Behar, Chapter 7 בהר, פרק ז
1 א

[א] מנין שאין אדם רשאי למכור עצמו ולהניח באפונדתו; וליקח לו בהמה; וליקח לו כלים; וליקח לו בית אלא אם כן העני? תלמוד לומר "וכי ימוך..ונמכר"-- אינו נמכר אלא אם כן העני. ומנין כשהוא נמכר אינו נמכר אלא לך? תלמוד לומר "ונמכר לך". ומנין כשיהיו בית דין מוכרים אותו, לא יהיו מוכרים אותו אלא לך? תלמוד לומר (דברים טו, יב) "כי ימכר לך". "אחיך"-- שתנהוג בו באחוה. יכול אף הוא ינהוג בעצמו באחוה? תלמוד לומר (שמות כא, ב) "עבד". יכול אף אתה תתנהג בו כעבד? תלמוד לומר "אחיך". הא כיצד? --אתה נוהג בו באחוה והוא נוהג בעצמו בעבדות.

1) (Vayikra 25:39) ("And if your brother grows poor with you, and he is sold to you, do not work with him the work of a servant.") Whence is it derived that one is not permitted to sell himself and place (the proceeds) in his money-bag to buy animals, vessels, or a house unless he became impoverished? From "And if your brother grows poor and he is sold" — He may not sell himself unless he becomes poor. And whence is it derived that when he is sold, he shall be sold only to you (and not to a gentile)? From "and he is sold to you." And whence is it derived that if beth-din sell him they sell him only to you? From (Devarim 15:12) "If there be sold to you." "your brother": You shall treat him as a brother. I might think that he should conduct himself as a brother; it is, therefore, written "a servant." I might think that you shall also conduct yourself to him as a servant; it is, therefore, written "your brother." How so? You conduct yourself to him with brotherhood (i.e., you call him "brother"); he conducts himself to you with servitude (he calls you "master").

2 ב

[ב] "לא תעבוד בו עבודת עבד"-- שלא יטול אחריך בלונטיא, ולא יטול לפניך כלים במרחץ. דבר אחר: "לא תעבוד בו עבודת עבד"-- בו אין אתה עובד עבודת עבד, אבל עובד אתה בבן חורין עבודת עבד.

2) "do not work with him the work of a servant": He shall not carry you in a sedan-chair, and he shall not carry your things after you to the bath-house. Variantly: "do not work with him the work of a servant": "with him" do not work the work of a servant, but with a free man you may work the work of a servant, (for he does so of his free will).

3 ג

[ג] "כשכיר"-- מה שכיר (דברים כד, טו) "ביומו תתן שכרו", אף זה "ביומו תתן שכרו". "כתושב"-- מה תושב (דברים כג, יז) "בטוב לו לא תוננו", אף זה "בטוב לו לא תוננו". "יהיה עמך"-- עמך במאכל, עמך במשתה, עמך בכסות נקיה. שלא תהא אוכל פת נקיה והוא אוכל פת קיבר; אתה שותה יין ישן והוא שותה יין חדש; אתה ישן על מוכין והוא ישן על התבן. "יעבד עמך"-- שלא תמסר לו אומנתו לאחר. שאם היה בלן לרבים, ספר לרבים, נחתום לרבים-- לא יעשה. ר' יוסי אומר, אם היה אומנתו לפנים מכאן-- יעשה; אבל רבו לא ילמדנו בתחלה. אבל אמרו חכמים: מספר לו את שערו, ומכבס לו את כסותו, ואופה לו את עיסתו. "ויצא מעמך"-- שלא תהיה אתה בכפר והוא בכרך; אתה בכרך והוא בכפר. "הוא ובניו עמו"-- מה רבו חייב במזונותיו, אף רבו חייב במזונות אשתו ובניו. יכול אפילו נשא אשה שלא מדעת רבו? תלמוד לומר (שמות כא, ג) (ויקרא כה, מא) 'הוא ואשתו ובניו'-- מה הוא מדעת רבו, אף 'אשתו ובניו' מדעת רבו.

3) (Vayikra 25:40) ("As a hired man and as a sojourner shall he be with you; until the Yovel year shall he work with you.") "As a hired man": Just as a hired man (Devarim 24:15) "On his day shall you give him his hire," so, this one, "On his day shall you give him his hire." "as a sojourner": Just as a sojourner (Devarim 23:17) "… what is good for him; you shall not oppress him," so, this one "… what is good for him; you shall not oppress him." "shall he be with you": "with you" in eating, "with you" in drinking, "with you" in covering — that you not eat a clean loaf and he eat a coarse loaf; that you (not) drink old wine and he drink new wine; that you (not) sleep on cotton and he sleep on straw. "shall he work with you": that he (the master) should not engage him for his craft to another. So that if he (the servant) were formerly a public bath-house attendant, a barber to the public, or a baker to the public, he should not do this (as a servant). R. Yossi says: If this were his trade (before he became a servant) he should do it; but his master should not bid him to do so ab initio. But the sages said: He cuts his (the master's) hair, and washes his garment, and bakes his dough. (Vayikra 25:41) ("Then he shall go out from you; and his children with him. And he shall return to his family, and to the holding of his fathers shall he return.") "Then he shall go out from you": (From this we may infer) that you (the servant) should not be in the village and he in the city, or you in the city and he in the village. "he and his children with him": (from which we may infer) Just as his master is obligated to feed him, so is he obligated to feed his wife and children. I might think, even if he married a woman without the knowledge of his master; it is, therefore, written "he (and his wife) and his children" — Just as he, with the knowledge of his master, so, his wife and children with the knowledge of his master.

4 ד

[ד] "ושב אל משפחתו ואל אחזת אבותיו ישוב"-- אמר ר' אליעזר בר' יעקב במי הוא מדבר? אם בנרצע-- הרי אמור. אם במוכר עצמו-- הרי אמור. הא אינו מדבר אלא בנמכר שנה או שתים לפני היובל שיהא היובל מוציאו. דבר אחר: "ושב אל משפחתו ואל אחזת אבותיו ישוב"-- למה שהוחזקה מפשחתו הוא שב, דברי ר' מאיר. ר' יהודה אומר, 'לאחוזתו' (ס"א אל אחוזת משפחתו) הוא שב ואינו שב לשררה שהיה בה. וכן הוא אומר בגולה. "ישוב"-- לרבות את הרוצח.

4) "And he shall return to his family, and to the holding of his fathers shall he return." R. Eliezer b. R. Yaakov said: Of whom is Scripture speaking? If of a nirtza (one who elected life-long servitude), this has already been mentioned. If of one who sold himself, this has (also) been mentioned. It must be speaking, then, of one who was sold by beth-din one or two years before the Yovel, as subject to release by the Yovel. Variantly: "And he shall return to his family and to the holding of his fathers shall he return": He returns to the office that he held in his family. These are the words of R. Meir. R. Yehudah says: To his holding and to his family he returns, but he does not return to the office that he held in his family. And the same applies to one who was exiled (to the cities of refuge, viz. Bamidbar 35:28). "shall he return": to include a murderer (in the emancipation of Yovel.)