Taanit 2b:13תענית ב׳ ב:יג
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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2bב׳ ב

אליה אלהים ויפתח את רחמה מפתח של תחיית המתים מנין דכתיב (יחזקאל לז, יג) וידעתם כי אני ה' בפתחי את קברותיכם

to her, and He opened her womb” (Genesis 30:22). From where is it derived that the key of the resurrection of the dead is maintained by God Himself? As it is written: “And you shall know that I am the Lord when I have opened your graves” (Ezekiel 37:13).

במערבא אמרי אף מפתח של פרנסה דכתיב (תהלים קמה, טז) פותח את ידך וגו' ור' יוחנן מאי טעמא לא קא חשיב להא אמר לך גשמים היינו פרנסה:

In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say: The key of livelihood is also in God’s hand, as it is written: “You open Your hand and satisfy every living thing with favor” (Psalms 145:16). The Gemara asks: And what is the reason that Rabbi Yoḥanan did not consider this key of livelihood in his list? The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yoḥanan could have said to you: Rain is the same as livelihood in this regard, as rain is indispensable to all livelihoods.

ר' אליעזר אומר מיום טוב הראשון של חג כו': איבעיא להו ר' אליעזר מהיכא גמיר לה מלולב גמר לה או מניסוך המים גמר לה

§ The mishna taught that Rabbi Eliezer says: One mentions rain from the first Festival day of the festival of Sukkot etc. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: From where did Rabbi Eliezer derive this halakha? He must have learned it from one of the two mitzvot of Sukkot that are linked to rain. Did he derive it from the mitzva to wave the lulav, or did he derive it from the obligation of the water libation?

מלולב גמר לה מה לולב ביום אף הזכרה ביום או דלמא מניסוך המים גמר לה מה ניסוך המים מאורתא דאמר מר (במדבר כט, יח) ומנחתם ונסכיהם אפילו בלילה אף הזכרה מאורתא

The Gemara clarifies the significance of this dilemma: Did he derive this halakha from the lulav, in which case one would say: Just as the mitzva to take the lulav applies during the day and not at night, so too, the mention of rain begins during the day of the first Festival day of Sukkot. Or perhaps he derives this halakha from the water libation, in which case one would say: Just as the water libation can be prepared from the first night of Sukkot, as the Master said, with regard to the verse: “And their meal-offerings and their libations” (Numbers 29:18), and certain meal-offerings and libations may be brought even at night, so too, the mention of rain begins from the evening.

תא שמע דאמר רבי אבהו לא למדה ר' אליעזר אלא מלולב איכא דאמרי ר' אבהו גמרא גמיר לה ואיכא דאמרי מתניתא שמיע ליה

The Gemara seeks to resolve this dilemma: Come and hear a resolution, as Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Eliezer derived this halakha from nothing other than the case of lulav. Some say that Rabbi Abbahu learned this claim by way of a tradition, which was the source of Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion; and some say that he learned it from a baraita.

מאי היא דתניא מאימתי מזכירין על הגשמים רבי אליעזר אומר משעת נטילת לולב ר' יהושע אומר משעת הנחתו

The Gemara asks: What is the baraita from which Rabbi Abbahu may have derived his statement? The Gemara answers: As it is taught in a baraita: From when does one begin to mention the rains in his prayers? Rabbi Eliezer says: From the time that one takes the lulav, i.e., the first day of Sukkot. Rabbi Yehoshua says: From the time that one puts the lulav down, i.e., at the conclusion of Sukkot.

א"ר אליעזר הואיל וארבעת מינין הללו אינן באין אלא לרצות על המים וכשם שארבע מינין הללו אי אפשר בהם בלא מים כך אי אפשר לעולם בלא מים

§ The baraita cites a discussion of these opinions. Rabbi Eliezer said: It is since these four species, the lulav and the other species taken with it, come only to offer appeasement for water, as they symbolize the rainfall of the coming year. And this symbolism is as follows: Just as these four species cannot exist without water, as they need water to grow, so too, the world cannot exist without water. Therefore, it is proper to mention rain in one’s prayers when taking the four species.

אמר לו ר' יהושע והלא גשמים בחג אינו אלא סימן קללה אמר לו ר' אליעזר אף אני לא אמרתי לשאול אלא להזכיר וכשם שתחיית המתים מזכיר כל השנה כולה ואינה אלא בזמנה כך מזכירים גבורות גשמים כל השנה ואינן אלא בזמנן לפיכך אם בא להזכיר כל השנה כולה מזכיר רבי אומר אומר אני משעה שמפסיק לשאלה כך מפסיק להזכרה

Rabbi Yehoshua said to him in response: But rain during the festival of Sukkot is nothing other than a sign of a curse. Rabbi Eliezer said to Rabbi Yehoshua: I too did not say that it is proper to ask for rain at this time, but only to mention it. And just as with regard to the resurrection of the dead, one mentions it the entire year and yet it will come only at its proper time, when God wills the resurrection, so too, one mentions the might of the rains all the year, and they fall only in their season. Therefore, if one seeks to mention rain throughout the year, he may mention it. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: I say that when one ceases to request rain, one also ceases to mention it.

