Shabbat 89aשבת פ״ט א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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89aפ״ט א

עבודת גלולים שוב מה כתיב בה זכור את יום השבת לקדשו כלום אתם עושים מלאכה שאתם צריכין שבות שוב מה כתיב בה לא תשא משא ומתן יש ביניכם שוב מה כתיב בה כבד את אביך ואת אמך אב ואם יש לכם שוב מה כתיב בה לא תרצח לא תנאף לא תגנב קנאה יש ביניכם יצר הרע יש ביניכם מיד הודו לו להקדוש ברוך הוא שנאמר ה׳ אדנינו מה אדיר שמך וגו׳ ואילו תנה הודך על השמים לא כתיב

idols that you require this special warning? Again Moses asked: What else is written in it? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: “Remember the Shabbat day to sanctify it” (Exodus 20:8). Moses asked the angels: Do you perform labor that you require rest from it? Again Moses asked: What else is written in it? “Do not take the name of the Lord your God in vain” (Exodus 20:7), meaning that it is prohibited to swear falsely. Moses asked the angels: Do you conduct business with one another that may lead you to swear falsely? Again Moses asked: What else is written in it? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: “Honor your father and your mother” (Exodus 20:12). Moses asked the angels: Do you have a father or a mother that would render the commandment to honor them relevant to you? Again Moses asked: What else is written in it? God said to him: “You shall not murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not steal.” Moses asked the angels: Is there jealousy among you, or is there an evil inclination within you that would render these commandments relevant? Immediately they agreed with the Holy One, Blessed be He, that He made the right decision to give the Torah to the people, and as it is stated: “God our Lord, how glorious is Your name in all the earth” (Psalms 8:10), while “that Your majesty is placed above the heavens” is not written because the angels agreed with God that it is appropriate to give the Torah to the people on earth.

מיד כל אחד ואחד נעשה לו אוהב ומסר לו דבר שנאמר עלית למרום שבית שבי לקחת מתנות באדם בשכר שקראוך אדם לקחת מתנות אף מלאך המות מסר לו דבר שנאמר ויתן את הקטרת ויכפר על העם ואומר ויעמד בין המתים ובין החיים וגו׳ אי לאו דאמר ליה מי הוה ידע:

Immediately, each and every one of the angels became an admirer of Moses and passed something to him, as it is stated: “You ascended on high, you took a captive, you took gifts on account of man, and even among the rebellious also that the Lord God might dwell there” (Psalms 68:19). The meaning of the verse is: In reward for the fact that they called you man, you are not an angel and the Torah is applicable to you, you took gifts from the angels. And even the Angel of Death gave him something, as Moses told Aaron how to stop the plague, as it is stated: “And he placed the incense, and he atoned for the people” (Numbers 17:12). And the verse says: “And he stood between the dead and the living, and the plague was stopped” (Numbers 17:13). If it were not that the Angel of Death told him this remedy, would he have known it?

ואמר רבי יהושע בן לוי בשעה שירד משה מלפני הקדוש ברוך הוא בא שטן ואמר לפניו רבונו של עולם תורה היכן היא אמר לו נתתיה לארץ הלך אצל ארץ אמר לה תורה היכן היא אמרה לו אלהים הבין דרכה וגו׳ הלך אצל ים ואמר לו אין עמדי הלך אצל תהום אמר לו אין בי שנאמר תהום אמר לא בי היא וים אמר אין עמדי אבדון ומות אמרו באזנינו שמענו שמעה חזר ואמר לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם חיפשתי בכל הארץ ולא מצאתיה אמר לו לך אצל בן עמרם

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: When Moses descended from standing before the Holy One, Blessed be He, with the Torah, Satan came and said before Him: Master of the Universe, where is the Torah?
He said to him: I have given it to the earth. He went to the earth, and said to it: Where is the Torah? It said to him: I do not know, as only: “God understands its way, and He knows its place” (Job 28:23).
He went to the sea and asked: Where is the Torah? And the sea said to him: “It is not with me.”
He went to the depths and asked: Where is the Torah? And the depths said to him: “It is not within me.” And from where is it derived that the sea and the depths answered him this way? As it is stated: “The depth said: It is not within me, and the sea said: It is not with me” (Job 28:14). “Destruction and death said: We heard a rumor of it with our ears” (Job 28:22).
Satan returned and said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I searched for the Torah throughout all the earth and did not find it. He said to him: Go to Moses, son of Amram.

הלך אצל משה אמר לו תורה שנתן לך הקדוש ברוך הוא היכן היא אמר לו וכי מה אני שנתן לי הקדוש ברוך הוא תורה אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה בדאי אתה אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם חמודה גנוזה יש לך שאתה משתעשע בה בכל יום אני אחזיק טובה לעצמי אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה הואיל ומיעטת עצמך תקרא על שמך שנאמר זכרו תורת משה עבדי וגו׳:

He went to Moses and said to him: The Torah that the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave you, where is it? Moses evaded the question and said to him: And what am I that the Holy One, Blessed be He, would have given me the Torah? I am unworthy. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Moses, are you a fabricator? Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, You have a hidden treasure in which You delight every day, as it is stated: “And I was His delight every day, playing before Him at every moment” (Proverbs 8:30). Should I take credit for myself and say that You gave it to me? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Since you belittled yourself, the Torah will be called by your name, as it is stated: “Remember the Torah of Moses My servant to whom I commanded at Horeb laws and statutes for all of Israel” (Malachi 3:22).

ואמר רבי יהושע בן לוי בשעה שעלה משה למרום מצאו להקדוש ברוך הוא שהיה קושר כתרים לאותיות אמר לו משה אין שלום בעירך אמר לפניו כלום יש עבד שנותן שלום לרבו אמר לו היה לך לעזרני מיד אמר לו ועתה יגדל נא כח ה׳ כאשר דברת

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: When Moses ascended on High, he found the Holy One, Blessed be He, tying crowns to letters. On the tops of certain letters there are ornamental crownlets. Moses said nothing, and God said to him: Moses, is there no greeting in your city? Do people not greet each other in your city? He said before Him: Does a servant greet his master? That would be disrespectful. He said to him: At least you should have assisted Me and wished Me success in My work. Immediately he said to Him: “And now, may the power of the Lord be great as you have spoken” (Numbers 14:17).

(אמר) רבי יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב וירא העם כי בשש משה אל תקרי בושש אלא באו שש בשעה שעלה משה למרום אמר להן לישראל לסוף ארבעים יום בתחלת שש אני בא לסוף ארבעים יום בא שטן ועירבב את העולם אמר להן משה רבכם היכן הוא אמרו לו עלה למרום אמר להן באו שש ולא השגיחו עליו מת ולא השגיחו עליו הראה להן דמות מטתו והיינו דקאמרי ליה לאהרן כי זה משה האיש וגו׳:

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And the people saw that Moses delayed [boshesh] to come down from the mount” (Exodus 32:1)? Do not read the word in the verse as boshesh; rather, read it as ba’u shesh, six hours have arrived. When Moses ascended on High, he told the Jewish people: In forty days, at the beginning of six hours, I will come. After forty days, Satan came and brought confusion to the world by means of a storm, and it was impossible to ascertain the time. Satan said to the Jews: Where is your teacher Moses? They said to him: He ascended on High. He said to them: Six hours have arrived and he has not yet come. Surely he won’t. And they paid him no attention. Satan said to them: Moses died. And they paid him no attention. Ultimately, he showed them an image of his death-bed and an image of Moses’ corpse in a cloud. And that is what the Jewish people said to Aaron: “For this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what has become of him” (Exodus 32:1).

אמר ליה ההוא מרבנן לרב כהנא מי שמיע לך מאי הר סיני אמר ליה הר שנעשו בו נסים לישראל הר ניסאי מיבעי ליה אלא הר שנעשה סימן טוב לישראל הר סימנאי מיבעי ליה אמר ליה מאי טעמא לא שכיחת קמיה דרב פפא ורב הונא בריה דרב יהושע דמעייני באגדתא דרב חסדא ורבה בריה דרב הונא דאמרי תרווייהו מאי הר סיני הר שירדה שנאה לאמות העולם עליו והיינו דאמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא חמשה שמות יש לו מדבר צין שנצטוו ישראל עליו מדבר קדש שנתקדשו ישראל עליו מדבר קדמות שנתנה קדומה עליו מדבר פארן

One of the Sages said to Rav Kahana: Did you hear what is the reason that the mountain was called Mount Sinai? Rav Kahana said to him: It is because it is a mountain upon which miracles [nissim] were performed for the Jewish people. The Sage said to him: If so, it should have been called Mount Nisai, the mountain of miracles. Rather, Rav Kahana said to him: It is a mountain that was a good omen [siman] for the Jewish people. The Sage said to him: If so, it should have been called Har Simanai, the mountain of omens. Rav Kahana said to him: What is the reason that you do not frequent the school where you can study before Rav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, who study aggada? As Rav Ḥisda and Rabba, son of Rav Huna, both said: What is the reason it is called Mount Sinai? It is because it is a mountain upon which hatred [sina] for the nations of the world descended because they did not accept the Torah. And that is what Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: The desert in which Israel remained for forty years has five names. Each name has a source and a rationale: The Zin Desert, because the Jewish people were commanded [nitztavu] in it; the Kadesh Desert, because the Jewish people were sanctified [nitkadshu] in it. The Kedemot Desert, because the ancient [keduma] Torah, which preceded the world, was given in it. The Paran Desert,