יִתְגַּדַּל וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא (אָמֵן)
Exalted and sanctified1These opening words refer to the fulfillment of God’s prophecy, through Ezekiel (38:23) “And I will thus exalt Myself and sanctify Myself; and I will be known in the eyes of the many nations, and they will know that I am Adonoy.”—Levush, Siddur HaGra. One should be very careful to emphasize the letter gimel (ג) when saying the word “Yisgadal (יִתְגַּדַּל),” in order that it not be heard as “Yiskadal (יִתְקַּדַל),” from the word קְדָל which means neck.—Mishnah Berurah 56:2 be His great Name
בְּעָלְ֒מָֽא דִּי־בְרָא כִרְעוּתֵהּ וְיַמְלִיךְ מַלְכוּתֵהּ בְּחַיֵּיכוֹן וּבְיוֹמֵיכוֹן וּבְחַיֵּי דְכָל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּעֲגָלָא וּבִזְמַן קָרִיב וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן:
in the world which He created according to His will and may He rule His kingdom.2May His sovereignty be revealed. In your lifetime and in your days, and in the lifetime of the entire House of Israel, speedily and in the near future3We pray that the redemption will come speedily and that the process of the redemption itself will not be prolonged.—Siddur HaGra— and say Amein.
יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא מְבָרַךְ לְעָלַם וּלְעָלְ֒מֵי עָלְ֒מַיָּא
May His great Name be blessed forever and for all eternity.4This phrase, the heart of the Kaddish, is found almost verbatim in Daniel 2:20.
יִתְבָּרַךְ וְיִשְׁתַּבַּח וְיִתְפָּאַר וְיִתְרוֹמַם וְיִתְנַשֵּׂא וְיִתְהַדָּר וְיִתְעַלֶּה וְיִתְהַלָּל שְׁמֵהּ דְקוּדְשָׁא בְּרִיךְ הוּא
Blessed and praised, glorified, and exalted and uplifted, honored and elevated and extolled5The ten expressions of praise in the Kaddish refer to the ten utterances by which God created the world. (See Maseches Avos 5:1.) be the Name of the Holy One, blessed is He;
לְעֵֽלָּא מִן־כָּל־ (בעשי"ת לְעֵֽלָּא לְעֵֽלָּא מִכָּל) בִּרְכָתָֽא וְשִׁירָתָֽא תֻּשְׁבְּ֒חָתָֽא וְנֶחָמָתָֽא דַּאֲמִירָן בְּעָלְ֒מָֽא וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן:
above (Ten Days of Penitence: far above) all the blessings and hymns,6May God be praised and exalted far beyond all the blessings, hymns and praises that are uttered.—Mishnah Berurah in the name of the Vilna Gaon 56:14. praises and consolations7Consolations are uttered because God is in mourning over the destruction of the Holy Temple and the exile of His people. which we utter in the world—and say Amein.
יְהֵא שְׁלָמָֽא רַבָּֽא מִן־שְׁמַיָּֽא וְחַיִּים עָלֵֽינוּ וְעַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן:
May there be abundant peace from heaven and a good life for us and for all Israel, —and say Amein.
עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם (בעשי"ת הַשָּׁלוֹם) בִּמְרוֹמָיו הוּא יַעֲשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם עָלֵֽינוּ וְעַל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן:
He Who makes peace (Ten Days of Penitence: the peace) in His high heavens may He, in His mercy, make peace for us and for all Israel, —and say Amein.