גְּמָ׳ מִנְיָנָא לְמָה לִי? אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: שֶׁאִם עֲשָׂאָן כּוּלָּם בְּהֶעְלֵם אֶחָד — חַיָּיב עַל כׇּל אַחַת וְאַחַת.
GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that the primary categories of labor number forty-less-one. The Gemara asks: Why do I need this tally? Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The tally was included to teach that if he performed all of the prohibited labors in the course of one lapse of awareness, during which he was unaware of the prohibition involved, he is liable for each and every one.
הַזּוֹרֵעַ וְהַחוֹרֵשׁ. מִכְּדֵי מִכְרָב כָּרְבִי בְּרֵישָׁא, לִיתְנֵי חוֹרֵשׁ וַהֲדַר לִיתְנֵי זוֹרֵעַ! תַּנָּא בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל קָאֵי דְּזָרְעִי בְּרֵישָׁא וַהֲדַר כָּרְבִי.
We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who sows, and one who plows. The Gemara asks: Since, after all, in terms of plowing, one plows first and only then sows, let the tanna teach first one who plows, and afterward let him teach one who sows. The Gemara answers: The tanna ordered the mishna based on the practice in Eretz Yisrael, where they sow first and then plow. In Eretz Yisrael, the practice was to plow a second time after sowing to cover the seeds.
תָּנָא: הַזּוֹרֵעַ, וְהַזּוֹמֵר, וְהַנּוֹטֵעַ, וְהַמַּבְרִיךְ, וְהַמַּרְכִּיב — כּוּלָּן מְלָאכָה אַחַת הֵן. מַאי קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן? [הָא קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן] הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכוֹת הַרְבֵּה מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה אַחַת אֵינוֹ חַיָּיב אֶלָּא אַחַת. אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא, אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אָשֵׁי, אָמַר רַבִּי אַמֵּי: זוֹמֵר חַיָּיב מִשּׁוּם נוֹטֵעַ, וְהַנּוֹטֵעַ וְהַמַּבְרִיךְ וְהַמַּרְכִּיב חַיָּיב מִשּׁוּם זוֹרֵעַ. מִשּׁוּם זוֹרֵעַ אִין, מִשּׁוּם נוֹטֵעַ לָא? אֵימָא: אַף מִשּׁוּם זוֹרֵעַ.
A baraita is taught with regard to the prohibited labor of sowing: One who sows, and one who prunes the branches of vines to accelerate their growth, and one who plants, and one who bends the branch of a vine or a tree into the ground so that it takes root while still attached to the trunk, and one who grafts the branch of one tree onto another have all performed one type of labor, as they all stimulate plant growth. The Gemara asks: What is the baraita teaching us? The Gemara explains: This teaches us that one who unwittingly performs numerous prohibited labors subsumed under a single primary category of labor, like those listed in the baraita, is liable to bring only one sin-offering, since they are considered aspects of the same labor. Rabbi Aḥa said that Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rabbi Ami said: One who prunes is liable for the labor of planting. And one who plants, and one who bends, and one who grafts is liable for the labor of sowing. The Gemara is surprised at this: Is that to say that one who bends and one who grafts a branch, for sowing, yes, he is liable; for planting, no, he is not liable? These labors, performed on trees, are more similar to planting. Rather, say as follows: One is liable even for sowing, as with regard to the halakhot of Shabbat there is no difference between sowing and planting.
אָמַר רַב כָּהֲנָא: זוֹמֵר וְצָרִיךְ לָעֵצִים — חַיָּיב שְׁתַּיִם: אַחַת מִשּׁוּם קוֹצֵר, וְאַחַת מִשּׁוּם נוֹטֵעַ. אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: הַאי מַאן דְּקָטֵל אַסְפַּסְתָּא חַיָּיב שְׁתַּיִם: אַחַת מִשּׁוּם קוֹצֵר, וְאַחַת מִשּׁוּם נוֹטֵעַ. אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: הַאי מַאן דְּקָנֵיב סִילְקָא חַיָּיב שְׁתַּיִם: אַחַת מִשּׁוּם קוֹצֵר, וְאַחַת מִשּׁוּם זוֹרֵעַ.
Rav Kahana said: One who prunes a tree and needs the wood that he hewed from the tree for fuel or some other purpose is liable to bring two sin-offerings: One sin-offering due to the labor of reaping, like anyone who severs an item from the ground for the purpose of harvesting the detached object, and one sin-offering due to the labor of planting, since he thereby stimulates growth of the plant. Similarly, Rav Yosef said: One who reaps alfalfa is liable to bring two sin-offerings: One due to reaping, since he is cutting the plant for animal feed, and one due to planting, since cutting stimulates the growth of the alfalfa. Similarly, Abaye said: One who cuts beet leaves is liable to bring two sin-offerings: One due to reaping and one due to sowing.
וְהַחוֹרֵשׁ. תָּנָא: הַחוֹרֵשׁ וְהַחוֹפֵר וְהַחוֹרֵץ כּוּלָּן מְלָאכָה אַחַת הֵן. אָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת: הָיְתָה לוֹ גַּבְשׁוּשִׁית וּנְטָלָהּ, בַּבַּיִת — חַיָּיב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה, בַּשָּׂדֶה — חַיָּיב מִשּׁוּם חוֹרֵשׁ. אָמַר רָבָא: הָיְתָה לוֹ גּוּמָּא וּטְמָמָהּ, בַּבַּיִת — חַיָּיב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה, בַּשָּׂדֶה — מִשּׁוּם חוֹרֵשׁ.
We learned in the mishna among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who plows. A tanna taught in a baraita with regard to the labor of plowing: One who plows, and one who digs, and one who makes a furrow in the ground have all performed one type of labor. Rav Sheshet said: One who had a mound of earth and removed it in the house, thereby evening the surface, is liable due to the labor of building, as he thereby engages in construction of the house. In the field, he is liable due to the labor of plowing. Similarly, Rava said: One who had a hole and filled it, in the house he is liable due to the labor of building. In the field, he is liable due to the labor of plowing.
אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא: הַחוֹפֵר גּוּמָּא בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא לַעֲפָרָהּ — פָּטוּר עָלֶיהָ. וַאֲפִילּוּ לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, דְּאָמַר מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ חַיָּיב עָלֶיהָ — הָנֵי מִילֵּי מְתַקֵּן, הַאי — מְקַלְקֵל הוּא.
Rabbi Abba said: One who digs a hole on Shabbat and digs the hole only because he needs its dirt is exempt for that act, which is not the labor of digging prohibited on Shabbat by Torah law. And even according to Rabbi Yehuda, who said that in general one who performs labor that is not necessary for its own sake, i.e., he performs the labor for a purpose other than the direct result of that action, is liable for it; that ruling applies only to a purpose that is constructive. However, this purpose is destructive, as one performs an act that unnecessarily mars the surface of the ground. Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda would agree that in this case he is exempt.
וְהַקּוֹצֵר. תָּנָא: הַקּוֹצֵר, הַבּוֹצֵר, וְהַגּוֹדֵר וְהַמַּסִּיק, וְהָאוֹרֶה — כּוּלָּן מְלָאכָה אַחַת. אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: הַאי מַאן דִּשְׁדָא פִּיסָּא לְדִיקְלָא וְאַתַּר תַּמְרֵי חַיָּיב שְׁתַּיִם: אַחַת מִשּׁוּם תּוֹלֵשׁ, וְאַחַת מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק. רַב אָשֵׁי אָמַר: אֵין דֶּרֶךְ תְּלִישָׁה בְּכָךְ, וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ פְּרִיקָה בְּכָךְ.
And we learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who reaps. It was taught in a Tosefta with regard to the labor of reaping: One who reaps, and one who picks grapes, and one who harvests dates, and one who collects olives, and one who gathers figs have all performed one type of labor, as they all involve picking fruit. Rav Pappa said: One who threw a clod of earth at a palm tree and severed dates is liable to bring two sin-offerings: One due to severing, which is a subcategory of the primary category of reaping; and one for extracting, which is a subcategory of the primary category of threshing, as he removes something edible, the date, from its cover, its cluster. Rav Ashi said: In that case, one is exempt, since that is not the typical manner of severing, and that is not the typical manner of extracting, and one who performs a labor in an atypical manner is exempt.
וְהַמְעַמֵּר. אָמַר רָבָא: הַאי מַאן דְּכָנֵיף מִילְחָא מִמִּלְחֲתָא חַיָּיב מִשּׁוּם מְעַמֵּר. אַבָּיֵי אָמַר: אֵין עִימּוּר אֶלָּא בְּגִידּוּלֵי קַרְקַע.
And we learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who gathers. Rava said: One who gathers salt from salt pools is liable due to the labor of gathering, as he gathers a substance from the field into a pile. Abaye said: That is not so, as the prohibition of gathering by Torah law applies only to produce that grows from the ground.
וְהַדָּשׁ. תָּנָא: הַדָּשׁ, וְהַמְנַפֵּץ, וְהַמְנַפֵּט — כּוּלָּן מְלָאכָה אַחַת הֵן.
And we learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who threshes. A tanna taught in a Tosefta: One who threshes, and one who beats flax to remove it from the hard cover of its stalk, and one who strikes a cotton plant to remove the cotton seeds have all performed one type of labor.
הַזּוֹרֶה, הַבּוֹרֵר, וְהַטּוֹחֵן, וְהַמְרַקֵּד. הַיְינוּ זוֹרֶה, הַיְינוּ בּוֹרֵר, הַיְינוּ מְרַקֵּד. אַבָּיֵי וְרָבָא דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: כׇּל מִילְּתָא דַּהֲוַאי בְּמִשְׁכָּן,
And we learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who winnows, and one who selects, and one who grinds, and one who sifts. The Gemara asks: The prohibited labor of winnowing is the same as the prohibited labor of selecting, which is the same as the prohibited labor of sifting. They are all identical in the manner in which they are performed and have the same objective: Separating food from the accompanying waste. Why was it necessary to list them all? An answer was provided by Abaye and Rava, who both said and established a principle: Any manner of labor that was performed in the Tabernacle, for the purposes of the Tabernacle,