Taanit 7b:1תענית ז׳ ב:א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Taanit 7b:1"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
7bז׳ ב

אי הוו סנו טפי הוו גמירי דבר אחר מה שלשה משקין הללו אין נפסלין אלא בהיסח הדעת אף דברי תורה אין משתכחין אלא בהיסח הדעת

Rabbi Yehoshua replied: Had they been ugly, they would have been even more learned. Alternatively, the Torah is likened to water, wine, and milk because just as these three liquids are spoiled only by diversion of attention, so too, are Torah matters forgotten only through diversion of attention. If water, wine and milk are guarded, they will not spoil or have dirty objects fall into them.

אמר רבי חמא בר' חנינא גדול יום הגשמים כיום שנבראו שמים וארץ שנאמר (ישעיהו מה, ח) הרעיפו שמים ממעל ושחקים יזלו צדק תפתח ארץ ויפרו ישע וצדקה תצמיח יחד אני ה' בראתיו בראתים לא נאמר אלא בראתיו

§ The Gemara returns to the issue of rain. Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: The day of the rains is as great as the day on which the heavens and earth were created, as it is stated: “Drop down, heavens, from above, let the skies pour down righteousness; let the earth open that they may bring forth salvation, and let it cause righteousness to spring up together; I, the Lord, have created it” (Isaiah 45:8). The Gemara explains that the verse does not say: I have created them, in the plural, but: I have created it. In other words, the verse is referring to rain, rather than to the heavens and the earth, which indicates that rainfall is as important as the creation of the world.

אמר רב אושעיא גדול יום הגשמים שאפי' ישועה פרה ורבה בו שנאמר תפתח ארץ ויפרו ישע אמר רבי תנחום בר חנילאי אין הגשמים יורדים אלא א"כ נמחלו עונותיהן של ישראל שנאמר (תהלים פה, ב) רצית ה' ארצך שבת שבות יעקב נשאת עון עמך כסית כל חטאתם סלה

Rabbi Oshaya likewise said: The day of rain is great, as rain even facilitates salvation, which is fruitful and multiplies on that day. It is a time of God’s favor, when salvation is brought forth into the world, as it is stated: “Let the earth open that they may bring forth salvation” (Isaiah 45:8). Rabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai said: Rain falls only if the Jewish people’s transgressions have been forgiven, as it is stated: “Lord, You have been favorable to Your land; You have turned the captivity of Jacob; You have forgiven the iniquity of Your people; You have pardoned all their sin. Selah” (Psalms 85:2–3). This chapter proceeds to discuss rainfall: “And righteousness has looked down from Heaven” (Psalms 85:12), in the form of rain.

א"ל זעירי מדיהבת לרבינא אתון מהכא מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה (מלכים א ח, לד) ואתה תשמע השמים וסלחת לחטאת וגו'

The Sage Ze’iri from the town of Dihavat said to Ravina: You learned this idea from here, whereas we learned it from here, a different verse: “When heaven is closed up, and there is no rain, when they sin against You, if they pray toward this place and confess Your name and turn from their sin, when You afflict them, then You, hear in heaven and forgive the sin of Your servants and of Your people Israel, when You teach them the good way in which they should walk, and send rain upon Your land, which You have given to Your people as an inheritance” (I Kings 8:35–36).

אמר ר' תנחום בריה דרבי חייא איש כפר עכו אין הגשמים נעצרין אא"כ נתחייבו שונאיהן של ישראל כליה שנאמר (איוב כד, יט) ציה גם חום יגזלו מימי שלג שאול חטאו א"ל זעירי מדיהבת לרבינא אתון מהכא מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה (דברים יא, יז) ועצר את השמים ואבדתם מהרה

Rabbi Tanḥum, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya of village of Akko, said: The rains are withheld only if the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people, have been sentenced to destruction for their sins, as it is stated: “Drought and heat will steal the snow waters; to the grave those who have sinned” (Job 24:19). According to this interpretation, snow water will be stolen by drought, i.e., there will be none available, when people have sinned to the point that they deserve the grave. Ze’iri from Dihavat said to Ravina: You learned this idea from here; we learned it from here: “And the anger of the Lord will be kindled against you, and He will close up the heavens, and there will be no rain, and the earth will not give its fruit, and you will perish quickly” (Deuteronomy 11:17).

