1. The Laws Governing Detaching [Produce] on Shabbos; the Laws Governing Grinding; the Laws Governing the Preparation of Food, Leatherworking, and Kneading, 19 Seifim: If [before Shabbos,] one brought in bundles of wild hyssop, hyssop, or thyme to dry so that they would be fit for kindling, one may not make use of them on Shabbos. If one brought in [bundles of the leaves of these plants] for use as animal fodder one may break off portions from them and eat them with his hands but not with a utensil (as he would during the week). The stalks may be crushed with one’s fingertips
2. It is prohibited to prepare a large quantity of saltwater for pickling because it looks like preparing for Tanning. However, one is permitted to prepare a small quantity in order to add it to a cooked food. It is forbidden to prepare even a small amount of a saline solution that is two parts salt and one part water.
3. One is forbidden to salt four or five pieces of radish together because it appears as if one is pickling, and pickling is forbidden because it is similar to cooking. However, one may dip each individual piece and eat it. One may salt eggs.
4. One opinion writes that one may dip several pieces of radish individually and place them in front of himself in order to eat them immediately in succession.
5. One is forbidden to salt cooked meat or a cooked egg for later.
6. It is forbidden to salt a bunch of beans and lentils that were cooked in their skins.
7. One is permitted to grind even a large quantity of peppers provided that they are ground with a knife’s handle onto a plate.
8. It is prohibited to grind salt in a wooden grinder but one may grind salt with a knife’s handle and a wooden spoon without concern. RAMA: This applies specifically to coarse salt. However, salt that was thin and through cooking turned into lumps may be cut just as one cuts bread. [Kol Bo]
9. One is permitted to cut cooked or roasted meat finely with a knife. RAMA: However it is forbidden to cut raw meat finely for chickens, because since they cannot eat it without being finely cut, it is considered making it a food. [Terumas HaDeshen] [See further in Siman 324:7]
10. It is forbidden on Shabbos to grate cheese with a grater called a “rollieux”.
11. It is allowable to wet detached [vegetables] to prevent them from withering.
12. One who cuts vegetables finely is liable for Grinding/טוחן. RAMA: Likewise it is prohibited to cut dried figs and carobs for the elderly [Beis Yosef in the name of the Tosefta]. This only applies to fruits etc. but one is permitted to turn bread into crumbs for chickens because it has already been grinded and therefore no need for concern as there is no second grinding. [Hagahos Maimoni; Mordechai; R"an; Sma"g]. All of this only refers to cutting for later but prior to eating it is all permitted, similar to separating prior to eating, which is permitted. [Teshuvos HaRashba; R"an] as above, Siman 319.
13. It is forbidden to extract honey from a beehive on Shabbos. [The rationale is that doing so] resembles picking [fruit]. And specifically if the honeycombs are attached to the beehive [HaMagid Perek 21]. If, however, the honeycombs were detached from the beehive while it was still day [on Friday] but they were crushed inside of it while it was still day [on Friday] and the honey had flowed out into the beehive it is permitted to extract the honey on Shabbos [Beis Yosef].
14. It is forbidden to knead a large amount of flour ground from roasted wheat lest one will knead flour that is not roasted. It is permitted to knead roasted flour a little at a time. Wheat that has not reached a third of its growth that was roasted and roughly ground and it is like sand and called “shtitah” may be mixed with vinegar and the like, even a large quantity at once, on condition that the result is a loose mixture. A firm one is forbidden because it looks like kneading. (Even when kneading a loose mixture) it must be modified in such a manner that one first puts the shtitah and then the vinegar.
15. Mustard that was kneaded before Shabbos may be mixed on Shabbos whether with one’s hand or with an instrument. One may add honey provided that one does not mix it with force; rather it should be slowly mixed in.
16. Shachalayim that were crushed before Shabbos, on Shabbos one may add wine and vinegar; but one should not beat it only mix it. The same with garlic that was crushed before Shabbos, on Shabbos one may add beans and barley and one may not beat it only mix it. RAMA: There is an opinion that says that one should not mix it with a spoon only with one’s hand. [Or Zarua; Mordechai]. There are those who say that one may only mix liquid into the mustard when the liquid was poured before Shabbos but on Shabbos it is forbidden to pour liquid into the mustard or into ground garlic because of kneading. RAMA: if the food was placed first and afterwards the vinegar or the wine and it is mixed with one’s finger it is permitted, because the mixing was modified similar to shtitah above. Such is the custom to permit it with a modification. In a place where they do so during the week, on Shabbos one should first pour the vinegar and afterwards the food.
17. It is permitted to make Yenumlin (a mixture of old wine, honey and pepper) because it is for drinking. One may not make aluntis (See Avodah Zarah 30a. Aluntit is a mixture of aged wine and clear water and balsam, which they prepare for drinking after bathing in a bathhouse to cool down from the heat of the bathhouse. It is prohibited to prepare aluntit on Shabbat) because it is a type of remedy.
18. One may not soak Asafetida, not in luke warm water and not in cold water, because the method of soaking it is for a remedy. However, one may place it in vinegar and dip bread into it. If it is in that state since yesterday it is permitted to drink it on Shabbat. And if one drank from it on Thursday and Friday and must also drink from it on Shabbat, it is permitted, because such is the nature of his remedy to drink seven consecutive days. For this reason, one is permitted to soak it in cold water and place it in warm, because it is a danger if one does not drink from it.
19. Any unripe fruit or melilot that were mashed on Erev Shabbat, except for beating, are forbidden to complete their beating on Shabbat. Nothing may be lacking except that grinding is permitted to finish on Shabbat. Therefore it is permitted to complete the grinding of wheat groats with a morsel of the tree in a pot on Shabbat after on takes it off the fire. RAMA It is permitted to smooth food on Shabbos and it is not considered Memachek (erasing) because the food is edible without smoothing. Nevertheless, one who is stringent with a [cooked] apple dish and the like, which are regularly smoothed, shall receive a blessing. [Mordechai]. It is forbidden to peel garlic or onions that are peeled to be left alone. However, to eat right away it is permitted. And see above Siman 319 [Sma"g; Hagahos Maimoni; Beis Yosef in the name of the Sma"k; Terumas HaDeshen; Rabbeinu Yerucham].