibid.) [Meaning] for every single blessing and for every single praise [they say Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuto Leolam Vaed].

29 כט

בראשונה [שהיתה תורה משתכחת מישראל היו זקנים מבלעין אותה שנא' (רות ב) והנה בועז בא [ואומר (שופטים ו) ה' עמך גבור החיל].

Originally, when the Torah would get forgotten from the Jewish people the elders would swallow it (i.e. the Torah) between themselves, [and not publicly teach it to the masses in great detail] as it is said, “And behold, Boaz was coming from Bet Lechem and he said to the harvesters, ‘Hashem is with you’. And they said to him, ‘May Hashem bless you.’” (Ruth 2:4) And [also] it says, “Hashem is with you, mighty warrior.” (Judges 6:12) And [also] it says, “… and do not scorn your mother when she has grown old.” (Proverbs 23:22)5 “It is time to do for Hashem, they have forsaken Your Torah.” (Psalms 119:126)

30 ל

הלל הזקן אומר [בעת] מכניסין פזר [בעת] מפזרין כנס [בשעה] שאתה רואה תורה חביבה [על ישראל] והכל שמחין בה הוי את מפזר שנא' (משלי יא) יש מפזר ונוסף עוד ובשעה שאתה רואה תורה שכוחה מישראל ואין הכל משגיחין [עליה הרי] את מכנס שנא' (תהילים קיט) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך.

Hillel the Elder says, “At the time when they gather in you should spread, and at the time when they spread you should gather in.” At the time that you see that the Torah is beloved to all of the Jewish people and everyone rejoices in it, you should spread it (i.e. teach it) as it is said, “The one that spreads gathers in more ...” (Proverbs 11:24) And at the time that you see that the Torah is being forgotten from the Jewish people and no one is paying attention to it, gather it in (i.e. learn it privately to yourself and do not teach), as it is said, “It is time to do for Hashem, they have forsaken your Torah.” (Psalsms 119:126) Rebbi Meir says, “[If] they have forsaken your Torah, [then] it is time to do for Hashem [and teach the Torah to the masses even with more force than before].”

31 לא

ר"מ אומר אין לך אדם מישראל שאינו עושה מצות בכל יום קורא שמע מברך לפניה ולאחריה אוכל את פתו מברך לפניה ולאחריה מתפלל שלש פעמים של שמונה עשרה ועושה שאר מצות מברך עליהן [וכן היה] ר' מאיר אומר אין לך אדם מישראל שאין שבע מצות מקיפות אותו תפילין בראשו ותפילין בזרועו מזוזה [לפתחו] ארבע ציציות מקיפות אותו ועליהן אמר דוד (תהילים קיט) שבע ביום הללתיך נכנס למרחץ מילה בבשרו שנאמר (תהילים ח) למנצח על השמינית מזמור לדוד ואומר (תהילים לד) חונה מלאך ה' סביב ליראיו ויחלצם.

Rebbi Meir used to say, “There is not [even a] single person among the Jewish people who does not perform one hundred Mitzvot (commandments) every day. He reads the Shema, says Berachot (blessings) before it and after it, eats his bread and says the Berachot before it and after it, prays Shemoneh Esreh three times, and does all other commandments and says Berachot over them.” And also Rebbi Meir used to say, “There is not [even a] single person among the Jewish people whom the Mitzvot do not surround. Tefillin (Phylacteries) is on his head, and Tefillin is on his arm, and Mezuzah (scroll on the doorpost) is on his door, and the four Tzitzit (fringes) surround him. And regarding them (i.e. these seven commandments) David said, ‘Seven times per day I praise You for the laws of Your righteousness.’ (Psalms 119:164). And when he (i.e. David) entered the bathhouse and saw the circumcision on his flesh [he praised God further for the eighth commandment that is physically on him] as it is said, ‘For the conductor, for the eighth, a song of David.’ (Psalms 12:1) And it says, ‘Hashem’s angel camps around those who fear Him and delivers them.’ (Psalms 34:8).”