Objects that may or may not be carried on Shabbat
All implements are carried on Shabbat except for implements that are muktze [=set aside] because of monetary loss. For example, a knife used for the ritual slaughter of an animal; for the performance of a ritual circumcision; hairdressers’ scissors; or the knife used by scribes to sharpen their quills. Since one shows great care not to use those for any other purpose, it is forbidden to move them on Shabbat, even for the "purpose of its place" (=its place is needed), or for the "purpose of the object itself". RAMA: And even those [special knives] stuck in with a sheath with other knives, it is forbidden to move it (Maharil). This too is the law regarding hammers used for herbs and spices, since one shows great care not to soil it. RAMA: And this is the law regarding implements set aside for merchandise, where one is strict regarding their use (Beit Yosef in the name of Maimonides ch. 5).
2. Any Keili, even if it is very big and heavy, does not lose its status of a Keili, not because of its size nor because of its weight.
3. It is permitted to move a Keli she’melachto l’issur, (if it was used during twilight for a prohibition, for example a lamp that was lit, see above Siman 279), either in order to use the Keili, for example to use a goldsmith’s or blacksmith’s hammer to crack open nuts or an axe to cut dates, or to use its place, i.e. one needs to use the place the Keili is occupying. One is permitted to remove it and place it wherever one wants. However from sun to shade, i.e. if he is only moving it to prevent it from getting broken or from getting stolen, it is forbidden to move. RAMA: It is only forbidden to move Muktze, but touching without moving is permitted. Therefore it is permitted to touch the candleholders in Shul on which candles are placed, or the (portable) stove with fire within, and it is permitted to remove a non-Muktze item placed on top of Muktze [Mordechai, Perek Kol HaKeilim; Rish; Rabbeinu Yerucham; the Maggid]. It is also permitted to move a Muktze through blowing, as it is only moving the Muktze kil’achar yad (backhandedly) and is therefore not called moving. [Teshuvos Mahariv, Seif 226]
4. It is permissible to move a Keli she’melachto le’heter (a Keili generally used for a heter) even if one is only moving it to prevent it from getting broken or stolen, but to move it for no purpose at all is forbidden. It is permissible to move holy writings and food for no purpose at all. RAMA: Tefillin should only be moved when necessary. (Terumat HaDeshen and see in the Beis Yosef). It is forbidden to move a Shofar unless for the sake of using it or for using its place. (Ha'gahot Ashiri, end of Perek Bameh Madlikin
5. There are opinions who permit moving a Keli she’melachto l’issur (a Keili generally used for doing an issur) even from sun to shade by placing a bread or a baby on top of it.
6. It is permissible to move shards of broken vessels, even if they broke on Shabbos, as long as they are usable, such as the shards of a bowl to cover a barrel, pieces of glass to cover a jar. But if they are of no use they may not be moved. RAMA: If they broke in a place where they can cause harm, for instance glass that broke on a table or in a place where people walk, it is permissible to move the broken pieces out of the way to prevent people from getting harmed by them. (Kol Bo; Ha'gahot Mordechai; Beis Yosef in the name of Orchot Chayim)
7. A piece of broken piece pottery that broke off on a weekday from a Keili, and is suitable for covering a Keili, may be moved even in a place where there are no Keilim to be covered. If it was thrown into the trash before Shabbos it is forbidden to move, because it has been invalidated from being a Keili. RAMA: Even if it remains fit for the poor, since the owner has made it Muktze, it is Muktze, even if the owner is rich, as Muktze for the rich is Muktze for the poor, as will be explained at the end of the Siman. (R"an, Perek Bameh Asah).This refers specifically to a piece of pottery because it originated from a Keili, but something that has nothing to do with Keilim, for example pebbles and stones, even though they are suitable for covering a Keili, they are forbidden to move RAMA: like everything that is not a Keili is forbidden to move le’tzorech gufo (meaning done for the purpose of using the item) and all the more so le’tzorech mekomo (in order to use the space the Muktze is occupying). (Mordechai)
8. Regarding all Keilim that may be moved on Shabbos, doors that detached from them may (also) be moved, whether they detached on a weekday or on Shabbos.
9. It is permissible to remove a door from a Shidah, Teivah and a Migdal, [these are different types of wooden chests] but it is forbidden to reattach it less one will secure it into place. It is forbidden to remove the door of a chicken coop or to attach it because it is attached to the ground and is subject to (the Melacha building and demolishing.
10. One may not move a cover of a pit or a cistern unless it sports a handle, which proves that it is a Keili. Covers of Keilim, even if the Keilim are cemented in place, may be moved even if they do not have a handle, as long as they were prepared and readied for this purpose or they were used before Shabbos (as a Keili). Covers of barrels buried in the ground require a handle.
