פרחי כהונה אמרי אין התם דלא מטו למעבד עבודה קרי להו רובים הכא דמטו להו למעבד עבודה קרי להו פרחי the young men of the priesthood [pirḥei khehunna]? Is there a distinction between these different terms? The Sages say: Yes, there is a distinction. There, with regard to the priests who keep watch in the Chamber of Avtinas and in the Chamber of the Spark, the mishna is referring to priests who have not reached the age at which they are eligible to perform the Temple service, and therefore the tanna calls them young priests. The older priests would not keep watch, as they preferred to perform the Temple service. Here, with regard to the priests who sleep in the Chamber of the Hearth in order to be ready to perform the morning rites, the mishna is referring to priests who have reached the age at which they are eligible to perform the Temple service, and consequently the tanna calls them the young men of the priesthood.
תנן התם בשלשה מקומות הכהנים שומרים בבית המקדש בבית אבטינס ובבית הניצוץ ובבית המוקד § We learned in a mishna elsewhere (Middot 1:1): The priests would keep watch in three places in the Temple courtyard: In the Chamber of Avtinas, and in the Chamber of the Spark, and in the Chamber of the Hearth.
והלוים בכ"א מקומות ה' על ה' שערי הר הבית ד' על ד' פנותיו מבפנים ה' על ה' שערי עזרה וד' על ד' פנותיו מבחוץ אחד בלשכת הקרבן ואחד בלשכת הפרוכת ואחד אחורי בית הכפורת And the Levites would keep watch in twenty-one places, as follows: Five upon the five gates of the Temple Mount; four upon the four corners of the Temple Mount, within the wall surrounding the Temple Mount; five upon the five gates of the Temple courtyard, and four upon the four corners of the Temple courtyard outside the courtyard wall, surrounding the Temple courtyard. One watch is observed in the Chamber of the Offering, where animals that had been checked for blemishes were held in readiness for sacrifice; one watch is kept in the Chamber of the Curtain, where the Curtain separating the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies was woven; and finally, one watch is kept behind the Chamber of the Ark Cover, in the area between the Holy of Holies and the western wall of the Temple Mount.
מנה"מ אמר רב יהודה מסורא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא דכתיב (דברי הימים א כו, יז) למזרח הלוים ששה לצפונה לוים ארבעה לנגבה לוים ארבעה ולאסופים שנים שנים לפרבר למערב ארבעה למסלה שנים לפרבר With regard to these twenty-one places where the Levites keep watch, the Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rav Yehuda of Sura said, and some say that it was taught in a baraita: This is derived as it is written with regard to the Levites assigned by David to serve as gatekeepers upon the future construction of the Temple: Eastward were six Levites, northward four Levites, southward four Levites, and for the Asuppim two and two. For the Parbar westward, four at the causeway, and two at the Parbar (see I Chronicles 26:17–18).
אמרי הני כ"ד הוו אמר אביי ה"ק לאסופים שנים (ב') The Sages say that if these verses are the source for the twenty-one places in which the Levites keep watch, that is difficult, as these watches enumerated in the verse are twenty-four in total. Abaye said: This is what the verse is saying: “For the Asuppim two,” and they are always only two. It is not uncommon for a verse to repeat a word for emphasis in this manner, especially at the end of a verse.
אכתי עשרין ותרי הוו היאך דפרבר חד הוה ואחרינא בצוותא הוא דאזיל ויתיב גביה משום דקאי אבראי The Gemara objects: Even if two locations are removed from the list, according to the verse there are still twenty-two watches, rather than twenty-one. The Gemara explains: That watch, which was situated at the Parbar, was composed of only one watchman, and as for the other Levite mentioned in the verse, it was merely to serve as company that he went and sat with the watchman, due to the fact that the Parbar was situated on the outer side and was isolated from the other watches.
מאי לפרבר אמר רבה בר רב שילא כמ"ד כלפי בר The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term “at the Parbar [laParbar]” (I Chronicles 26:18)? Rabba bar Rav Sheila said: This term is a contraction of two Aramaic words, and it is like one who says: Toward the outside [kelapei bar].
ואב"א לעולם כ"ד כדכתיב תלתא מינייהו דכהנים ועשרין וחד דלוים The Gemara presents an alternative answer to the question with regard to the verse: And if you wish, say instead that actually there are twenty-four watches, and the verse may be interpreted literally as it is written. Three of them are the watches kept by the priests, and the remaining twenty-one are the watches kept by the Levites.
והא הכא לוים הוא דכתיב כר' יהושע בן לוי דאמר ריב"ל בכ"ד מקומות נקראו כהנים לוים וזה אחד מהן (יחזקאל מד, טו) והכהנים הלוים בני צדוק: The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written here in the verse that all twenty-four watches are kept by the Levites? The Gemara answers: This interpretation is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In twenty-four places in the Bible the priests are called Levites, and this is one of them: “But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of My Sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from Me, they shall come near to Me to serve Me” (Ezekiel 44:15).
חמשה על חמשה שערי הר הבית וארבעה על ארבעה פנותיו מתוכו ה' על ה' שערי עזרה וארבעה על ארבעה פנותיו מבחוץ מאי שנא הר הבית דעבדינן מתוכו ומאי שנא עזרה דעבדינן מבחוץ The mishna (Middot 1:1) teaches that five watches are kept upon the five gates of the Temple Mount, and four watches are kept upon the four corners of the Temple Mount within the Temple Mount wall. Five watches are kept upon the five gates of the Temple courtyard, and four are kept upon the four corners of the Temple courtyard outside the courtyard wall, on the Temple Mount. The Gemara asks: What is different with regard to the Temple Mount that we perform the watch within the walls, and what is different with regard to the Temple courtyard that we perform the watch outside its walls?
