Taanit 29bתענית כ״ט ב
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29bכ״ט ב

אמר רב פפא הלכך בר ישראל דאית ליה דינא בהדי נכרי לישתמיט מיניה באב דריע מזליה ולימצי נפשיה באדר דבריא מזליה

Rav Pappa said: Therefore, in the case of a Jew who has litigation with a gentile, let him avoid him in the month of Av, when the Jews’ fortune is bad, and he should make himself available in Adar, when his fortune is good.

(ירמיהו כט, יא) לתת לכם אחרית ותקוה אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב אלו דקלים וכלי פשתן (בראשית כז, כז) ויאמר ראה ריח בני כריח שדה אשר ברכו ה' אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב כריח שדה של תפוחים:

The Gemara mentions a couple of other statements in the name of the same Sages mentioned above. First, it cites a verse that is referring to the Babylonian exile. “To give to you a future and a hope” (Jeremiah 29:11). Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: These are palm trees and garments of linen, which are long-lasting and bring benefit as long as they exist. With regard to Isaac’s comment about Jacob: “And he said: See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the Lord has blessed” (Genesis 27:27), Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: This smell was like that of a field of apple trees.

שבת שחל תשעה באב להיות בתוכה אסורין לספר ולכבס: אמר רב נחמן לא שנו אלא לכבס וללבוש אבל לכבס ולהניח מותר ורב ששת אמר אפילו לכבס ולהניח אסור אמר רב ששת תדע דבטלי קצרי דבי רב

§ The mishna taught: During the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs, it is prohibited to cut one’s hair and to launder clothes. Rav Naḥman said: They taught that it is prohibited only to launder and to wear clean clothes before the Ninth of Av; however, if one wishes to launder garments and to set them aside, this is permitted. And Rav Sheshet said: Even to launder them and to set them aside is prohibited. Rav Sheshet said: Know that I am correct, as the launderers of Rav’s household were idle during this week, which shows that laundering in and of itself is prohibited.

מתיב רב המנונא בחמישי מותרים מפני כבוד השבת למאי אילימא לכבס וללבוש מאי כבוד שבת איכא

Rav Hamnuna raised an objection against Rav Naḥman’s ruling from the mishna: On Thursday, these actions are permitted in deference to Shabbat. The Gemara clarifies: To which actions is this referring? If we say that it is permitted to launder and to wear clothing immediately, what deference to Shabbat is there in wearing a garment on Thursday?

אלא להניח ובחמישי הוא דשרי אבל השבת כולה אסור לעולם לכבס וללבוש וכשאין לו אלא חלוק אחד דאמר רב אסי א"ר יוחנן מי שאין לו אלא חלוק אחד מותר לכבסו בחולו של מועד איתמר נמי אמר רבי בנימין אמר ר' אלעזר לא שנו אלא לכבס וללבוש אבל להניח מותר

Rather, it must mean that one can wash and set aside the garment until Shabbat, and this washing is permitted only on Thursday; however, during the rest of the entire week it is prohibited. The Gemara rejects this contention: Actually, the mishna permits one to launder and wear a garment immediately on Thursday, and this ruling is referring to one who has only one shirt [ḥaluk]. This laundering is also considered in deference to Shabbat because if one does not wash his shirt now, on Thursday, he will not have the opportunity to do so later, as the mishna is referring to a case when the Ninth of Av occurs on a Friday. As Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who has only one shirt is permitted to launder it on the intermediate days of a Festival, when it is normally prohibited to do so. It was also stated that Rabbi Binyamin said that Rabbi Elazar said: They taught that it is prohibited only to launder and to wear immediately; however, if one launders to set it aside, this is permitted.

מיתיבי אסור לכבס לפני תשעה באב אפילו להניח לאחר תשעה באב וגיהוץ שלנו ככיבוס שלהן וכלי פשתן אין בהם משום גיהוץ תיובתא

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: It is prohibited to launder before the Ninth of Av, even if one intends to set aside the clothes until after the Ninth of Av. And our fine laundering [gihutz] in Babylonia is like their plain laundering in Eretz Yisrael. But our plain washing in Babylonia is not considered laundering at all, and it is permitted. And with regard to linen garments, the process of fine laundry does not apply to them, as this category applies only to woolen garments. In any case, this baraita indicates that laundering clothes and setting them aside is prohibited, which means it is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Naḥman.