11. An unbroken needle may be used to remove a thorn. If the point or eye is missing it is forbidden. A new one that has not yet been pierced is permitted.
12. Pieces of mat may be moved because they can be used to cover filth, but if they were discarded before Shabbos they are Muktze (you cannot move them).
13. Pieces of worn out rags: if they are three fingers by three fingers it is permitted to move them, if not it is forbidden. There are those who permit it even if they are less than three by three as long as they are not from a mitzvah shawl.
14. A new shoe may be removed from the mold even though it is melachto l’issur (meaning, a Keili generally used for doing an issur), as it is called a Keili. It may therefore be moved le’tzorech mekomo (i.e. in order to use the space the Muktze is occupying)
15. If the inner strap [i.e. The strap on the side facing the other foot] (connected to) a sandal tore it retains its status of a Keli, and it is permitted to be moved, but if the outer strap tore, it is not considered a Keli anymore and it is forbidden to be moved. If one is in a Carmelis it is permitted to tie it to one’s foot with a fresh “Gemi” - an animal food, so that it will not fall off. If one is in a yard where it is safe, it is forbidden.
16. A laundered robe that is hanging on a Muktze stick which he inserted to hang and dry it, he may remove the robe from the stick, but to remove the stick from the robe is forbidden because it is not a Keili. If a Keili was inserted, it may be removed, even if it is melachto l’issur. If even one leg of an oven came out, the oven is Muktze. RAMA: the same applies to a long bench that lost one of its legs and all the more so if it lost two, it is forbidden to move and prop the bench on another bench and sit on it, even if it broke before Shabbos, [Terumat HaDeshen Seif 71] unless it was sat upon in such a fashion before Shabbos. [Beis Yosef] It is likewise forbidden to reinsert the leg because of ‘building’. [Beis Yosef].
17. Leftover construction bricks may be moved, because as of now they are not intended for use in construction, rather they are for sitting upon. However, if one stacked them up, it shows that they were set aside for future construction and are Muktze [i.e. it is forbidden to move them].
18. A splinter lying in a Reshus Harabim may be moved less than four Amos at a time. In a Carmelis it may be moved completely out the way, because we are concerned that the public might get hurt and Chazal did not introduce decrees where public welfare is at stake.
19. A tall attic ladder used to plaster the roof is forbidden to move, however a ladder used for reaching nests may be moved from one place to another but not from one nest to another, so as not to follow the weekday manner which might lead to capturing.
20. חריות, Palm branches cut for firewood, are Muktze and are forbidden to be moved. If they were sat upon a little before Shabbos, it is permitted to sit on them on Shabbos. All the more so if they were tied in order to sit on them or if one intended to use them for sitting on even during the week.
21. However, a mound of stones may not be sat upon, even if intended before Shabbos to sit on them, unless they were positioned. RAMA: Some authorities say that the same rule that applies to palm branches applies to stones, and it is the main ruling. (Mordechai, Perek Bameh Tomnin; Maggid, Perek 25 in the name of the R"if; and also as explained in the Rosh).
22. It is forbidden to cover the mouth of a barrel with a rock or with a block of wood, or to use them to shut a door, or to strike בברזא, on a spigot (a tube of a barrel), even if he planned before Shabbos to use them, unless they were permanently set aside for that particular use, but if they were set aside for only one Shabbos then not. This refers to an item not usually set aside for these purposes, like the cases mentioned, but for cases when they are normally used, for example: to crack open nuts, it is sufficient to set it aside for one Shabbos. There is an opinion that says that there is no difference, and there are opinions that say that one must physically prepare it before Shabbos. [See above, Siman 259, that setting aside is sufficient.]
23. It is permitted to cut a palm branch before Shabbos and wave it at the table to chase away the flies, since it was cut for a purpose, it becomes a Keili.
24. [The following laws apply to] combed flax and carded wool that are placed over a wound: if one thought about them on Friday to place them on wounds; or if one sat on them for an hour during the day on Friday; or one applied oil to them for the purposes of covering a wound; or if one bound them by spreading them out on the wound on Shabbat, there is no further concern regarding muktzeh. Regarding healing, this is considered like nothing more than something that is worn so that one does not scratch one's clothes [the wound]. There are those who say that it is not enough if this is the thought of an individual.
25. Dried hides, whether belonging to a craftsman or to a regular person may be moved. RAMA: There are those who say specifically animal hides which are rough for the purpose of sitting on them. But thin animal hides are forbidden unless he thought about sitting on them while it was still day (on Friday) [Rashi].
26. Boards belonging to a private person are permitted to be moved while those belonging to a craftsman are forbidden [to be moved]. It is permitted to move [a craftsman’s boards, however,] if while it was still day [on Friday, the craftsman] thought about [using them as a tray] on which to serve bread to guests on Shabbos or for any other purpose.
