לְצַפְרָא, כַּרְכִינְהוּ וְשַׁקְלִינְהוּ וְקָמוּ וּנְפַקוּ לְהוּ לְשׁוּקָא וְאַשְׁכְּחִינְהוּ. אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ: לְשַׁיְּימֵיהּ מָר הֵיכִי שָׁווּ. אֲמַר לְהוּ: הָכִי וְהָכִי. אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ: וְדִלְמָא שָׁווּ טְפֵי? אֲמַר לְהוּ: בְּהָכִי (שַׁקְלִינְהוּ) [שְׁקַלִי לְהוּ]. אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ: דִּידָךְ נִיהוּ וְשַׁקְלִינְהוּ מִינָּךְ. In the morning, the Sages rolled up these rugs and took them, and they arose and went out to the market with them. And when Abba found them, the Sages said to him: Let the Master appraise these rugs, how much they are worth. He said to them: Their value is such and such. They said to him: But perhaps they are worth more. He said to them: This is what I paid for them. They said to him: The rugs are yours and we took them from you.
אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ: בְּמָטוּתָא מִינָּךְ בְּמַאי חֲשַׁדְתִּינַּן? אֲמַר לְהוּ: אָמֵינָא, פִּדְיוֹן שְׁבוּיִים אִיקְּלַע לְהוּ לְרַבָּנַן, וְאִכְּסִיפוּ לְמֵימַר לִי. אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ: הַשְׁתָּא נִשְׁקְלִינְהוּ מָר! אֲמַר לְהוּ: מֵהָהוּא שַׁעְתָּא אַסַּחְתִּינְהוּ מִדַּעְתַּאי לִצְדָקָה. After explaining the reason for their actions, the Sages said to him: Please tell us, what did you suspect of us? You knew that we had taken your rugs, and yet you did not say anything. He said to them: I said to myself, certainly an unexpected opportunity for a ransom of prisoners became available for the Sages, and they required immediate funds, but they were too embarrassed to say so to me or to ask for money. Instead, they took the rugs. The Sages said to him: Now that we have explained the situation, let the Master take back the rugs. He said to them: From that moment when I realized they were missing, I put them out of my mind and consigned them for charity. As far as I am concerned, they are already designated for that purpose, and I cannot take them back.
הֲוָה קָא חָלְשָׁא דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרָבָא מִשּׁוּם דְּאַבָּיֵי, אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ: מִסָּתְיָיךְ דְּקָא מַגְּנַיתְּ אַכּוּלֵּהּ כַּרְכָא. Rava was distressed due to the fact that Abaye received greetings from Heaven every Shabbat eve, while Rava received such greetings only once a year, on Yom Kippur eve, as stated above. They said to him: Be content that through your merit you protect your entire city.
רַבִּי בְּרוֹקָא חוֹזָאָה הֲוָה שְׁכִיחַ בְּשׁוּקָא דְּבֵי לָפָט. הֲוָה שְׁכִיחַ אֵלִיָּהוּ גַּבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אִיכָּא בְּהַאי שׁוּקָא בַּר עָלְמָא דְּאָתֵי? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: לָא. אַדְּהָכִי וְהָכִי חֲזָא לְהָהוּא גַּבְרָא דַּהֲוָה סָיֵים מְסָאנֵי אוּכָּמֵי וְלָא רְמֵי חוּטָא דִתְכֵלְתָּא בִּגְלִימֵיהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: הַאי בַּר עָלְמָא דְּאָתֵי הוּא. § The Gemara relates another story about the righteousness of common people. Rabbi Beroka Ḥoza’a was often found in the market of Bei Lefet, and Elijah the Prophet would often appear to him. Once Rabbi Beroka said to Elijah: Of all the people who come here, is there anyone in this market worthy of the World-to-Come? He said to him: No. In the meantime, Rabbi Beroka saw a man who was wearing black shoes, contrary to Jewish custom, and who did not place the sky-blue, dyed thread of ritual fringes on his garment. Elijah said to Rabbi Beroka: That man is worthy of the World-to-Come.
