דיני גלוח וסריקה באבל. ובו ז' סעיפים:
אבל אסור לגלח שערו אחד שער ראשו ואחד שער זקנו ואחד כל שער שבו ואפי' של בית הסתרים כל ל' יום ושער של השפה ומהצדדים כל שמעכב את האכילה תוך ז' אסור אחר שבעה מותר: A mourner is forbidden to cut his hair,1M.K. 14a, b, derived from the Biblical injunction, ‘Let not the hair of your heads go loose’ (Lev. X, 6), whence we infer that for everyone else cutting the hair is forbidden. Cf. Ez. XLIV, 20. If a mourner is invited to be the Sandek at a circumcision, or if he is the Mohel, he is forbidden to cut his hair and this does not come within the ruling mentioned infra § 391, 2 Gloss on the authority of MaHaRIL — P.Tesh. both the hair of his head as well as the hair of his beard, or any hair that he has [on his body], even that of the secret parts, — for the entire thirty days.2Sem(H). VII, 1 also ibid. p. 230. Cf. Asheri to M.K. 23a; Yeb. 43a, Tosaf. s.v. במקום. [As to] the hair of the upper lip and that which [droops] on the sides,3M.K. 18a in accord with Samuel. — [the law is that] whatsoever causes a hindrance in partaking of food,4Ibid. in accord with R. Ammi. is forbidden [to be trimmed] during the seven [days of mourning] and permitted after the seven [days of mourning].5Tur on the authority of Ghayyat and Hal. Ged. M.K. ibid., Tosaf. s.v. ובגנוסטרי. In B.Yos. Caro states that this was permitted only on Ḥol ha-Moed in accord with Yad, Ebel V, 2 and RaBaD, but not with respect to mourning. Kes. Mish. ibid. Sem(H) ibid. is adduced that trimming the upper lip and the drooping sides was permitted only with respect to Ḥol ha-Moed, but not regarding mourning. N in T.H. cites Y.M.K. III, 1(82a) according to which even during the seven days of mourning this would be permitted. Caro (in B.Yos.) also quotes Y. ibid., but makes a compromise and rules in accord with Ghayyat. W.G. states that the ruling of N in T.H. is fundamental.
ישב לגלח ואמרו לו מת אביו הרי זה משלי' ראשו אחד המגלח ואחד המתגלח ומה שהספר גומר היינו בדליכא ספר אחר במתא: [If a man] sat down to have his hair cut, and he was told that his father6Or any other near-of-kin for whom he must observe mourning rites. died, he may complete [cutting the hair of] his head, both if the hair-cutter as well as the one who was having his hair cut [suffered the bereavement];7On the principle that human dignity (in proper appearance) is very important (Men. 37b) — TaZ. Sem(H). V, 8; Y.Shab. I, 2(3a); M.K. 23b, Tosaf. s.v. ואינו; Asheri to M.K. Since this law is also found in Y.Shab. ibid. it seems that in the present ruling too, the same standard of time applies as in the case of hair-cutting on the eve of the Sabbath, viz., that hair-cutting commences from the time he places the hair-cutter’s wrap upon his knees (Shab. 9b) — R.A.Eger. and the fact that the hair-cutter may complete [the hair-cut, even after he was informed that he suffered a bereavement] applies [only in the case] where no other hair-cutter is available in the town.8Mord. to M.K.
כל אותם שאמרו מותר לגלח בחול המועד אם אירעו אחד מאלו קודם האבילות ונכנס מיד תוך האבל אסור לגלח אבל אם אירעו אחד מאלו ותכפוהו מיד שני אבילות זה אחר זה מגלח כדרכו בין בתער בין במספרים ואפילו תוך שבעה ואדם אחד שתכפוהו אביליו זה אחר זה מיקל שערו בתער אבל לא במספרים (ובלבד שיעשנו בצינעא) (ב"י בשם הרמב"ן): All those concerning whom they [the Sages] said that it is permissible [for them] to cut their hair during Hol ha-Moed,9 Glos. The following are permitted to cut their hair during Ḥol ha-Moed: One arriving from beyond the sea, or one coming out of captivity or prison, or one under a ban and was released by the Sages, or one who applied to a Sage and was released from a vow not to cut his hair, and a Nazirite or a leper who has come forth from uncleanness to cleanness (Mishna, M.K. 13b). supra § 389, 1., — if any of these things happened to one prior to the [period of his] mourning, and [subsequently] he entered forthwith into the [period of his] mourning, — [the law is that] he is forbidden to cut his hair; but if one of these things happened to him [the mourner], and [following which], he suffered one bereavement immediately after another,10M.K. 17b in accord with R. Ḥisda. — [the law is that] he cuts his hair in his usual manner, both with a razor or a scissors, even during the seven [days of mourning].11T.H., for the Gemara ibid. mentions in the same Baraitha where the present law is taught, ‘and he washes his garment with water,’ and since the latter may be done even during the seven days of mourning (v. supra § 389, 1), so also here with respect to cutting the hair. However, another person who suffered one bereavement after another,12e., one to whom the aforementioned things did not happen (v. n. 9 supra). The second bereavement was sustained at the conclusion of the thirty days of mourning after the first bereavement. may make his hair lighter with a razor but not with a scissors,13He makes a change in the manner of cutting his hair. Hence, he uses a razor, for ordinarily one uses a scissors. provided he does it in privacy.14B.Yos. on the authority of N — G. Cf. O.Ḥ. § 531.
על כל המתים מגלח לאחר שלשים יום על אביו ועל אמו עד שיגערו בו חביריו: הגה ואין הרגל מהני אם פגע קודם שיגערו בו חביריו (טור) ועיין בא"ח סימן תקמ"ח ושיעור גערה יש בו פלוגתא ונוהגים בג' חדשים (כדעת מהרא"י בפסקיו ואגודה ומהרי"ל והר"ן) ובמקומות אלו נוהגין שאין מסתפרין על אב ואם כל י"ב חדש (מהרי"ל מנהג קצת מקומות) אם לא לצורך כגון שהכביד עליו שערו או שהולך בין העובדי כוכבים ומתנוול ביניהם בשערותיו דמותר לספר (כן השיב הא"ז): For all dead he cuts his hair after thirty days; for his father or mother [he lets his hair grow]15Thus Sem. and other texts. until his friends rebuke him.16M.K. 22b; Sem(H). IX, 11; Y.M.K. III, 5(83d). It does not mean that it is obligatory for his friends to rebuke him. As long as the time limit for rebuke has passed, he may then cut his hair — Birke Yos. on the authority of R. Isaiah. Gloss: An [intervening] Festival has no legal effect, [viz., to suspend the aforementioned law], if it [the Festival] occurs prior [to the time] that his friends rebuke him.17Tur and v. O.Ḥ. § 548, 9 — G. Cf. also supra § 389, 5; infra § 399, As to the time limit [after which] a rebuke [should take place], there is a difference of opinion [among the authorities], and the common practice is [to wait] three months.18In accord with the opinion of Isserlein in his Decisions; Agudah; MaHaRIL and RaN — G. And in these localities it is the adopted practice not to cut one's hair [when in mourning] for a father or mother, during the entire twelve months [of mourning],19MaHaRIL in accord with the custom of some localities — G. unless the need [is great], e.g., if his hair is too heavy upon him or he goes among gentiles and appears repulsive to them with his hair, in which case he is permitted to cut his hair.20Thus. Resp. Or Zaru‘a — G. Some say that the present ruling has reference both to the hair of the head and the beard. however, Resp. MaHaRaM ShiK (Y.D. § 371) who writes that after two or three weeks shaving the face (of course, in accordance with Jewish Law) is permissible, since the small hairs are very annoying and make one appear repulsive. This is in accord with Nod‘a Bihudah (O.Ḥ. § I, s. 14) and Resp. of Ḥatam Sofer (Y.D. s. 348) that all codifiers who speak of the time limit of a rebuke refer only to cutting the hair of the head but not to the beard. Cf. also Ḥatam Sofer (O.Ḥ s. 158) who reports that his teachers once permitted an individual, even during the seven days of mourning for his father, to cut his hair, wash and put on pressed garments in order to see the Duke or King with whom he had an appointment, the postponement of which would have entailed great monetary losses to the individual. Sh.M.B. IV, p. 307 and Kol Bo(G) I, p. 352. also articles of R. L. Greenwald in ha-Pardes, vol. 25, Feb. and March 1951, nos. 5 and 6, who permits a mourner in these countries where one shaves daily, to shave after the seven days of mourning (even one who is in mourning for a parent).
אשה מותרת בנטילת שער אחר ז': הגה (ויש אוסרים אף לאשה וכן עיקר): A woman is permitted to remove hair after the seven [days of mourning].21Sem(H). VII, 11 cited by T.H. Sem. ibid. pp. 19, 72, 230 for variant readings not found in cur. edd. Thus also Alfasi and Maim. (Yad, Ebel VI, 3. Cf. RIDBaZ a.l.). Asheri to M.K. III; Yeb. 43a, Tosaf. s.v. במקום; M.K. 18a, Tosaf. s.v. ובגנוסטרי. Gloss: And some declare this forbidden even for a woman;22 Tosaf. M.K. ibid. and thus is the [accepted] fundamental principle.23The depilation of the upper temple and the lower temple is permissible for a woman where it is customary to remove superfluous hair — ShaK.
לסרוק [ראשו] במסרק מותר אפילו תוך שבעה: One is permitted to comb [the hair] of his head with a comb,24Some permit this only in the case of a woman — Nek. Hak. even during the seven [days of mourning].25R. Yeruḥam on the authority of Rashi a.o. also Hag. Maim. Yad, Ebel V, 1; M.K. 19b, Tosaf. s.v. אתיא on the principle that in matters pertaining to mourning rites we adopt the lenient view.
כשם שאסור לגלח כל שלשים יום כך אסור ליטול צפרנים בכלי אבל בידיו או בשיניו מותר אפי' תוך שבעה ואשה שאירע טבילתה אחר שבעה תוך שלשים אם תטול צפרניה בידיה או בשיניה אינה נוטלת יפה אלא תאמר לעובדת כוכבים ליטלם לה בתער או במספרים: הגה ולאו דוקא עובדת כוכבים אלא הוא הדין ישראלית וסרכא דלישנא דחול המועד נקט (דעת עצמו): Just as it is forbidden to cut hair during the entire thirty days [of mourning],26M.K. 17b. supra par. 1. so also is it forbidden to cut one's nails27M.K. 18a. This applies both to fiinger-nails and toe-nails in accord with R. Anan b. Taḥlifa. with a nail-cutter, but [if done] with one's hands or teeth, it is permissible,28Ibid. in accord with R. Ḥiyya b. Ashi. Asheri; Alfasi; T.H.; M.K. ibid., Tosaf. s.v. ובגנוסטרי. even during the seven days [of mourning].29In accord with Samuel (ibid.). Thus also Alfasi and T.H. cited by Tur, since this is not the normal way of cutting one’s nails. A woman whose immersion [in the ritual bath] occurs after the seven, [but] during the thirty [days of mourning], if she should remove her nails with her hands or teeth, she would not remove them well, but she should [rather] instruct a Gentile woman to remove them for her with a razor or scissors.30 B.Yos. a.l. on the authority of Hag. Maim. (Yad, Ebel V, 2). Gloss: And not necessarily a Gentile woman, but this may likewise be done by a Jewish woman,31ShaK forbids this to be done by another Jewish woman. TaZ maintains that even she herself is permitted to remove her nails, if she will thus be able to remove them well. A.H. writes, ‘It seems to me that this (viz., TaZ opinion) is the accepted custom.’ but he32e.,. Caro in mentioning a Gentile woman. used the customary phraseology mentioned with respect to Hol ha-Moed.33 Glos. His own opinion (comment on Isserles’ Gloss) — G. O.Ḥ. § 532.