שלח רב יצחק בר גיורי משמיה דרבי יוחנן אע"פ שאמרו כלי פשתן אין בהן משום גיהוץ אבל אסור ללובשן בשבת שחל תשעה באב להיות בתוכה

Rav Yitzḥak bar Giyorei sent in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan: Although the Sages said that with regard to linen garments, the process of fine laundry does not apply to them; still, it is prohibited to wear them during the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs.

אמר רב לא שנו אלא לפניו אבל לאחריו מותר ושמואל אמר אפילו לאחריו נמי אסור מיתיבי שבת שחל תשעה באב להיות בתוכה אסור לספר ולכבס ובחמישי מותרין מפני כבוד השבת כיצד חל להיות באחד בשבת מותר לכבס כל השבת כולה

With regard to these restrictions and prohibitions, which apply during the week of the Ninth of Av, Rav said: They taught that these prohibitions apply only before the Ninth of Av, but after the fast laundering is permitted. And Shmuel said: Even after the Ninth of Av, laundering is also prohibited until the end of the week. The Gemara raises an objection: During the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs, it is prohibited to cut one’s hair and to launder clothes, but on Thursday these actions are permitted in deference to Shabbat. How so? If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Sunday, it is permitted to launder the entire preceding week.

בשני בשלישי ברביעי ובחמישי לפניו אסור לאחריו מותר חל להיות בערב שבת מותר לכבס בחמישי מפני כבוד השבת ואם לא כבס בחמישי בשבת מותר לכבס בערב שבת מן המנחה ולמעלה לייט עלה אביי ואיתימא רב אחא בר יעקב אהא

If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday, on the days before the Ninth of Av, laundering is prohibited, but after the fast it is permitted. If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Friday, it is permitted to launder on Thursday in deference to Shabbat. And if, for whatever reason, one did not launder on the Thursday of that week, he is permitted to launder on Friday from minḥa time onward, despite the fact that it is the Ninth of Av. Abaye, and some say Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, cursed those who do this.

חל להיות בשני ובחמישי קורין שלשה ומפטיר אחד בשלישי וברביעי קורא אחד ומפטיר אחד רבי יוסי אומר לעולם קורין שלשה ומפטיר אחד תיובתא דשמואל

The Gemara resumes its citation of the baraita: If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Monday or on a Thursday, three people are called to read from the Torah, as on a regular week, and one of them recites the portion from the Prophets. If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Tuesday or on a Wednesday, one individual reads the Torah and the same one recites the portion from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: Actually, three people are called to read, no matter what day of the week it is, and one of them recites the portion from the Prophets for the Ninth of Av. In any case, the baraita apparently presents a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Shmuel, as it clearly states that one is permitted to launder during the weekdays following the Ninth of Av.

אמר לך שמואל תנאי היא דתניא תשעה באב שחל להיות בשבת וכן ערב תשעה באב שחל להיות בשבת אוכל ושותה כל צרכו ומעלה על שולחנו אפילו כסעודת שלמה בשעתו ואסור לספר ולכבס מר"ח ועד התענית דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר כל החדש כולו אסור רשב"ג אומר אינו אסור אלא אותה שבת בלבד

Shmuel could have said to you: This is a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of the Ninth of Av that occurs on Shabbat, and so too, on the eve of the Ninth of Av that occurs on Shabbat, one need not reduce the amount of food he eats; rather, he may eat and drink as much as he requires and put on his table a meal even like that of King Solomon in his time. And it is prohibited to cut one’s hair and to launder from the New Moon until after the fast. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: These activities are prohibited throughout the entire month. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: They are prohibited only during that week of the Ninth of Av.

ותניא אידך ונוהג אבל מראש חדש ועד התענית דברי ר' מאיר רבי יהודה אומר כל החדש כולו אסור רשב"ג אומר אינו אסור אלא אותה שבת בלבד

And it is taught in another baraita: And one must observe the rites of mourning from the New Moon until after the fast; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: These activities are prohibited throughout the entire month. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: They are prohibited only during that week. These baraitot show that there are at least two tanna’im, Rabbi Yehuda and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who prohibit certain activities even after the fast, like Shmuel.

אמר ר' יוחנן ושלשתן מקרא אחד דרשו דכתיב (הושע ב, יג) והשבתי כל משושה חגה חדשה ושבתה מאן דאמר מר"ח ועד התענית

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: And all three of these tanna’im derived their opinions from one verse, from which they drew different conclusions, as it is written: “And I will cause all her mirth to cease, her Festival, her New Moon, and her Shabbat” (Hosea 2:13). The one who said that these activities are prohibited from the New Moon until after the fast, Rabbi Meir,