רְהַט בָּתְרֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ: מַאי עוֹבָדָךְ? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: זִיל הָאִידָּנָא, וְתָא לִמְחַר. לִמְחַר אֲמַר לֵיהּ: מַאי עוֹבָדָךְ? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: זַנְדּוּקְנָא אֲנָא, וְאָסַרְנָא גַּבְרֵי לְחוֹד וְנָשֵׁי לְחוֹד, וְרָמֵינָא פּוּרְיַיאי בֵּין הָנֵי לְהָנֵי כִּי הֵיכִי דְּלָא לֵיתוֹ לִידֵי אִיסּוּרָא. כִּי חָזֵינָא בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל דְּיָהֲבִי נׇכְרִים עֲלַהּ עֵינַיְיהוּ, מָסַרְנָא נַפְשַׁאי וּמַצֵּילְנָא לַהּ. יוֹמָא חַד הֲווֹת נַעֲרָה מְאוֹרָסָה גַּבַּן דִּיהַבוּ בָּהּ נׇכְרִים עֵינַיְיהוּ, שְׁקַלִי דּוּרְדְּיָיא דְּחַמְרָא וּשְׁדַאי לַהּ בְּשִׁיפּוּלַהּ, וַאֲמַרִי: דַּשְׁתָּנָא הִיא. Rabbi Beroka ran after the man and said to him: What is your occupation? The man said to him: Go away now, as I have no time, but come back tomorrow and we will talk. The next day, Rabbi Beroka arrived and again said to him: What is your occupation? The man said to him: I am a prison guard [zandukana], and I imprison the men separately and the women separately, and I place my bed between them so that they will not come to transgression. When I see a Jewish woman upon whom gentiles have set their eyes, I risk my life to save her. One day, there was a betrothed young woman among us, upon whom the gentiles had set their eyes. I took dregs [durdayya] of red wine and threw them on the lower part of her dress, and I said: She is menstruating [dastana], so that they would leave her alone.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ: מַאי טַעְמָא לֵית לָךְ חוּטֵי, וּרְמֵית מְסָאנֵי אוּכָּמֵי? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: עָיֵילְנָא וְנָפֵיקְנָא בֵּינֵי נׇכְרִים, כִּי הֵיכִי דְּלָא לִידְּעוּ דִּיהוּדָאָה אֲנָא. כִּי הָווּ גָּזְרִי גְּזֵירְתָּא, מוֹדַעְנָא לְהוּ לְרַבָּנַן וּבָעוּ רַחֲמֵי וּמְבַטְּלִי לִגְזֵירְתַּיְיהוּ. וּמַאי טַעְמָא כִּי אָמֵינָא לָךְ אֲנָא מַאי עוֹבָדָךְ, וַאֲמַרְתְּ לִי: זִיל הָאִידָּנָא וְתָא לִמְחַר? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: בְּהַהִיא שַׁעְתָּא גָּזְרִי גְּזֵירְתָּא, וְאָמֵינָא: בְּרֵישָׁא אֵיזִיל וְאֶשְׁמְעַ[הּ], וְאֶשְׁלַח לְהוּ לְרַבָּנַן דְּלִבְעוֹ רַחֲמֵי עֲלַהּ דְּמִילְּתָא. Rabbi Beroka said to him: What is the reason that you do not have threads of ritual fringes, and why do you wear black shoes? The man said to him: Since I come and go among gentiles, I dress this way so that they will not know that I am a Jew. When they issue a decree, I inform the Sages, and they pray for mercy and annul the decree. Rabbi Beroka further inquired: And what is the reason that when I said to you: What is your occupation, you said to me: Go away now but come tomorrow? The man said to him: At that moment, they had just issued a decree, and I said to myself: First I must go and inform the Sages, so that they will pray for mercy over this matter.
אַדְּהָכִי וְהָכִי אֲתוֹ הָנָךְ תְּרֵי אַחֵי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: הָנָךְ נָמֵי בְּנֵי עָלְמָא דְּאָתֵי נִינְהוּ. אֲזַל לְגַבַּיְיהוּ, אֲמַר לְהוּ: מַאי עוֹבָדַיְיכוּ? אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ: אִינָשֵׁי בָּדוֹחֵי אֲנַן, מְבַדְּחִינַן עֲצִיבֵי. אִי נָמֵי, כִּי חָזֵינַן בֵּי תְרֵי דְּאִית לְהוּ תִּיגְרָא בַּהֲדַיְיהוּ, טָרְחִינַן וְעָבְדִינַן לְהוּ שְׁלָמָא. In the meantime, two brothers came to the marketplace. Elijah said to Rabbi Beroka: These two also have a share in the World-to-Come. Rabbi Beroka went over to the men and said to them: What is your occupation? They said to him: We are jesters, and we cheer up the depressed. Alternatively, when we see two people who have a quarrel between them, we strive to make peace. It is said that for this behavior one enjoys the profits of his actions in this world, and yet his reward is not diminished in the World-to-Come.