ר' יהודה בן בתירה אומר בשני בחג הוא מזכיר ר' עקיבא אומר בששי בחג הוא מזכיר ר' יהודה משום ר' יהושע אומר העובר לפני התיבה ביום טוב האחרון של חג האחרון מזכיר הראשון אינו מזכיר ביום טוב ראשון של פסח הראשון מזכיר האחרון אינו מזכיר

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: On the second day of the festival of Sukkot one mentions rain, rather than on the first day. Rabbi Akiva says: On the sixth day one mentions rain. Rabbi Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua: With regard to the one who passes before the ark as prayer leader on the concluding Festival day of the festival of Sukkot, the Eighth Day of Assembly, the last prayer leader of the additional prayer mentions rain, whereas the first prayer leader for the morning prayer does not mention rain. Conversely, on the first Festival day of Passover, the first prayer leader mentions rain, while the last prayer leader does not mention rain.

שפיר קאמר ליה ר"א לרבי יהושע אמר לך רבי יהושע בשלמא תחיית המתים מזכיר דכולי יומא זמניה הוא

The Gemara asks: Rabbi Eliezer is speaking well to Rabbi Yehoshua. How does Rabbi Yehoshua respond to Rabbi Eliezer’s powerful argument that one can mention God’s praises at any time of the year? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehoshua could have said to you: Granted, with regard to the resurrection of the dead, one mentions this daily, as although it is not fulfilled every day, any day is fit to be its proper time.

אלא גשמים כל אימת דאתיין זמנייהו היא והתנן יצא ניסן וירדו גשמים סימן קללה הם שנאמר (שמואל א יב, יז) הלא קציר חטים היום וגו'

However, in the case of rain, are all times when it falls its proper time? But didn’t we learn in a mishna (12b): If the month of Nisan has ended and rains subsequently fall, they are a sign of a curse, as it is stated: “Is not the wheat harvest today? I will call to the Lord that He may send thunder and rain, and you will know and see that your wickedness is great, which you have done in the sight of the Lord, in asking you a king” (I Samuel 12:17).

ר' יהודה בן בתירה אומר בשני בחג הוא מזכיר מ"ט דרבי יהודה בן בתירה דתניא רבי יהודה בן בתירה אומר

§ The baraita states that Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: On the second day of the festival of Sukkot, one begins to mention rain. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this ruling of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira? The Gemara answers: As it is taught, in a baraita that deals with the source for the water libation on Sukkot, that Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: The Torah alludes to the water libation in its description of the libations of the additional offerings of Sukkot. The Torah uses a slightly different term for the libations of certain days. On most days, it states that the sin-offering must be brought with “its libation [veniskah]” (e.g., Numbers 29:16), in the singular form.

נאמר בשני (במדבר כט, ו) ונסכיהם ונאמר בששי ונסכיה ונאמר בשביעי כמשפטם

By contrast, it is stated on the second day that one must offer “their libations [veniskeihem]” (Numbers 29:19). The plural form indicates the presence of multiple offerings. And furthermore, it is stated concerning the sin-offering libations on the sixth day: “And its libations [unsakheha]” (Numbers 29:31), which is again a plural form that is referring to many libations. And finally, it is stated, with regard to the libations of the additional offering on the seventh day, that they must apportion the respective animals, i.e., oxen, rams, and sheep: “According to their laws [kemishpatam]” (Numbers 29:33), using another plural form which differs from the phrase used on the other Festival days: “According to the law [kamishpat]” (e.g., Numbers 29:19), in the singular.

הרי מ"ם יו"ד מ"ם הרי כאן מים מכאן רמז לניסוך המים מן התורה

These variations yield the three superfluous letters mem, yod, and mem, from veniskeiheM, unsakhEha, and kemishpataM, which together spell the Hebrew word for water [MaYiM]. The letter yod is represented in unsakhEha with the letter E and in MaYiM with the letter Y. From here one learns an allusion to the mitzva of the water libation in the Torah.

ומאי שנא בשני דנקט דכי רמיזי להו בקרא בשני הוא דרמיזי הלכך בשני מדכרינן

The Gemara asks: And what is different about the second day that Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira took it as the day on which one begins to mention rain? The Gemara answers: The reason is that when the verse first alludes to the water libation, it is on the second day of Sukkot that it alludes to it (Numbers 29:19). Therefore, on the second day one begins to mention rain.

רבי עקיבא אומר בששי בחג הוא מזכיר שנאמר בששי ונסכיה בשני ניסוכין הכתוב מדבר אחד ניסוך המים ואחד ניסוך היין

The baraita stated that Rabbi Akiva says: On the sixth day one begins to mention rain. The Gemara explains that this ruling is based on the allusion to the water libation in the offering of this day. As it is stated on the sixth day: “And its libations [unsakheha]” (Numbers 29:31). The allusion is written in the plural, which indicates that the verse is speaking of two libations: One is the water libation and the other one is the standard wine libation.

ואימא תרוייהו דחמרא סבר לה כר' יהודה בן בתירה דאמר רמיזי מיא

The Gemara raises an objection: Even if it is accepted that the verse is referring to two libations, one can say that both libations are of wine. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, who said that the superfluous letters of these verses allude to water [mayim]. This proves that the additional libation of the sixth day must be a water libation.