דְּאׇכְלָן וְלָא עָבְדָן. וּכְתִיב: ״הִכֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם בַּשִּׁדָּפוֹן וּבַיֵּרָקוֹן הַרְבּוֹת גַּנּוֹתֵיכֶם וְכַרְמֵיכֶם וּתְאֵנֵיכֶם וְזֵיתֵיכֶם יֹאכַל הַגָּזָם״, וּכְתִיב: ״יֶתֶר הַגָּזָם אָכַל הָאַרְבֶּה וְיֶתֶר הָאַרְבֶּה אָכַל הַיָּלֶק וְיֶתֶר הַיֶּלֶק אָכַל הֶחָסִיל״. וּכְתִיב: ״וַיִּגְזוֹר עַל יָמִין וְרָעֵב וַיֹּאכַל עַל שְׂמֹאל וְלֹא שָׂבֵעוּ אִישׁ בְּשַׂר זְרוֹעוֹ יֹאכֵלוּ״, אַל תִּקְרֵי ״בְּשַׂר זְרוֹעוֹ״ אֶלָּא ״בְּשַׂר זַרְעוֹ״. who eat and do nothing to support themselves, and cause their husbands to commit the sin of theft. And it is written: “I have smitten you with blight and mildew; the multitude of your gardens and your vineyards and your fig trees and your olive trees has the palmerworm devoured” (Amos 4:9). And it is written: “That which the palmerworm has left the locust has eaten; and that which the locust has left the cankerworm has eaten; and that which the cankerworm has left the caterpillar has eaten” (Joel 1:4). And it is written: “And one snatches on the right hand, and is hungry; and he eats on the left hand, and is not satisfied; they eat every man the flesh of his own arm [besar zero’o]” (Isaiah 9:19). Do not read it: The flesh of his own arm [besar zero’o]; rather, the flesh of his own offspring [besar zaro]. All the punishments for theft listed above were explicitly mentioned in the verses.
בַּעֲוֹן עִינּוּי הַדִּין, וְעִיוּוּת הַדִּין, וְקִלְקוּל הַדִּין, וּבִיטּוּל תּוֹרָה — חֶרֶב וּבִיזָּה רָבָה, וְדֶבֶר וּבַצּוֹרֶת בָּא, וּבְנֵי אָדָם אוֹכְלִין וְאֵינָן שְׂבֵעִין, וְאוֹכְלִין לַחְמָם בְּמִשְׁקָל. דִּכְתִיב: ״וְהֵבֵאתִי עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרֶב נוֹקֶמֶת נְקַם בְּרִית וְגוֹ׳״. וְאֵין ״בְּרִית״ אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״אִם לֹא בְרִיתִי יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה וְגוֹ׳״, וּכְתִיב: ״בְּשִׁבְרִי לָכֶם מַטֵּה לֶחֶם וְאָפוּ עֶשֶׂר נָשִׁים וְגוֹ׳״, וּכְתִיב: ״יַעַן וּבְיַעַן בְּמִשְׁפָּטַי מָאָסוּ״. Furthermore, the Sages said that due to the sin of delay of justice, i.e., judges delay issuing their rulings due to personal considerations, and for distortion of justice, i.e., judges intentionally distort their verdicts, and for miscarriage of justice that results from negligence, and for dereliction in the study of Torah, violence and looting abound in the world, and pestilence and famine come, and people eat and are not sated, and they eat their bread measured by weight. As it is written: “And I will bring a sword upon you, that shall execute the vengeance of the covenant; and you shall be gathered together within your cities; and I will send the pestilence among you; and you shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy” (Leviticus 26:25). And covenant means nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “If My covenant be not with day and night, if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). The study of Torah is the mitzva practiced both day and night. And it is written with regard to this punishment: “When I break your staff of bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver your bread again by weight; and ye shall eat, and not be satisfied” (Leviticus 26:26). And it is written: “Even because they rejected My ordinances, and their soul abhorred My statutes” (Leviticus 26:43). All of these punishments result from breaching the covenant of the Torah and the perversion of justice.
