לא משום כלאים ולא משום שביעית ולא משום מעשר וניטלין בשבת תיובתא:
due to diverse kinds, i.e., that he violated the prohibition of planting food crops in a vineyard, as he did not commit an act of planting; nor due to concern that he violated the prohibition against working the land during the Sabbatical Year; nor due to tithes, i.e., that it would be considered as if he picked it from the ground and would be obligated to tithe it; and they may be taken from the ground on Shabbat. Even if most of the turnip or radish is underground, it is permitted to pull it from the ground on Shabbat. One need not be concerned about causing the earth to move. Apparently, this contradicts the opinions of Rav Huna and Shmuel, who were concerned about causing earth to move on Shabbat. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, this is a conclusive refutation of the opinions of Rav Huna and Shmuel.
מתני׳ לא כסהו מבעוד יום לא יכסנו משתחשך כסהו ונתגלה מותר לכסותו ממלא את הקיתון ונותן לתחת הכר או תחת הכסת:
MISHNA: If one did not cover a pot of cooked food on Shabbat eve while it was still day, he may not cover it after dark. However, if one covered it while it was still day and it was uncovered on Shabbat, he is permitted to cover it even on Shabbat. One may fill a jug with cold water on Shabbat and place it beneath a pillow or a cushion to prevent it from getting warm.
גמ׳ אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מותר להטמין את הצונן אמר רב יוסף מאי קמשמע לן תנינא ממלא אדם קיתון ונותן תחת הכר או תחת הכסת
GEMARA: Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is permitted to insulate the cold food on Shabbat to keep it cold.There is no concern that this will lead one to insulate hot food on Shabbat to keep it hot. Rav Yosef said: What is Shmuel teaching us with this statement? We already learned in our mishna: One may fill a jug with cold water on Shabbat and place it beneath a pillow or a mattress to prevent it from getting warm.
אמר ליה אביי טובא קמשמע לן דאי ממתני׳ הוה אמינא הני מילי דבר שאין דרכו להטמין אבל דבר שדרכו להטמין לא קמשמע לן
Abaye said to him: He teaches us a great deal. As, if it had been learned from the mishna alone, I would have said that the ruling that one is permitted to insulate cold food applies only to something that is not ordinarily insulated when it is hot. However, something that is commonly insulated when it is hot, no, it may not be insulated even when it is cold. Therefore, Shmuel teaches us that this is allowed even in the case of something which is commonly insulated when it is hot.
אמר רב הונא (אמר רב) אסור להטמין את הצונן והתניא רבי התיר להטמין את הצונן לא קשיא הא מקמיה דלישמעיה מרבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי הא לבתר דלישמעיה כי הא דיתיב רבי ואמר אסור להטמין את הצונן אמר לפניו רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי אבא התיר להטמין את הצונן אמר כבר הורה זקן
Rav Huna said that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: It is prohibited to insulate cold food on Shabbat to keep it cold. The Gemara raises an objection: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi permitted cold food to be insulated on Shabbat? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This statement was made before he heard the ruling of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei; that statement in the baraita was made after he heard it. As in that incident where Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi sat and said: It is prohibited to insulate cold food on Shabbat to keep it cold, Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said before him: Father permitted insulating cold food on Shabbat. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: I retract my previous statement, as the Elder, Rabbi Yosei, has already issued a ruling on this topic, and I defer to his ruling.
אמר רב פפא בא וראה כמה מחבבין זה את זה שאילו רבי יוסי קיים היה כפוף ויושב לפני רבי דהא רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי דממלא מקום אבותיו הוה וכפוף ויושב לפני רבי וקאמר כבר הורה זקן
Rav Pappa said: Come and see how much they loved each other. Had Rabbi Yosei still been alive, he would have been subordinate to and sitting before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi as his student, as Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who took his father’s place and was as great a Torah scholar as his father, was subordinate to and sitting before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi as his student. And, nevertheless, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The Elder has already issued a ruling on this topic, and he deferred to Rabbi Yosei’s ruling.
אמר ליה רב נחמן לדרו עבדיה אטמין לי צונן ואייתי לי מיא דאחים קפילא ארמאה שמע רבי אמי ואיקפד אמר רב יוסף מאי טעמא איקפד כרבוותיה עביד חדא כרב וחדא כשמואל
Rav Naḥman said to Daru, his slave: Insulate cold food for me on Shabbat, so that it will not become warm, and bring me water that a gentile cook [kappeila] heated on a weekday, as the prohibition to eat food cooked by a gentile does not apply to water. When Rabbi Ami heard this, he became angry. Rav Yosef said: What is the reason that Rabbi Ami become angry? Rav Naḥman acted in accordance with the rulings of his teachers; in one matter in accordance with the ruling of Rav, and in one matter in accordance with the ruling of Shmuel.
כשמואל דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מותר להטמין את הצונן כרב דאמר רב שמואל בר רב יצחק אמר רב כל שהוא נאכל כמות שהוא חי אין בו משום בשולי גוים
The Gemara explains: In one matter in accordance with the ruling of Shmuel, as Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is permitted to insulate cold food on Shabbat to keep it cold. In one matter in accordance with the ruling of Rav, as Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak said that Rav said: Anything that is eaten as it is, raw, and cooking it is unnecessary, even if it was cooked it is not subject to the prohibition of food cooked by gentiles. Since water is commonly drunk uncooked, one may drink it even if it was boiled by a gentile.
(הוא) סבר אדם חשוב שאני:
The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ami became angry because he held that an important person is different. A distinguished person like Rav Naḥman should be stringent and distance himself from conduct that could be perceived, even mistakenly, as a prohibited act.
תנו רבנן אף על פי שאמרו אין טומנין אפילו בדבר שאינו מוסיף הבל משחשכה אם בא להוסיף מוסיף כיצד הוא עושה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר נוטל את הסדינין ומניח את הגלופקרין או נוטל את הגלופקרין ומניח את הסדינין
The Sages taught in the Tosefta: Although the Sages said that one may not insulate hot food, even in something that does not add heat after nightfall on Shabbat, if he comes to add to the material in which he insulated the food on Shabbat eve, he may add to it even on Shabbat. How should he do it? Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: He takes the sheets with which he insulated a pot and places the heavy blankets, which provide better insulation, in their place. Or, if he is concerned about excessive heat, he takes the heavy blankets in which the pot had been insulated and places the lighter sheetsin their place.
וכן היה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא אסרו אלא אותו מיחם אבל פינה ממיחם למיחם מותר השתא אקורי קא מקיר לה ארתוחי קא מירתח לה
And likewise, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, in teaching an additional leniency, said: They prohibited insulating a pot on Shabbat to keep its contents warm when the food remains only in the same urn in which the water was boiled. However, if one emptied the water from that urn into another urn, it is permitted to insulate the second urn to keep the water warm. The reason for the ruling of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is: It is prohibited to insulate a pot on Shabbat, due to concern lest one heat the food beforehand. Now that he has already taken steps to cool the water by pouring it from one urn to another, is there concern that he will boil it again on Shabbat?
טמן וכיסה בדבר הניטל בשבת או טמן בדבר שאינו ניטל בשבת וכיסה בדבר הניטל בשבת הרי זה נוטל ומחזיר
And Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: If he insulated the pot and covered it with something that may be moved on Shabbat, or if he insulated it with something that may not be moved on Shabbat because it is set-aside and covered it with something that may be moved on Shabbat, he may take the pot to remove food and return it to its place and not be concerned.
טמן וכיסה בדבר שאינו ניטל בשבת או שטמן בדבר הניטל בשבת וכיסה בדבר שאינו ניטל בשבת אם היה מגולה מקצתו נוטל ומחזיר ואם לאו
However, if he both insulated it and covered it with something that may not be moved on Shabbat, or if he insulated it in something that may be moved on Shabbat and covered it with something that may not be moved on Shabbat, if the pot was partially exposed, he may remove the pot and the cover will fall on its own and then return it to its place. And if the pot was not partially exposed,