מִשְׁלְפָא לְדִידַהּ מִקַּנְיָא — שְׁרