גראינין או גרעינין אמר רבא בר עולא ונגרע מערכך
In the mishna at the end of the previous chapter we learned that the measure that determines liability for carrying out foods is calculated without their seeds [garinin]. Is the correct version garinin with an alef or garinin with an ayin? Rava bar Ulla said: It is with an ayin, since it stems from the same root as: “And it shall be subtracted [venigra with an ayin] from your valuation” (Leviticus 27:18).
איבעיא להו אוממות או עוממות אמר רב יצחק בר אבדימי ארזים לא עממהו בגן אלהים
A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Do we describe dimming coals as omemot with an alef or omemot with an ayin? Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said: It is written with an ayin, as it is stated: “The cedars in the garden of God could not hide it [amamuhu with an ayin]” (Ezekiel 31:8).
איבעיא להו מאמצין תנן או מעמצין אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן ועצם עיניו מראות ברע
A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to closing the eyes of the dead, did we learn in the mishna me’amtzin with an alef, or me’amtzin with an ayin? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is written with an ayin as it is stated: “And closes [ve’otzem with an ayin] his eyes from seeing evil” (Isaiah 33:15).
תנו רבנן המוציא חלב של בהמה כדי גמיאה חלב של אשה ולובן של ביצה כדי ליתן במשיפא של קילור [קילור] כדי לשוף במים בעי רב אשי כדי שיפה או כדי אחיזה ושיפה תיקו:
With regard to carrying out milk, the Sages taught: One who carries out the milk of an animal on Shabbat is liable only for a measure equivalent to that which is swallowed in one gulp. The measure that determines liability for carrying out a woman’s milk and the white of an egg is equivalent to that which is used to place on the part of an eye bandage upon which the ointment is placed directly on the wound. And the aforementioned eye bandage must be sufficiently large to use it to rub both his eyes with water. Rav Ashi raised a dilemma: Is the measure that determines liability for the bandage equivalent to that with which water can be rubbed on both eyes, or is it equivalent to that which can be held and rubbed? Is the part of the bandage held in his hand when applying the bandage to his eyes also taken into account? No resolution was found for this dilemma. Therefore, let it stand unresolved.
דבש כדי ליתן על הכתית: תנא כדי ליתן על פי כתית בעי רב אשי על כתית אפומא דכולה כתית או דילמא אמורשא קמא דכתית לאפוקי הודרנא דלא תיקו:
We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out honey is equivalent to that which is used to place on a sore caused by chafing. A tanna taught in a Tosefta: The precise measure is equivalent to that which is placed on the opening of a sore, i.e., on the wound itself. Rav Ashi raised a dilemma: Does the term on a sore mean the measure of honey spread on the opening of the entire sore; or, perhaps it means the measure spread on the primary protuberance of the sore, to the exclusion of the surrounding area upon which he does not spread honey? No resolution was found for this dilemma either. Therefore, let it stand unresolved.
אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מה שברא הקדוש ברוך הוא בעולמו לא ברא דבר אחד לבטלה ברא שבלול לכתית ברא זבוב לצירעה יתוש לנחש ונחש לחפפית וסממית לעקרב היכי עביד ליה מייתי חדא אוכמא וחדא חיורא ושלקי להו ושייפי ליה
On the subject of sores, the Gemara cites a statement referring to one of the methods for healing a sore. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Everything that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created in His world, He did not create anything for naught. He created a snail as a remedy for a sore; He created a fly to be crushed and spread as a remedy on a wasp sting; He created a mosquito as a remedy for a snake bite; and He created the snake itself as a remedy for a skin rash; and He created a gecko as a remedy for a scorpion bite. The Gemara explains: How does one implement the remedy? He brings two geckos, one black and one white, cooks them, and spreads the resulting ointment on the affected area.
תנו רבנן חמשה אימות הן אימת חלש על גבור אימת מפגיע על ארי אימת יתוש על הפיל אימת סממית על העקרב אימת סנונית על הנשר אימת כילבית על לויתן אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי קרא המבליג שד על עז:
With regard to these creatures, the Gemara cites that which our Sages taught: There are five dreads, i.e., dread that the weak cast over the mighty: The dread of the mafgia, a small creature, over the lion; the dread of the mosquito over the elephant; the dread of the gecko over the scorpion; the dread of the swallow over the eagle; the dread of the kilbit, a small fish, over a whale. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: What is the verse that alludes to these matters? As it is written: “He that causes destruction [shod] to flash upon the mighty, so that destruction comes upon the fortress” (Amos 5:9), which is interpreted as: He who lifts the downtrodden [shadud] over the mighty.
