One who marries a woman [with money that was acquired] by robbery, or theft, or force: if the original owners have despaired [of recovering the money] and it is known that he acquired the object through their despair, then she is married. If not, she is not married. Rem"a: If he marries her with [with money that was acquired] by robbery or theft from a non-Jew, she is married, since he only has to return it because of the import of sanctifying God's name. If he marries her after [the original owner's] despair alone, she is married rabbinically.
If he stole from the woman or robbed her or deceived her, he returns to her and betroths her with what was stolen, robbed or deceived from her, and he says to her, "Thus, you are betrothed to me with this". If there was not, prior [to this] an arrangement [to be married] between them, and she takes it and is silent, they are not betrothed. But if they had an arrangement [to be married] beforehand, Rem"a: She was appeased to marry him, even though that they did not arrange the giving of the dowry (Haghot Alfasi, Kiddushin Chapter 1) or even if there was no arrangement between them, and when he says to her: "Be betrothed unto me with this" and he put it in her hand, and she says, "yes", they are betrothed. Rem"a: And it would be necessary to pay her what was stolen from her (Ran, Kiddushin Chapter 1). But if it were after he put it into her hand, and he said "Be betrothed unto me with this", and even if she were to say "yes", they are not betrothed, even if they had an arrangement beforehand. Rem"a: And she is not believed to say that she received it before, in the name of betrothal (So too the Ra"n in the name of the Rashba, and the Beit Yosef brings him).
Similarly, if he returned an outstanding debt that he had with her, and he said, "Take this coin that I owe you and become betrothed to me with it" before he gave it to her, and she received it in silence, if they were engaged to be married, she is betrothed. If they were not engaged, she is not betrothed unless she said, "agreed." If after he gave it to her he said, "you are betrothed to me through it," even if she agrees, she is not betrothed even though they were engaged. Rem"a: All of this is if he said to her, "take this coin that I owe you," but if he said, "take this coin" without further comment, and then he said, "become betrothed to me through it," even though he owed it to her, and the time for repayment had arrived, she is betrothed, and she may not say, "I received it as repayment." If he said to her, "take this coin that I owe you" and then he said, "I did not give it as repayment, but as betrothal," some authorities say that she is betrothed even if they were not engaged. If he asked her to lend him money with collateral, and she gave him the money, and when he gave her the collateral he said, "become betrothed to me through it," and she received it silently, this is a case of doubtful betrothal.
If he gave her an item to watch and said, "Take this item into your possession to safeguard," and then he [changed his mind and] said, "You are hereby married (mekudeshet, acquisition stage of marriage) to me with this item," if he made the marriage declaration before she took the item, and then she took the item, even though she remained silent, she is thereby married. Rama: Some authorities say that this applies specifically when she took it in her hand, but if he tossed her the marital item, even into her lap, her silence in this case is worthless, for she never acquiesced to be married to him (Tur in the name of Ramah - R. Meir Halevi). Mechaber: If after she took the item for safeguarding he said, "You are hereby married to me with this item," and she remained silent, this is nothing (she is not married). But if she said "Yes," she is married.
If he says to her: 'betroth yourself to me through this object', and she says to him: 'behold, this is not worth a perutah', and he answers: 'betroth yourself to me through the four zuzim that are inside it' - this [is the case of a woman] consecrated [even though there is] doubt. Rem"a: And this is the law if he didn't say again: 'betroth yourself to me', if he only said to her: 'behold, what's inside it is worth a perutah' she is doubtfully betrothed (Hagahot Alfasi, Kidushin chapter 100). A woman that grabbed coins from a man, and he asked that she give them back, and she didn't want to [give them back], and [because of this] he said: 'behold you are betrothed to me through them, and she kept quiet and kept the coins - this is not [a case of] consecration, this is [a case of] keeping quiet after receiving coins, and it is nothing [of legal consequence] (Teshuvat Maharam Padua, siman 24)
If he left collateral in her hand or if he lent her an object and said to her: become betrothed to me through the collateral or lent object in her hand, and it was found that it was stolen or lost, if it still has the value of a perutah she is engaged to him but if not she is not engaged. This is only true if she did not know the value of the collateral and she wants to get engaged with it whether it is worth a lot or a little, but if she does know its worth and it was found to have been stolen or lost, even though it has the value of a perutah she is not engaged [Tur: because she only wanted to get engaged with the value of the collateral].
If he had loaned to her, even with a writ, and he says to her: "You are betrothed to me with the loan that you owe me," she is not betrothed, even if the monies remain with her and she had not spent them. Rem"a: Even if he had returned the writ to her, and it is worth a perutah (Tur in the name of Rambam). Some are stringent in this regard (Ra"n on the second chapter of Kiddushin; Magid Mishneh on chapter 5 [of Mishneh Torah, Laws of Marriage]). The same applies if she owes him wages for work he did for her, even if the time to collect the loan or wages has arrived.
If he said to her: "Become betrothed to me with this promissory note" and gave it to her, we appraise the paper. If it is worth a perutah, she is betrothed. If not, her betrothal is in doubt.
If he loaned her 200 zuz now, and says to her: "You are betrothed to me with the benefit of the time I gave given to you through this loan, that you will have X days before I claim [the debt] from you on such-and-such date," she is betrothed, but one may not do so, for this is akin to [charging] interest.
If he had loaned her, and he says to her: "You are betrothed to me with the benefit of my forgiving the loan," or if he says to her, "You are betrothed to me with my extension of your [repayment] period," she is betrothed, but it is forbidden to do so because of [the prohibition against charging] interest. Some say that she is not betrothed. Rem"a: We show concern for both opinions, and thus if another man betrothed her, she needs a get from each (Kol Bo in the name of Rama"h, cited by Tur). If she owed others, and one came and gave a perutah to the creditor to extend her time, and thereby betrothed her, she is betrothed (Tosafot, Mordechai, and Ra"n at the beginning of Kiddushin).
If [a man] gave [his fiancee] a loan as a collateral, even a collateral during the loan, they are married because of the loan, if she returns her collateral or if collateral that already belonged to her (Rav Yitzchok quotes the Rama), they are married. There are those that say that even if she did not return the collateral [loan], she is married.
If he held collateral on debt owed to him by others, and he married a woman with the collateral, she is married; for the lender has [partial] acquisition rights in the body of the collateral. Rama: some say that this applies only with collateral given not at the time of the loan (Tur in the name of the Rosh). This only applies with collateral from an Israelite, but with collateral from an idol-worshipper she is not married (Mordechai, beginning of Kiddushin). [Even with collateral from a non-Jew, if the lender sold it to another, and the buyer of the collateral used it to marry a woman, she is married (Mahariv, chapter 138).
If the debt was in the hands of others, he should say to her: you are married to me on the debt that I have in this one's hand, on the condition of three things [listed later], we are married. There are those who say that she is not married. But if not, they say that it depends on three things: if she is in monetary debt, if she can be provided with the money as required, both written and transmitted, she is not married, but with a doubt.
If she owes him from a loan, and he gave her a perutah[-worth] and said to her, "Marry me through the [worth of the] loan and the perutah," the kiddushin is effected.
If he says to her, "Marry me for the worth of the work I will do for you," and he did it, she is not married. Some say she is married. Rama: If he was contracted for the work, that a professional does acquire [a wife] through the betterment of utensils (Tur in the name of the R'Y). And the utensil remains with him, and he marries her through its worth, everyone agrees she is married, for it is like a loan [she owes] that has a collateral [that he has of hers] (Rabbeinu Yerucham 22). If he gives a perutah for the needs of the work, and he marries her with it, the marriage is good according to everyone, for it is like a loan and a perutah (Tur). If he does work for a different person and a perutah is owed to him, then it is like a loan in the hands of others (explanation of the Mordechai according to the Rabbi, as it is written in the beginning of A"N Umeyad Sheasa Hasachir etc).