עַל אֵלּוּ מַתְרִיעִין בְּכׇל מָקוֹם כּוּ׳. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן, עַל אֵלּוּ מַתְרִיעִין בְּכׇל מָקוֹם: עַל הַשִּׁדָּפוֹן, וְעַל הַיֵּרָקוֹן, וְעַל אַרְבֶּה וְחָסִיל, וְעַל חַיָּה רָעָה. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר: עַל הַשִּׁדָּפוֹן וְעַל הַיֵּרָקוֹן בְּכׇל שֶׁהוּא. אַרְבֶּה וְחָסִיל, אֲפִילּוּ לֹא נִרְאָה בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא כָּנָף אֶחָד — מַתְרִיעִין עֲלֵיהֶן. § The mishna states: For the following calamities they sound the alarm in every place. The Sages taught: For the following calamities they sound the alarm in every place: For blight, for mildew, for locusts, for caterpillars, a type of locust that comes in large swarms and descends upon a certain place, and for dangerous beasts. Rabbi Akiva says: For blight and mildew they sound the alarm over any amount. For locusts, and for caterpillars, even if only a single wing of one of these pests was seen in all of Eretz Yisrael, they sound the alarm over them, as this is a sign that more are on their way.
וְעַל חַיָּה וְכוּ׳. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: חַיָּה רָעָה שֶׁאָמְרוּ, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא מְשׁוּלַּחַת — מַתְרִיעִין עָלֶיהָ, אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת — אֵין מַתְרִיעִין עָלֶיהָ. אֵי זוֹ הִיא מְשׁוּלַּחַת וְאִי זוֹ הִיא שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת? נִרְאֵית בָּעִיר — מְשׁוּלַּחַת, בַּשָּׂדֶה — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת. בַּיּוֹם — מְשׁוּלַּחַת, בַּלַּיְלָה — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת. The mishna taught that they sound the alarm for dangerous beasts that have invaded a town. The Sages taught in a baraita: The term dangerous beasts that they said is referring to a situation when there is an abnormal outbreak of the animals in a populated area (see Leviticus 26:22). In this case, they sound the alarm over them. However, if it is not an outbreak, they do not sound the alarm over them. The Gemara elaborates: What is considered an outbreak and what is not an outbreak? If a dangerous beast is seen in the city, this is an outbreak. If it is seen in the field, where it is usually found, this is not an outbreak. If it is seen during the day, this is an outbreak. If it is seen at night, this is not an outbreak.
רָאֲתָה שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם וְרָצְתָה אַחֲרֵיהֶן — מְשׁוּלַּחַת. נֶחְבֵּאת מִפְּנֵיהֶן — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת. טָרְפָה שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם וְאָכְלָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן — מְשׁוּלַּחַת. אָכְלָה שְׁנֵיהֶן — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת. עָלְתָה לַגַּג וְנָטְלָה תִּינוֹק מֵעֲרִיסָה — מְשׁוּלַּחַת. The baraita continues: If the beast saw two people and chased after them, this is an outbreak. If it hid from them, this is not an outbreak. If it tore apart two people and ate one of them, this is an outbreak, as it is clear that the animal did not attack merely due to hunger. If it ate both of them, this is not an outbreak, as the animal was evidently hungry and acted in accordance with its nature. If it climbed to the roof and took a baby from its cradle, this is an outbreak. This concludes the Gemara’s citation of the baraita.
הָא גּוּפַהּ קַשְׁיָא, אָמְרַתְּ: נִרְאֲתָה בָּעִיר — מְשׁוּלַּחַת; לָא שְׁנָא בַּיּוֹם וְלָא שְׁנָא בַּלַּיְלָה. וַהֲדַר אָמְרַתְּ: בַּיּוֹם — מְשׁוּלַּחַת, בַּלַּיְלָה — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת! The Gemara asks: This baraita is itself difficult. Initially, you said that if a dangerous beast is seen in the city, this is an outbreak, which indicates that it is no different whether it is seen by day and it is no different if it is seen at night. And then you said: If the animal is seen during the day, this is an outbreak; if it is seen at night, this is not an outbreak.
