בֵּין תַּנּוּר לְכִירַיִים וְאוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה עָלֶיהָ קִיתוֹן שֶׁל מַיִם וְדוֹמֶה כְּמִי שֶׁמֵּתוֹ מוּטָּל לְפָנָיו
between the oven and the stove, which was considered the least respectable place in the house. And he would eat his bread, and drink a jug [kiton] of water with it, and in doing so he would resemble one whose deceased relative is laid out unburied before him.
תְּנַן הָתָם מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב עוֹשִׂין מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת אֵין עוֹשִׂין וּבְכׇל מָקוֹם תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים בְּטֵלִים רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר לְעוֹלָם יַעֲשֶׂה כָּל אָדָם עַצְמוֹ כְּתַלְמִיד חָכָם תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר לְעוֹלָם יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם עַצְמוֹ כְּתַלְמִיד חָכָם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְעַנֶּה
§ We learned in a mishna there: In a place where people were accustomed to perform labor on the Ninth of Av, one performs labor. In a place where people were accustomed not to perform labor, one does not perform labor. And in all places, Torah scholars are idle and do not perform labor on the Ninth of Av. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: With regard to the Ninth of Av, a person should always conduct himself as a Torah scholar and refrain from performing labor. This is also taught in a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A person should always conduct himself as a Torah scholar, so that he will feel the hardship of the fast.
תַּנְיָא אִידַּךְ רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר כׇּל הָאוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה בְּתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב כְּאִילּוּ אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר כׇּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה סִימַן בְּרָכָה לְעוֹלָם
It is taught in another baraita that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Whoever eats and drinks on the Ninth of Av, although the prohibition was instituted by the Prophets, it is as though he eats and drinks on Yom Kippur. Rabbi Akiva says: Whoever performs labor on the Ninth of Av never sees a sign of a blessing from that work.
וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים כׇּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב וְאֵינוֹ מִתְאַבֵּל עַל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה בְּשִׂמְחָתָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר שִׂמְחוּ אֶת יְרוּשָׁלִַים וְגִילוּ בָהּ כׇּל אֹהֲבֶיהָ שִׂישׂוּ אִתָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ כׇּל הַמִּתְאַבְּלִים עָלֶיהָ מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ כׇּל הַמִּתְאַבֵּל עַל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם זוֹכֶה וְרוֹאֶה בְּשִׂמְחָתָהּ וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְאַבֵּל עַל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה בְּשִׂמְחָתָהּ תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי כׇּל הָאוֹכֵל בָּשָׂר וְשׁוֹתֶה יַיִן בְּתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר וַתְּהִי עֲוֹנוֹתָם עַל עַצְמוֹתָם:
And the Sages say: Whoever performs labor on the Ninth of Av and does not mourn for Jerusalem will not see her future joy, as it is stated: “Rejoice with Jerusalem and be glad with her, all who love her; rejoice for joy with her, all who mourn for her” (Isaiah 66:10). From here it is stated: Whoever mourns for Jerusalem will merit and see her future joy, and whoever does not mourn for Jerusalem will not see her future joy. This is also taught in a baraita: Whoever eats meat or drinks wine in the meal before the Ninth of Av, about him the verse states: “And whose iniquities are upon their bones, because the terror of the mighty was in the land of the living” (Ezekiel 32:27).
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מְחַיֵּיב בִּכְפִיַּית הַמִּטָּה וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים תַּנְיָא אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה לִדְבָרֶיךָ עוּבָּרוֹת וּמְנִיקוֹת מָה תְּהֵא עֲלֵיהֶן אָמַר לָהֶם אַף אֲנִי לֹא אָמַרְתִּי אֶלָּא בְּיָכוֹל
§ The mishna taught: Rabbi Yehuda obligates one to overturn the bed, but the Rabbis did not agree with him. It is taught in a baraita that the Rabbis said to Rabbi Yehuda: According to your statement, pregnant women and nursing women, who cannot sleep on the floor, what will become of them? Rabbi Yehuda said to them: I, too, spoke only with regard to those who are able.
תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי מוֹדֶה רַבִּי יְהוּדָה לַחֲכָמִים בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל וּמוֹדִים חֲכָמִים לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּיָכוֹל מַאי בֵּינַיְיהוּ אִיכָּא בֵּינַיְיהוּ שְׁאָר מִטּוֹת
This is also taught in another baraita: Rabbi Yehuda concedes to the Rabbis with regard to one who is unable to sleep on the floor, and the Rabbis concede to Rabbi Yehuda with regard to one who is able to do so. The Gemara asks: If so, what is the practical difference between them? The Gemara explains: The practical difference between them is the status of other beds.
כִּדְתַנְיָא כְּשֶׁאָמְרוּ לִכְפּוֹת הַמִּטָּה לֹא מִטָּתוֹ בִּלְבַד הוּא כּוֹפֶה אֶלָּא כׇּל הַמִּטּוֹת כּוּלָּן הוּא כּוֹפֶה אָמַר רָבָא הִלְכְתָא כְּתַנָּא דִּידַן וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים כׇּל עִיקָּר:
As it is taught in a baraita: When the Rabbis said that a mourner is required to overturn the bed, they meant that he overturns not only his own bed, but also that he must overturn all the beds in the house. Rabbi Yehuda maintains that one must likewise overturn all of the beds of one’s house on the Ninth of Av. Rava said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the tanna of our mishna, and the Rabbis did not concede to Rabbi Yehuda at all, even with regard to one who is able. Therefore, there is no requirement to overturn one’s bed on the Ninth of Av.
אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל לֹא הָיוּ יָמִים טוֹבִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּאָב וּכְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בִּשְׁלָמָא יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מִשּׁוּם דְּאִית בֵּיהּ סְלִיחָה וּמְחִילָה יוֹם שֶׁנִּיתְּנוּ בּוֹ לוּחוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת
§ The mishna taught that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: There were no days as happy for the Jewish people as the fifteenth of Av and as Yom Kippur. The Gemara asks: Granted, Yom Kippur is a day of joy because it has the elements of pardon and forgiveness, and moreover, it is the day on which the last pair of tablets were given.
אֶלָּא חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּאָב מַאי הִיא אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל יוֹם שֶׁהוּתְּרוּ שְׁבָטִים לָבוֹא זֶה בָּזֶה
However, what is the special joy of the fifteenth of Av? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: This was the day on which the members of different tribes were permitted to enter one another’s tribe, by intermarriage. It was initially prohibited to intermarry between tribes, so as to keep each plot of land within the portion of the tribe that originally inherited it. This halakha was instituted by the Torah in the wake of a complaint by the relatives of the daughters of Zelophehad, who were worried that if these women married men from other tribes, the inheritance of Zelophehad would be lost from his tribe (see Numbers 36:1–12).
מַאי דְּרוּשׁ זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה ה׳ לִבְנוֹת צְלׇפְחָד וְגוֹ׳ דָּבָר זֶה לֹא יְהֵא נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בְּדוֹר זֶה
What did they expound, in support of their conclusion that this halakha was no longer in effect? The verse states: “This is the matter that the Lord has commanded concerning the daughters of Zelophehad, saying: Let them marry whom they think best; only into the family of the tribe of their father shall they marry” (Numbers 36:5). They derived from the verse that this matter shall be practiced only in this generation, when Eretz Yisrael was divided among the tribes, but afterward members of different tribes were permitted to marry. On the day this barrier separating the tribes was removed, the Sages established a permanent day of rejoicing.
אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן יוֹם שֶׁהוּתַּר שֵׁבֶט בִּנְיָמִין לָבוֹא בַּקָּהָל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְאִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נִשְׁבַּע בַּמִּצְפָּה לֵאמֹר אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ לֹא יִתֵּן בִּתּוֹ לְבִנְיָמִן לְאִשָּׁה מַאי דְּרוּשׁ אָמַר רַב מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא מִבָּנֵינוּ
Rav Yosef said that Rav Naḥman said: The fifteenth of Av was the day on which the tribe of Benjamin was permitted to enter the congregation of the Jewish people. After the tragic incident at Gibeah, for which the tribe of Benjamin was blamed, the other tribes ostracized them. They took an oath to prohibit themselves from marrying a member of the tribe of Benjamin, as it is stated: “And the men of Israel had sworn in Mizpah, saying: None of us shall give his daughter to Benjamin as a wife” (Judges 21:1). The Gemara asks: What did they expound that enabled them to dissolve this oath? Rav said: They understood the verse literally, as it states: “None of us,” and not: None of our children, i.e., the oath applied only to the generation that took the oath, not their descendants.
אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר בַּר חָנָה אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן יוֹם שֶׁכָּלוּ בּוֹ מֵתֵי מִדְבָּר דְּאָמַר מָר עַד שֶׁלֹּא כָּלוּ מֵתֵי מִדְבָּר לֹא הָיָה דִּבּוּר עִם מֹשֶׁה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר תַּמּוּ כׇּל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה לָמוּת וַיְדַבֵּר ה׳ אֵלַי אֵלַי הָיָה הַדִּבּוּר
Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The fifteenth of Av was the day on which the deaths of the Jews in the wilderness ceased. The entire generation that had left Egypt had passed away, as the Master said: After the sin of the spies, on account of which the Jews of that generation were sentenced to die in the wilderness, as long as the death of the Jews in the wilderness had not ceased, God’s speech did not come to Moses, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, when all the men of war were consumed and dead from among the people, that the Lord spoke to me, saying” (Deuteronomy 2:16–17). This indicates that only then, after the last member of that generation had died, was God’s speech delivered to me, i.e., Moses, but not beforehand. When the Jews realized that the decree that God would not speak to Moses had been lifted, they established that day as a permanent day of rejoicing.
עוּלָּא אָמַר יוֹם שֶׁבִּיטֵּל הוֹשֵׁעַ בֶּן אֵלָה פְּרוֹסְדָיוֹת שֶׁהוֹשִׁיב יָרׇבְעָם בֶּן נְבָט עַל הַדְּרָכִים שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לָרֶגֶל וְאָמַר
Ulla said: The fifteenth of Av was the day on which King Hoshea, son of Ela, canceled the guards that Jeroboam, son of Nevat, placed on the roads so that the Jews would not ascend to Jerusalem for the pilgrim Festival. And Hoshea, son of Ela, said