If one made kiddushin (proposed marriage) with a loan, or one who has relations without planning it to be for the sake of marriage yet in front of witnesses which saw him alone with her, the woman needs a get (divorce) in both cases, before she may marry another man, out of doubt that maybe she is married. Hagah: the same law applies to the case where one made kiddushin with money valuing less than a "perutah" and then had relations, as well as any other case like this.
One who enters his fellow's house and takes a vessel, a piece of food or something like this and uses it to betroth a woman, and then the homeowner comes, even if he says to him: Why didn't you give her this thing that is better than the thing you gave her, she is not betrothed, for he said this only so that the other wouldn't be embarrassed. And since he betrothed her using his friend's property without his friend's acknowledgment, behold he has stolen and she is not betrothed. But if he betrothed her with something that the homeowner doesn't really care about, like a date or a nut, behold she is doubtfully betrothed. Hagah: A guest who is sitting with a homeowner [dining], and he takes his portion [of food] and uses it to betroth [her], behold she is betrothed [Hagahot Alfasi].
If he had some merchandise shared with his friend and he divided it without his friend's consent, and he betrothed her with his share, since it requires a court's appraisal [to divide assets] she is not betrothed, for this one cannot take what he wants [from the joint property] and leave the other what he wants. Hagah: And even if he gives her all of the merchandise that is in his possession and an extra perutah she is not betrothed for she only agreed to be betrothed with everything (Hagahot Maymoniyot, ch. 5, Ishut, in the name of the Ramban, the Rashba, and so too wrote the Ran). And if it is something where everything is of equal value and doesn't require an appraisal, behold she is betrothed.
One who borrows an object from his friend and let him know that he wanted to use it to betroth a woman, she is betrothed. And if not, she is doubtfully betrothed. Hagah: And the same is true with regard to one who rents a vessel or other object from his friend and uses it for betrothal (Torat Haadam, siman 210). If he borrowed a vessel from a woman who is already married, and he betrothed with it, we must be concerned that the betrothal is valid, even though everything acquired by a wife is acquired by her husband and he didn't borrow it from the husband (Rashba, in the name of the Rama and the respons of the Ramban, siman 144).
One who gives his fellow a gift on condition that he returns it, and the one who received it goes and uses it to betroth a woman, behold she is betrothed.
One who betrothes with something that is totally Rabbinically forbidden from which to benefit, which has no essence in the Torah, she is betrothed. If it is is with biblically forbidden Chametz at a time [when it is] rabbinically forbidden, or with rabbinic Chametz at a biblically forbidden time, it is a doubt whether she is betrothed. If it is totally biblically forbidden, such as biblical Chametz at a biblically [forbidden] time, she is not betrothed. Rema: A community that decreed and made an agreement among themselves that whoever betrothes without ten [i.e., a minyan] or similarly [that the betrothal is not valid], we are sensitive to the betrothal and she needs a Get. Even though the community stipulated explicitly that it is not a betrothal and his money [with which he betrothed her] is ownerless, even so we must be stringent on a practical basis (Maharik 84). A woman who vowed against benefiting from a specific man or against anything that is given to her not in the presence of specific individuals, and a man transgresses and betrothes her, she is not betrothed, because it is as though he betrothed her with something that is forbidden from which to benefit. This is specifically when he betrothes her with money, but if he betrothes with a contract, it is a valid betrothal (Rashba 602 and 603).
If he transgressed and sold items that are forbidden for benefit, and betrothed with their proceeds, she is betrothed. And if he sold them to a Jew, and the purchaser did not know that they were forbidden for benefit, and the seller took their proceeds and betrothed with their proceeds, she is doubtfully betrothed. These rules apply to items that are forbidden from benefit other than idols, for if he sold one of them and betrothed with its proceeds, she is not betrothed.
A first-born [animal], in the current era, if its owners betrothed using it, she is doubtfully betrothed.