בַּעֲוֹן שְׁבוּעַת שָׁוְא וּשְׁבוּעַת שֶׁקֶר וְחִילּוּל הַשֵּׁם וְחִילּוּל שַׁבָּת — חַיָּה רָעָה רָבָה, וּבְהֵמָה כָּלָה, וּבְנֵי אָדָם מִתְמַעֲטִין, וְהַדְּרָכִים מִשְׁתּוֹמְמִין. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְאִם בְּאֵלֶּה לֹא תִוָּסְרוּ לִי״ — אַל תִּקְרֵי ״בְּאֵלֶּה״, אֶלָּא ״בְּאָלָה״. וּכְתִיב: ״וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּי בָכֶם אֶת חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְגוֹ׳״, וּכְתִיב בִּשְׁבוּעַת שֶׁקֶר: ״וְלֹא תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ״, וּבְחִלּוּל הַשֵּׁם כְּתִיב: ״וְלֹא תְחַלְּלוּ אֶת שֵׁם קׇדְשִׁי״. וּבְחִלּוּל שַׁבָּת כְּתִיב: ״מְחַלְּלֶיהָ מוֹת יוּמָת״, וְיָלֵיף ״חִילּוּל״ ״חִילּוּל״ מִשְּׁבוּעַת שֶׁקֶר. Due to the sin of an oath taken in vain and a false oath, and desecration of God’s name, and desecration of Shabbat, wild beasts abound in the world, and domesticated animals cease to exist, and human beings decrease in number, and the roads become desolate, as it is stated: “And if in spite of these [be’eleh] things you will not be corrected unto Me, but will walk contrary unto Me casually” (Leviticus 26:23). Do not read of these [be’eleh]; rather, due to a vain oath [be’ala]. And it is written that the punishment for this is: “And I will send the beast of the field among you, which shall rob you of your children, and destroy your cattle, and make you few in number; and your ways shall become desolate” (Leviticus 26:22). And it is written with regard to a false oath: “And you shall not swear by My name falsely, so that you desecrate [veḥillalta] the name of your God: I am the Lord” (Leviticus 19:12). And it is written with regard to desecrating the name of God: “And you shall not desecrate [teḥallelu] My Holy Name” (Leviticus 22:32). And it is written with regard to desecrating Shabbat: “Every one that desecrates it [meḥaleleha] shall surely be put to death” (Exodus 31:14). And derive by means of a verbal analogy [gezera shava] desecration [ḥillul] of Shabbat from desecration [ḥillul] of a false oath. Just as punishment for a false oath is desolation and wild beasts, one receives the same punishment for desecrating Shabbat and the name of God.
בַּעֲוֹן שְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ חָרֵב, וּשְׁכִינָה מִסְתַּלֶּקֶת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְלֹא תַחֲנִיפוּ וְגוֹ׳ וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יוֹשְׁבִים בָּהּ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שׁוֹכֵן בְּתוֹכָהּ״. הָא אַתֶּם מְטַמְּאִים אוֹתָהּ — אֵינְכֶם יוֹשְׁבִים בָּהּ, וְאֵינִי שׁוֹכֵן בְּתוֹכָהּ. Due to the sin of bloodshed, the Holy Temple is destroyed, and the Divine Presence leaves Israel, as it says: “So you shall not pollute the land wherein you are; for blood, it pollutes the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it. And you shall not defile the land which you inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the Lord dwell in the midst of the children of Israel” (Numbers 35:33–34). However, if you defile the land, you will not inhabit it, and I will not dwell in it.
בַּעֲוֹן גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת וַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְהַשְׁמָטַת שְׁמִיטִּין וְיוֹבְלוֹת — גָּלוּת בָּא לָעוֹלָם, וּמַגְלִין אוֹתָן, וּבָאִין אֲחֵרִים וְיוֹשְׁבִין בִּמְקוֹמָן. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״כִּי אֶת כׇּל הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת הָאֵל עָשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָאָרֶץ וְגוֹ׳״, וּכְתִיב: ״וַתִּטְמָא הָאָרֶץ וָאֶפְקוֹד עֲוֹנָהּ עָלֶיהָ וְגוֹ׳״, וּכְתִיב: ״וְלֹא תָקִיא הָאָרֶץ אֶתְכֶם בְּטַמַּאֲכֶם אוֹתָהּ״. Due to the sin of prohibited sexual relations, and idol worship, and failure to let the land lie fallow during the Sabbatical and Jubilee Years, exile comes to the world and they exile the Jewish people from their land, and others come and settle in their place. As it is stated with regard to illicit sexual relations: “For all these abominations have the men of the land done, that were before you, and the land is defiled; that the land expel not you also, when you defile it, as it expelled the nation that was before you” (Leviticus 18:27–28). And it is written: “And the land was defiled, therefore I did visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land expelled her inhabitants” (Leviticus 18:25). And it is written: “That the land expel not you also, when you defile it, as it expelled the nation that was before you.”
וּבַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה כְּתִיב: ״וְנָתַתִּי אֶת פִּגְרֵיכֶם וְגוֹ׳״, וּכְתִיב: ״וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִי אֶת מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם וְגוֹ׳״, ״וְאֶתְכֶם אֱזָרֶה בַגּוֹיִם״. And with regard to idol worship it is written: “And I will cast your carcasses upon the carcasses of your idols” (Leviticus 26:30). And it is written: “And I will bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savor of your sweet odors” (Leviticus 26:31). “And you will I scatter among the nations, and I will draw out the sword after you; and your land shall be a desolation, and your cities shall be a waste” (Leviticus 26:33).
בִּשְׁמִיטִּין וּבְיוֹבְלוֹת כְּתִיב: ״אָז תִּרְצֶה הָאָרֶץ אֶת שַׁבְּתוֹתֶיהָ כֹּל יְמֵי הֳשַׁמָּה וְאַתֶּם בְּאֶרֶץ אוֹיְבֵיכֶם וְגוֹ׳״, וּכְתִיב: ״כׇּל יְמֵי הׇשַּׁמָּה תִּשְׁבּוֹת״. With regard to the sin of failure to observe the Sabbatical and Jubilee Years it is written: “Then shall the land be paid her Sabbaths, as long as it lies desolate, and you are in your enemies’ land; even then shall the land rest, and repay her Sabbaths” (Leviticus 26:34). And it is written: “As long as it lies desolate it shall have rest; even the rest which it had not in your Sabbaths, when you dwelt upon it” (Leviticus 26: 35).
בַּעֲוֹן נַבְלוּת פֶּה צָרוֹת רַבּוֹת, וּגְזֵירוֹת קָשׁוֹת מִתְחַדְּשׁוֹת, וּבַחוּרֵי שׂוֹנְאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵתִים, יְתוֹמִים וְאַלְמָנוֹת צוֹעֲקִין וְאֵינָן נַעֲנִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״עַל כֵּן עַל בַּחוּרָיו לֹא יִשְׂמַח ה׳ וְאֶת יְתוֹמָיו (וְאַלְמְנוֹתָיו) [וְאֶת אַלְמְנוֹתָיו] לֹא יְרַחֵם כִּי כֻלּוֹ חָנֵף וּמֵרַע וְכׇל פֶּה דּוֹבֵר נְבָלָה בְּכׇל זֹאת לֹא שָׁב אַפּוֹ וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה״. Due to the sin of vulgar speech, troubles abound, and harsh decrees are renewed, and the youth among the enemies of Israel, a euphemistic reference to Israel, die, and orphans and widows cry out for help and are not answered, as it is stated: “Therefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men, neither shall He have compassion on their fatherless and widows; for everyone is ungodly and an evildoer, and every mouth speaks wantonness. For all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out still” (Isaiah 9:16).
מַאי ״וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה״ — אָמַר רַבִּי חָנָן בַּר רָבָא: הַכֹּל יוֹדְעִין כַּלָּה לָמָּה נִכְנְסָה לַחוּפָּה. אֶלָּא כׇּל הַמְנַבֵּל פִּיו אֲפִילּוּ חוֹתְמִין עָלָיו גְּזַר דִּין שֶׁל שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה לְטוֹבָה — הוֹפְכִין עָלָיו לְרָעָה. אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר שֵׁילָא אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: כׇּל הַמְנַבֵּל אֶת פִּיו — מַעֲמִיקִין לוֹ גֵּיהִנָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״שׁוּחָה עֲמוּקָּה פִּי זָרוֹת״. רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר: אַף שׁוֹמֵעַ וְשׁוֹתֵק, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״זְעוּם ה׳ יִפּוֹל שָׁם״. The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the phrase: But His hand is stretched out still? Rabbi Ḥanan bar Rava said: Everybody knows why the bride enters the wedding canopy. There is no secret revealed. Nevertheless, anyone who speaks vulgarly about it, even if they, on High, sealed for him a decree of seventy years of good fortune, they will reverse it to bad fortune because of this sin. And Rabba bar Sheila said that Rav Ḥisda said: Anyone who speaks vulgarly, they deepen Gehenna for him, as it is stated: “The mouth that speaks perversity is a deep pit: he that is abhorred of the Lord shall fall therein” (Proverbs 22:14), i.e., Gehenna is deepened for one who speaks vulgarly. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Even one who hears vulgar speech and is silent is punished, as it is stated: “He that is abhorred of the Lord shall fall therein,” even if he himself does not speak at all.