לָא קַשְׁיָא, הָכִי קָאָמַר: נִרְאֲתָה בָּעִיר בַּיּוֹם — מְשׁוּלַּחַת. בָּעִיר בַּלַּיְלָה — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת. אִי נָמֵי בַּשָּׂדֶה, אֲפִילּוּ בַּיּוֹם — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת. (בַּשָּׂדֶה, בַּלַּיְלָה — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת). The Gemara resolves this difficulty: This is not difficult, as this is what the baraita is saying: If it is seen in the city during the day, this is an outbreak; if it is seen in the city at night, this is not an outbreak. Alternatively, if it is seen in the field, even during the day, this is not an outbreak. If it is spotted in the field at night, this is certainly not an outbreak.
רָאֲתָה שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם וְרָצְתָה אַחֲרֵיהֶן — מְשׁוּלַּחַת, הָא עוֹמֶדֶת — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת. וַהֲדַר אָמְרַתְּ: נֶחְבֵּאת מִפְּנֵיהֶן — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת, הָא עוֹמֶדֶת — מְשׁוּלַּחַת! The Gemara inquires about another apparent contradiction: The baraita states that if the beast saw two people and chased after them, this is an outbreak. This indicates that if it stands but does not run away, this is not an outbreak. And then you said that if it hid from them, this is not an outbreak, from which it may be inferred that if it stands and does not run away, this is an outbreak.
לָא קַשְׁיָא: כָּאן — בְּשָׂדֶה הַסְּמוּכָה לַאֲגַם, כָּאן — בְּשָׂדֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ סְמוּכָה לַאֲגַם. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as the two sections of the baraita describe different situations. Here, where it is an outbreak, the beast is standing in a field near a marsh. It is natural for the animal to stand, for the beast knows that if people attempt to catch it, it can run into the marsh. Conversely, there, where it is not an outbreak, the beast is standing in a field that is not near a marsh. Since it has nowhere to run, standing demonstrates an unnatural lack of fear.
טָרְפָה שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם כְּאֶחָד וְאָכְלָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן — מְשׁוּלַּחַת, שְׁנֵיהֶם — אֵינָהּ מְשׁוּלַּחַת. וְהָא אָמְרַתְּ אֲפִילּוּ רָצְתָה! אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: כִּי תָּנֵי הָהִיא, בְּאַגְמָא. The baraita taught that if the beast tore apart two people and ate one of them, this is an outbreak, but if it ate both of them this is not an outbreak. The Gemara asks: But didn’t you say that even if the animal merely chased after two people, this is an outbreak? Rav Pappa said: When that ruling of a beast that tore apart two people is taught, it is referring to an animal in a marsh. Since it is in its own habitat, it is natural for a territorial beast to attack.
גּוּפָא: עָלְתָה לַגַּג וְנָטְלָה תִּינוֹק מֵעֲרִיסָה — מְשׁוּלַּחַת. פְּשִׁיטָא! אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: כְּכוּכֵי דְצַיָּידֵי. The Gemara returns to the matter of the baraita itself. If a wild animal climbed to the roof and took a baby from its cradle, this is an outbreak. The Gemara asks: It is obvious that this animal is acting unnaturally. Why does the baraita mention this case? Rav Pappa said: The baraita is referring to the roof of a hunter’s hideout. Since this hut is in a wild area, one might have thought that it is natural for the beast to attack. Therefore, the baraita teaches us that this is still considered an outbreak.
עַל הַחֶרֶב וְכוּ׳. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: חֶרֶב שֶׁאָמְרוּ, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר חֶרֶב שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁל שָׁלוֹם, אֶלָּא אֲפִילּוּ חֶרֶב שֶׁל שָׁלוֹם. שֶׁאֵין לְךָ חֶרֶב שֶׁל שָׁלוֹם יוֹתֵר מִפַּרְעֹה נְכֹה, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן נִכְשַׁל בָּהּ הַמֶּלֶךְ יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: § The mishna taught that they sound the alarm for the sword. The Sages taught: With regard to the sword that they mentioned, it is not necessary to state that this includes a sword that is not of peace, i.e., an enemy army that has come to wage war against the Jews. Rather, even in a case of a sword of peace, when an army passes through with no intention of waging war against the Jews, but is merely on its way to another place, this is enough to obligate the court to sound the alarm, as you do not have a greater example of a sword of peace than Pharaoh Neco. He passed through Eretz Yisrael to wage war with Nebuchadnezzar, and nevertheless King Josiah stumbled in this matter, as it is stated: