1. There are four domains on Shabbat: the private domain, the public domain, the karmelit (meaning soft brittle: not wet or dry but in betweenץ Similarly this is not the private domain because it has no walls, but it is not the public domain as it is not similar to the flags of the wilderness because it's not a place where many people walk. Rash"i.) and a place of exemption.
2. What is the private domain? A place surrounded by walls that are ten tefachim that is four by four, or a pit that is ten tefachim deep and four by four, or a hill that is ten tall and four by four. Rem"a: Some say that the diagonal also must be four tefachim, like we will explain below in chapter 349. (Hagahos Ashiri; Tosefos)
3. The tops of walls enclosing a private domain are considered private domain even if they are not four tefachim wide.
4. Holes in a wall of a private domain that face the private domain are considered the private domain. Rem"a: If they face outwards and do not go through to the inside, their status is determined by their width and height, as will be explained later in this chapter paragraph 13 (Beit Yosef in the name of the Rashb"a and the Magid).
5. The space above a private domain upwards until the firmament is considered the private domain.
6. An object, like a chest, turret, or receptacle, can be considered a private domain if it is four tefachim by four tefachim and is ten tefachim tall.
7. What is the public domain? Roads or markets that are sixteen amot wide and have no ceiling and no wall. Even if they have a wall, they can still be public domain if they are open at both sides (and the doors are not closed at night (Tur)). And some say that if 600,000 people do not pass through it daily, it is not a public domain.
8. Regarding alleyways that are mostly 16 amot wide but are less than 16 amot wide at parts, some say that if their longest part faces the public domain, they are considered the public domain.
9. Regarding alleys that are thirteen and one-third amot wide with both openings facing the public domain, which is itself sixteen amot wide, some say that they are considered the public domain.
10. If an object that is in the public domain is not (three) tefachim tall, even if it is thorns or dung such that people will not step on them, it is likened to the ground and considered the public domain. If it is three tefachim tall or from three to nine, not includng nine, if it is four by four it is considered karmelit. If it is not four by four, it is a place of exemption. If it is exactly nine tefachim tall and many people rearrange their loads on it, it is considered the public domain even if it is not four wide. There is one who says that this is also the case for an object that is 9-10 tefachim tall that is used by people for rearranging their loads even if it is not four wide. From ten up, if it is four tefachim wide, it is the private domain, and otherwise, it is a place of exemption, even if it is possible to [imaginarily] hollow it out to make it four tefachim wide.
11. If a pit in the public domain is not three [tefachim] deep, it is considered public domain. From three to ten, if it is four tefachim wide it is karmelit, and otherwise it is a place of exemption. If it is ten deep, it is private domain, assuming it is four wide.
12. The public domain only extends ten [tefachim] up. Higher than ten is a place of exemption.
13. Holes in a wall that faces the public domain that are higher than three [tefachim above the ground] are not considered the public domain. Rather, they are assessed according to their dimensions.
14. What is the karmelit? A place that is not used by the masses, like the sea or a valley; an itztevanit; or an itztiba (an itztevanit is the place in front of the stores where the merchants sit and an itztiba is the place where they place the goods) that is in front of the public domain pillars and is four wide and from three to ten tall; an area with a corner that is adjacent to the public domain (like an area surrounded three walls without a partition or a ceiling on the fourth side (Tur)); a public domain with a ceiling; a hill that is four by four but is not ten tall; and a pit that is four by four but is not ten deep.
15. If a house that is not ten tefachim tall but whose roof completes the ten and which is four by four, its inside is karmelit and on top of it is private domain. But if one lowers a four-by-four area by digging, even if this area is in the middle of the house and far from the walls, the whole house becomes the private domain.
16. If the roof goes beyond the walls of the house such that one standing on the roof cannot see the walls, it is considered karmelit even if it is very high and wide. If a window is open to the roof from the house, it is considered the private domain. Similarly, brackets that extend from the wall that are four by four are karmelit unless a window is open to them from the house.
17. Holes in the [walls of the] karmlelit are not considered karmelit but are assessed according to their height and width.
18. The rules of a karmelit include that it must not be less than four by four and that it only includes ten tefachim above it. Above that is considered a place of exemption. Seas and rivers are measured from the surface of the water. Therefore, regarding someone who takes something from above the water, until ten upwards is karmelit and above that is a place of exemption. Rem"a: Even if a pit in the karmelit is 100 amot deep, it is considered karmelit, unless it is four by four, because there is no place of exemption in the karmelit, as will be explained next.
19. A place of exemption is a place that is smaller than four by four and between three tefachim above the ground until the firmament, or a pit that is smaller than four by four and is at least three tefachim deep, or walls that are three tefachim or taller and do not enclose a four-by-four area. Rem"a: All of this refers to something that is in the middle of the public domain, but with regards to the karmelit, we say that the kind [place of exemption] has found its kin [karmelit, which is similar] and is aroused and treated like karmelit (Ra"n in Perek Keitzad Mishtatfin and Hagahot Mordechai in chapter 16 of Shabbat) (Tur and Beit Yosef in the name of the Ramba"m). There are those who dispute this and say that there is no difference in this matter between the public domain and the karmelit (Rash"i and the Magid in the name of the Rashb"a), but if it is in the private domain, all agree that is just considered the private domain (Beit Yosef).
What is a public domain? Streets and marketplaces 16 amos wide, that do not have a roof or a wall, and even if there is a surrounding wall, if there is a street that goes through the town [Rema- and its doors are not closed at night] it is a public domain. Others say that any place that does not have 600,000 people passing through it each day is not a public domain.