אמרי הר הבית דאי תמה ובעי מיתב יתיב אמרינן מתוכו עזרה דאי תמה ובעי למיתב לא מצי יתיב דאמר מר אין ישיבה בעזרה אלא למלכי בית דוד בלבד אמרינן מבחוץ The Sages say: With regard to the watches on the Temple Mount, if the watchman tires and wants to sit down, he may sit down, as it is permitted to sit on the Temple Mount. Therefore, we say that the watch is kept within the Temple Mount. By contrast, if a watch is observed in the Temple courtyard, even if the watchman tires and wants to sit down, he may not sit down, as the Master said: Sitting in the Temple courtyard is permitted only for kings of the house of David. Therefore, we say that the watch is kept outside the walls of the Temple courtyard, so that the watchman may sit down if he wishes.
אמר מר ה' על ה' שערי עזרה וה' שערים הוא דהוי בעזרה ורמינהי ז' שערים היו בעזרה ג' בצפון וג' בדרום ואחד במזרח The Master said above that five watches are kept upon the five gates of the Temple courtyard. The Gemara asks: But was it only five gates that were constructed in the walls of the Temple courtyard? And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (Middot 1:4): There were seven gates in the Temple courtyard: Three in the north, and three in the south, and one in the east.
אמר אביי תרי מינייהו לא צריכי שימור רבא אמר תנאי היא דתניא אין פוחתין מי"ג גזברין ומז' אמרכלין ר' נתן אומר אין פוחתין מי"ג גזברין כנגד י"ג שערים דל חמשה דהר הבית פשו להו תמניא דעזרה אלמא איכא תנא דאמר תמניא הוו ואיכא תנא דאמר שבעה ואיכא תנא דאמר חמשה הוו: Abaye said: Although there were seven gates, two of them, the gate to the Chamber of the Spark and the gate to the Chamber of the Hearth, did not require a watch of the Levites, as the priests kept watch there. Rava said: The number of gates is a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita: There must be no fewer than thirteen treasurers and seven trustees appointed over the Temple administration. Rabbi Natan says: There must be no fewer than thirteen treasurers, corresponding to the thirteen gates. Remove from the total of thirteen gates the five gates of the Temple Mount, and there remain eight gates to the Temple courtyard. Evidently, there is a tanna who said that there were eight gates, and there is a tanna who said that there were seven gates, and there is also a tanna who said that there were five gates.
לא היו ישנים בבגדי קדש כו': שינה הוא דלא אבל הילוך מהלכים שמעת מינה בגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן § The mishna (25b) teaches that the priests would not sleep dressed in the sacred vestments; rather, they would remove them and place them beneath their heads. The Gemara infers from here that it is only sleep that is not permitted while a priest is dressed in the sacred vestments, lest he pass wind during his sleep. But with regard to wearing such vestments while the priests are awake and engaged in various activities, e.g., walking, they may walk about dressed in the vestments, even when they do not need to wear them for the Temple service. You may therefore conclude from the mishna that it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments.
אמרי הוא הדין דאפילו הילוך נמי לא והא דקתני לא היו ישנים משום דבעי למיתנא סיפא אלא פושטין ומקפלין ומניחין אותן תחת ראשיהן קתני רישא נמי לא היו ישנים The Sages say that this inference is incorrect. The same is true of walking, as even walking while wearing the vestments is not permitted, and the reason that the tanna teaches specifically that the priests would not sleep dressed in the vestments is due to the fact that the tanna wanted to teach the latter clause: Rather, they would remove them and fold them, and then they would place them beneath their heads. Since the latter clause is referring specifically to sleeping, the tanna teaches in the former clause as well that the priests would not sleep dressed in the vestments.
והא גופה קא קשיא ומניחין אותן תחת ראשיהן ש"מ בגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהם אימא נגד ראשיהם The Gemara objects: But according to this interpretation, the mishna itself is difficult, as the mishna states: And they would place the priestly vestments beneath their heads, as a cushion. One may conclude from this statement that it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. The Gemara rejects this interpretation: Say that the mishna means that they would place the vestments next to their heads, not literally beneath them.
אמר רב פפא שמע מינה תפילין מן הצד שריין ולא חיישינן דלמא מיגנדר ונפיל עלייהו Rav Pappa said: One may conclude from this interpretation of the mishna that if one places phylacteries by the side of his head while he sleeps, they are in a permitted place. And we are not concerned that perhaps he will roll over in his sleep and fall upon them, which would degrade the phylacteries.
ה"נ מסתברא דכנגד ראשיהן דאי אמרת תחת ראשיהן נהי דניתנו ליהנות בהן תיפוק ליה משום איסורא דכלאים The Gemara comments: So too, it is reasonable to say that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed only next to their heads. As, if you say that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed literally beneath their heads, this is difficult. Granted that it is permitted to derive benefit from them, but one could derive that it is prohibited to sleep upon them due to the prohibition of diverse kinds of wool and linen. The priestly vestments contain both wool and linen, which is a prohibited mixture in every other context. The Torah specifically permits the priests to wear them while they are performing the Temple service, but this does not extend to using the vestments as a cushion while sleeping.