רבי זירא אשכח לרב יהודה דהוה קאי אפיתחא דבי חמוה וחזייה דהוה בדיחא דעתיה ואי בעי מיניה כל חללי עלמא הוה אמר ליה אמר ליה מאי טעמא עיזי מסגן ברישא והדר אימרי אמר ליה כברייתו של עולם דברישא חשוכא והדר נהורא מאי טעמא הני מכסיין והני מגליין הני דמכסינן מינייהו מכסיין והני דלא מכסינן מינייהו מגליין מאי טעמא גמלא זוטר גנובתיה משום דאכל כיסי מאי טעמא תורא אריכא גנובתיה משום דדייר באגמי ובעי לכרכושי בקי
On the topic of the nature of the world, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Zeira found Rav Yehuda, who was standing at the entrance of his father-in-law’s house, and observed that he was in an especially cheerful mood. And Rabbi Zeira understood that were he to ask Rabbi Yehuda about anything in the entire world, he would tell him the answer. He therefore posed questions to him on a variety of topics unrelated to halakha. He asked: Why do goats walk in front of the flock and then ewes follow? He said to him: It is just as it was in the creation of the world, which at first was dark and then light followed. Goats, which are typically black, precede the ewes, which are typically white. And he asked: Why are the genitals of these ewes covered with a tail, whereas these goats are exposed? He answered: These ewes, whose wool we use to cover ourselves, are rewarded in that they are covered; and those goats, whose hair we do not use to cover ourselves, are exposed. And he asked: Why is the camel’s tail short? He answered: Because a camel eats thorns, and a long tail would become entangled in the thorns. And he asked: Why is the ox’s tail long? He answered: Because the ox lives in a swamp and must fend off mosquitoes.
מאי טעמא קרנא דקמצא רכיכא משום דדיירא בחילפי ואי קשיא נדיא ומתעוורא דאמר שמואל האי מאן דבעי דליסמיה לקמצא שלופינהו לקרניה מאי טעמא האי תימרא דתרנגולתא מדלי לעילא דדיירי אדפי ואי עייל קטרא מתעוורא דשא דרך שם דרגא דרך גג מתכוליתא מתי תכלה דא ביתא בא ואיתיב בה ביקתא בי עקתא
He continued to ask: Why is the grasshopper’s antenna soft? He answered: Because it lives in the plains among the grass, and if the antenna were hard it would break and the grasshopper would go blind. When the grasshopper loses its antenna it is unable to move, as Shmuel said: One who seeks to blind a grasshopper should remove its antenna. And he asked: Why does the chicken’s lower eyelid cover the upper one? He answered: Because a chicken lives on rafters in houses, and if the smoke from the houses were to enter its eyes without the protection of the eyelid, it would go blind. He asked further: Why is a door called dasha in Aramaic? He said to him: It is an acronym for derekh sham, which means through there. Why is a stair called darga? He said to him: It is an acronym for derekh gag, which means the way to the roof. Why are spices called mitkolita? He said to him: It is an acronym for matai tikhleh da, which means when will this be finished. Since spices are used sparingly, they last a long time. Why is a house called beita? He said to him: It is an acronym for bo ve’eitiv ba, which means come and I will sit in it. Why is a small house called bikta? He said to him: It is an acronym for bei akta, which means a narrow house.
כופתא כוף ותיב לבני לבני בני הוצא חציצה חצבא שחוצב מים מן הנהר כוזה כזה שוטיתא שטותא משיכלא מאשי כולה משכילתא משיא כלתא אסיתא חסירתא בוכנה בוא ואכנה
A barrel is called kufta, which is an acronym for kuf vetiv, which means turn it over and sit. Bricks are called livnei, which is an allusion to livnei benei, which means for the children of children. A fence made of thorns is called hutza and Rav Yehuda said that it is merely a ḥatzitza, which means partition, as opposed to a true fence. A jug used for drawing water is called a ḥatzba because it hews [ḥotzev] water from the river. A small jug is called kuza, alluding to kazeh, which means: Give me one like that. Myrtle branches with which people dance at a wedding are called shutita, an allusion to shetuta, which means madness, as the frenzied dancing appears to be madness. The large vessel used for washing is called meshikhla, which is an acronym for mashei kula, which means: It washes all. A small vessel used for washing is called mashkhilta, and Rav Yehuda explained that it is an acronym for mashya kalta, which means: It washes the bride. A mortar is called asita, alluding to ḥasirta, which means lacking, since it has a large cavity. The pestle that is inserted into the mortar for pounding its contents is called bukhna, which is an acronym for bo ve’akkena, which means: Come and I will strike it.
לבושה לא בושה גלימא שנעשה בו כגלם גולתא גלי ואיתיב פוריא שפרין ורבין עליה בור זינקא בור זה נקי סודרא סוד ה׳ ליראיו אפדנא אפיתחא דין תנו רבנן שלשה כל זמן שמזקינין מוסיפין גבורה ואלו הן דג ונחש וחזיר:
An outer garment is called levusha, which is an acronym for lo busha, which means no shame, as one who is clothed is no longer ashamed. A broad outer garment is called gelima, an allusion to the fact that, by wearing it, one is transformed into an amorphous golem-like figure, as his limbs are indistiguishable. A beautiful coat is termed golta, which is an acronym for geli ve’eitiv, which means reveal, remove the coat, and only then I will sit, so that the coat will not get dirty. A bed is called purya, an allusion to the fact that people parin veravin, which means procreate, upon it. An empty pit is called bor zinka, which is an acronym for bor ze naki, which means that this pit is empty of water. The head covering of Torah scholars is called sudara, an acronym for sod yareh, which is a reference to the verse: “The counsel of the Lord is with them who fear Him [sod Hashem lire’av]” (Psalms 25:14). A palace is called apadna, which is an acronym for apitḥa dein, meaning: To this entrance all come. The Gemara cites an additional baraita related to the nature of the creatures. There are three creatures that grow mightier with age, and they are the fish, and the snake, and the pig.
שמן כדי לסוך אבר קטן: אמרי דבי רבי ינאי שמן כדי לסוך אבר קטן של קטן בן יומו מיתיבי שמן כדי לסוך אבר קטן וקטן בן יומו מאי לאו אבר קטן דגדול ואבר גדול של קטן בן יומו אמרי לך דבי רבי ינאי לא הכי קאמר שמן כדי לסוך אבר קטן של קטן בן יומו
We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out oil is equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb. The school of Rabbi Yannai said it should be explained as follows: The measure that determines liability for carrying out oil is equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb of a day-old child. The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: The measure that determines liability for carrying out oil is equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb and a day-old child. Does this not mean: A small limb of an adult and a large limb of a day-old child? The Gemara rejects this: The school of Rabbi Yannai could have said to you: No, this is what the baraita is saying: The measure that determines liability for carrying out oil is equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb, and the small limb in question is that of a day-old child.
לימא כתנאי שמן כדי לסוך אבר קטן וקטן בן יומו דברי רבי שמעון בן אלעזר רבי נתן אומר כדי לסוך אבר קטן מאי לאו בהא קמיפלגי דרבי שמעון בן אלעזר סבר אבר קטן של קטן ורבי נתן סבר אבר קטן דגדול או אבר גדול דקטן אבל אבר קטן של קטן בן יומו לא לא דכולי עלמא אבר קטן דקטן בן יומו לא
The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this is parallel to a dispute between tanna’im, as it was taught in a baraita: The measure that determines liability for carrying out oil is equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb and a day-old child; this is the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar. Rabbi Natan says: Equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb. Is it not that they disagree about the following? Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar holds: It refers to a small limb of a small child, and Rabbi Natan holds: The measure for liability is equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb of an adult or a large limb of a child, but for a measure equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb of a day-old child, no, one is exempt. The Gemara rejects this: No, everyone agrees that for carrying out oil in a measure equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb of a day-old child, no, one is exempt,