אָמַר רַב אוֹשַׁעְיָא: כׇּל הַמְּמָרֵק עַצְמוֹ לַעֲבֵירָה — חַבּוּרוֹת וּפְצָעִין יוֹצְאִין בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״חַבּוּרוֹת פֶּצַע תַּמְרוּק בְּרָע״. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּדּוֹן בְּהִדְרוֹקָן: שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ״וּמַכּוֹת חַדְרֵי בָטֶן״. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק: סִימָן לַעֲבֵירָה הִדְרוֹקָן. And in a similar vein, Rav Oshaya said: Anyone who prepares himself to commit a sin, wounds and bruises emerge on him, as it is stated: “Sharp wounds for one devoted to evil; so do stripes that reach the inward parts” (Proverbs 20:30). And not only that, but he is sentenced to suffer from the disease of edema [hidrokan], as it is stated: So do stripes that reach the inward parts. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: A sign indicating one who committed a sin is the disease hidrokan, which afflicts the inner parts.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינֵי הִדְרוֹקָן הֵן: שֶׁל עֲבֵירָה עָבֶה, וְשֶׁל רָעָב תָּפוּחַ, וְשֶׁל כְּשָׁפִים דַּק. The Sages taught in a baraita: There are three types of hidrokan: The one that comes as punishment for sin is thick; and that which is the result of hunger is swollen, but not as thick; and the one caused by witchcraft is thin, and the flesh of the sick person becomes thin in other places.
שְׁמוּאֵל הַקָּטָן חָשׁ בֵּיהּ. אֲמַר: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מִי מֵפִיס? אִיתַּסִּי. אַבָּיֵי חָשׁ בֵּיהּ. אֲמַר רָבָא: יָדַעְנָא בֵּיהּ בְּנַחֲמָנִי דְּמַכְפֵּין נַפְשֵׁיהּ. רָבָא חָשׁ בֵּיהּ. וְהָא רָבָא הוּא דְּאָמַר נְפִישִׁי קְטִילֵי קְדָר מִנְּפִיחֵי כָפָן? שָׁאנֵי רָבָא, דְּאׇנְסִי לֵיהּ רַבָּנַן בְּעִידָּנֵיהּ בְּעַל כּוּרְחֵיהּ. The Gemara relates: Shmuel HaKatan fell ill with hidrokan. He said: Master of the Universe, who will draw lots, meaning, who will be able to determine that this hidrokan is not the consequence of sin? He was cured. Abaye also fell ill with hidrokan. Rava testified and said about him: I know about Naḥmani, Abaye, that he starves himself and that his hidrokan is the result of hunger. The Gemara relates that Rava fell ill with hidrokan, and they asked: But Rava did not starve himself, and there is no reason to suspect him of sin, and we cannot say that he contracted hidrokan because he did not relieve himself on time. Rava knew to relieve himself, as it is he who said: More have been killed due to the chamber pot, because they were not careful about relieving themselves in a timely manner, than those swollen due to starvation. The Gemara answers: Rava is different because the Sages compel him to remain in place against his will while he lectures. Since he could not relieve himself, he became sick with hidrokan.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: אַרְבָּעָה סִימָנִין הֵן: סִימָן לַעֲבֵירָה — הִדְרוֹקָן, סִימָן לְשִׂנְאַת חִנָּם — יֵרָקוֹן, סִימָן לְגַסּוּת הָרוּחַ — עֲנִיּוּת, סִימָן לְלָשׁוֹן הָרָע — אַסְכָּרָה. On a related note, the Sages taught in a baraita that there are four signs: A sign of sin is hidrokan, a sign of gratuitous hatred is jaundice, a sign of arrogance is poverty, and a sign of slander is askara.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: אַסְכָּרָה בָּאָה לְעוֹלָם The Sages taught: Askara comes to the world as punishment