Who Is Exempt From Praying. Containing 3 Se'ifim:
All those who are exempt from reciting Shema are exempt from [the Amidah] prayer and all who are obligated in reciting Shema are obligated in [the Amidah] prayer, except for those who accompany the deceased (ie. a funeral procession) but are not [immediately] needed to carry the corpse; for even though they are obligated in Shema, they are exempt from [the Amidah] prayer.
Women and slaves, even though they are exempt from reciting Shema, are obligated in prayer, because it is not a positive time bound mitzvah. Children that have reached the age of being educated, there is an obligation to teach them.
One who's Torah learning is his profession, like Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai and his friends, interrupts [his learning] for reciting the Shema, but not for [the Amidah] prayer. But we (ie. all others) do interrupt [learning] for both Shema and prayer. Rem"a: And if he is teaching others, he does not interrupt, like it was explained above in siman 89. Nevertheless, he should interrupt to read the first verse of Shema [Beit Yosef - siman 70]. And if the time is not passing and he still has time left to pray and to recite the Shema, he does not interrupt at all. [Beit Yosef in the name of the R"an]