אמר רב חסדא אין הגשמים נעצרין אלא בשביל ביטול תרומות ומעשרות שנאמר ציה גם חום יגזלו מימי שלג מאי משמע תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בשביל דברים שצויתי אתכם בימות החמה ולא עשיתם יגזלו מכם מימי שלג בימות הגשמים

Rav Ḥisda said: The rains are withheld only due to the sin of the nullification of teruma and tithes, as it is stated: “Drought and heat will steal the snow waters” (Job 24:19). The Gemara asks: From where in the verse may this idea be inferred from the verse? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Due to matters that I have commanded you to do in the summer, e.g., take teruma and tithes from the summer produce, and that you did not do, the snow waters will be stolen from you in the rainy season.

אמר רבי שמעון בן פזי אין הגשמים נעצרין אלא בשביל מספרי לשון הרע שנאמר (משלי כה, כג) רוח צפון תחולל גשם ופנים נזעמים לשון סתר

Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: The rains are withheld only due to the sin of those who speak slander, as it is stated: “The north wind brings forth rain, but a backbiting tongue, an angry countenance” (Proverbs 25:23). This verse indicates that if the countenance of the heavens is angry, with neither clouds nor rain, it is due to slanderous speech.

אמר רב סלא אמר רב המנונא אין הגשמים נעצרין אלא בשביל עזי פנים שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, ג) וימנעו רביבים ומלקוש לא היה ומצח אשה זונה היה לך וגו' ואמר רב סלא אמר רב המנונא כל אדם שיש לו עזות פנים סוף נכשל בעבירה שנאמר ומצח אשה זונה היה לך רב נחמן אמר בידוע שנכשל בעבירה שנאמר היה לך ולא נאמר יהיה לך

Rav Salla said that Rav Hamnuna said: The rains are withheld only due to impudent people, as it is stated: “Therefore the showers have been withheld, and there has been no last rain, yet you had a harlot’s forehead, you refused to be ashamed” (Jeremiah 3:3). And Rav Salla said that Rav Hamnuna said, with regard to the same verse: Any man who is insolent will ultimately stumble over the transgression of prostitution, as it is stated: “Yet you had a prostitute’s forehead.” Rav Naḥman said: The verse does not mean that he will commit a sexual transgression in the future; rather, it is known that he has already stumbled over this transgression, as it is stated: “You had,” in the past tense, and it is not stated: You will.

אמר רבה בר רב הונא כל אדם שיש לו עזות פנים מותר לקרותו רשע שנאמר (משלי כא, כט) העז איש רשע בפניו רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מותר לשנאותו שנאמר (קהלת ח, א) ועז פניו ישונא אל תקרי ישונא אלא ישנא

Rabba bar Rav Huna said: With regard to any man who is insolent, it is permitted to call him wicked to his face, as it is stated: “A wicked man makes his face insolent” (Proverbs 21:29). Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is permitted to hate him, as it is stated: “And the insolence of his face is changed” (Ecclesiastes 8:1). Do not read it as: “Is changed [yeshunne]”; rather, read it as: Is hated [yissane], as the two words are spelled the same way in Hebrew, albeit with different vocalization and pronunciation.

אמר רב קטינא אין הגשמים נעצרין אלא בשביל ביטול תורה שנאמר (קהלת י, יח) בעצלתים ימך המקרה בשביל עצלות שהיה בישראל שלא עסקו בתורה נעשה שונאו של הקב"ה מך ואין מך אלא עני שנאמר (ויקרא כז, ח) ואם מך הוא מערכך ואין מקרה אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (תהלים קד, ג) המקרה במים עליותיו

Rav Ketina said: The rains are withheld only due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah, as it is stated: “By slothfulness the rafters [hamekare] will sink in [yimakh], and through idleness of the hands the house leaks” (Ecclesiastes 10:18). Due to slothfulness that was present amongst the Jewish people, that they did not occupy themselves with Torah, the enemy of the Holy One, Blessed be He, a euphemism for God Himself, has sunk. And sunk [makh] means nothing other than poor, as it is stated: “But if he is too poor [makh] for your valuation” (Leviticus 27:8). And “rafters [mekare]” means nothing other than a reference to the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Who lays the beams [hamekare] of Your upper chambers in the water” (Psalms 104:3).

רב יוסף אמר מהכא (איוב לז, כא) ועתה לא ראו אור בהיר הוא בשחקים ורוח עברה ותטהרם ואין אור אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור בהיר הוא בשחקים תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל אפילו בשעה שרקיע נעשה בהורין בהורין להוריד טל ומטר רוח עברה ותטהרם

Rav Yosef said that this idea is derived from here: “And now that men do not see the light, it is bright in the skies, but the wind passes and cleanses them” (Job 37:21). And “light” means nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “For a mitzva is a lamp and Torah is a light” (Proverbs 6:23). According to this interpretation, the verse means that when “men do not see the light,” i.e., when they are not occupied with Torah, “it is bright in the skies,” as there are no rainclouds. With regard to this verse, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Even when the sky is comprised of bright clouds that serve to bring down dew and rain, no rain will fall, as “the wind passes and cleanses them.”

אמר ר' אמי אין הגשמים נעצרין אלא בעון גזל שנאמר (איוב לו, לב) על כפים כסה אור בעון כפים כסה אור ואין כפים אלא חמס שנאמר (יונה ג, ח) ומן החמס אשר בכפיהם ואין אור אלא מטר שנאמר (איוב לז, יא) יפיץ ענן אורו

Rabbi Ami said: The rains are withheld only due to the sin of robbery, as it is stated: “He covers His hands with the light, and He has commanded it due to imploring” (Job 36:32). This means that due to the sin of stealing hands, God has covered the light and no rain will fall. And Rabbi Ami adds that the term “hand” means nothing other than a sin of violence, as it is stated: “And from the violence that is in their hands” (Jonah 3:8). And “light” means nothing other than rain, as it is stated: “He spreads abroad the cloud of His light” (Job 37:11).

מאי תקנתיה ירבה בתפלה שנאמר (איוב לו, לב) ויצו עליה במפגיע ואין פגיעה אלא תפלה שנאמר (ירמיהו ז, טז) ואתה אל תתפלל בעד העם הזה [וגו'] ואל תפגע בי

What is the remedy of one who has caused the rain to be withheld? He should increase his prayers, as it is stated in the same chapter: “And He has commanded it due to imploring” (Job 37:12), and “imploring” means nothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “Therefore, do not pray you for this nation, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them, neither implore Me” (Jeremiah 7:16).

וא"ר אמי מאי דכתיב (קהלת י, י) אם קהה הברזל והוא לא פנים קלקל אם ראית רקיע שקיהה כברזל מלהוריד טל ומטר בשביל מעשה הדור שהן מקולקלין שנא' והוא לא פנים קלקל

And Rabbi Ami said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “If the iron is blunt, and does not whet the edge” (Ecclesiastes 10:10)? If you see a sky that is blunt as iron, in that it does not bring down dew and rain, this is due to the deeds of the generation, which are corrupt, as it is stated: “And does not whet [kilkal] the edge [panim].” Panim, which also means face, is often used in reference to the leaders of a generation, while the term kilkal is similar to the word for corrupt, mekulkalin.

מה תקנתן יתגברו ברחמים שנא' (קהלת י, י) וחילים יגבר ויתרון הכשיר חכמה כל שכן אם הוכשרו מעשיהן מעיקרא

What is their remedy? They must increase their prayers for mercy, as it is stated in the same verse: “Then must he increase his strength, but wisdom is profitable to direct” (Ecclesiastes 10:10). This verse hints that rain will fall if one increases his strength, i.e., his prayers for mercy. The last part of the verse means that, all the more so, if their deeds had been righteous and direct from the beginning, the rains would not have been withheld.

ריש לקיש אמר אם ראית תלמיד

The Gemara cites a different interpretation of the same verse. Reish Lakish said: If you see a student