27. Bones that are fit for dogs, peels that are fit for animals and crumbs that are smaller than a k’zayis (olive's weight) may be removed from the table. If the peels are not fit for animals it is forbidden to remove them, rather one must tip the board and they will slide off. If bread is on the table as well, it is permitted to lift the board with the peels that are not fit for animals on top, because they are subordinate to the bread. If one needs the space the table is occupying, even if only peels that are not fit for animals are on the table, it may be lifted and carried away.
28. Bundles of wood and straw that were prepared for animal consumption may be moved, even if they are exceptionally large.
29. Anything suitable for common animals and fowl is not Muktze, but if it is only suitable for rare animals, then it depends: if he possesses those animals, it is permitted to handle the food which is fit for that animal, and if not (he does not possess that animal), then not (the “food” is Muktze). RAMA: accordingly, it is permitted to move bones, which are fit for dogs, that have separated from the meat before Shabbos, because dogs are common. [Beis Yosef not like the R"an].
30. Date pits are not Muktze where they are fed to animals, however, an important person should be stringent upon himself and refrain from moving them, unless moved in an unusual manner.
31. Raw meat, even bland that is unsalted, is not Muktze because it can be eaten raw. Also, if it is bloated it is not Muktze because it is fit for dogs.
32. A salted fish is not Muktze but an unsalted fish is, because it is unfit.
33. An amulet that has not yet been proven to be effective may be handled, even though it may not be worn outside.
34. Anything filthy like excrement, vomit and dirt etc., whether from humans or chickens or the like, if it is present in the yard where people gather, it is permitted to be taken out to the garbage or to the lavatory, even without the aid of a utensil. If it is found in a yard that is not used for living purposes, it is forbidden to remove it from there. However, if one is afraid a child might get dirty from it, one is permitted to cover it with a utensil.
35. Even though one is permitted to take out a potty and a night pan, nevertheless it is forbidden to bring them back inside unless water was placed inside them.
36. One may not place a Graf shel re’i (this is a vessel used for body waste) initially, which means that one may not place in one’s presence something which will become offensive, in order to remove it when it becomes offensive. If nevertheless, it was placed before him, it may be removed.
37. When one is incurring a loss, one may place one’s bed next to the Graf shel re’i and dwell there, so as to take out the Graf shel re’i.
38. One may bring soil into the house before Shabbos, place it in a corner and use it for whatever one desires on Shabbos, for example to take from the soil to cover filth or saliva etc. If it was not placed in a special spot, it becomes part of the floor of the house and is forbidden to handle. RAMA: Therefore it is permitted to remove fruit placed in sand, because that sand is not Muktze. [Beis Yosef in the name of Shibulei Leket]
39. It is forbidden to handle animals and fowl, but nevertheless one may place an overturned basket before chicks to enable them to go up and down (into their coop). It is forbidden to move it while they are on it.
40. It is permitted to assist animal and fowl to walk in the yard, namely one holds its neck and side and makes it walk, if the animal requires it. This is as long as one will not lift it in such a way that its feet will be off the ground, because it is Muktze and forbidden to be carried. Chickens may not be walked because they lift themselves off the ground, causing one to carry them, but they may be pushed from behind with one’s hands so that they will go inside.
41. A woman may walk her son even in a Reshus Harabim, as long as she does not drag him. He should lift one leg and place the other on the ground, all the while leaning on her until he lowers the leg he raised. In this manner, he is constantly standing on one leg.
42. One may touch a Muktze as long as one does not move even a small part of it. (This has already been explained in Se’if 3.)
43. One may move Muktze by blowing it. (This has been explained in the beginning of the Siman.)
44. One may not break off a piece of clay from a broken Keili with the intention to use it as a cover or for support.
45. One is forbidden to play with a ball on Shabbos and Yom Tov. RAMA: There are those who permit it, and the people’s custom is to be lenient. [Tosefos]
46. It is forbidden to carry silkworm eggs under one’s armpits, because they are forbidden to be moved since they are not fit for anything. Also, one’s body heat causes the eggs to hatch.
47. Some authorities prohibit handling a garment with Shatnez and others permit it.
48. It is permissible to carry a hand held fan on Shabbos in order to chase flies away.
49. It is permissible to handle brooms used to sweep the floor.
50. The Rashba permits handling an “ Itstrolobe” (astrolobe; this is an instrument used to observe and calculate the position of celestial bodies) on Shabbos, as well as science books. It is questionable whether it is permissible according to the Rambam.
51. An instrument called a “Uhrilozo that shows the time”, whether it is a sand one or another type, is questionable whether it is permissible to be handled. RAMA: The accepted custom is to prohibit it.
52. That which is Muktze for the rich is Muktze, and even the poor may not handle it.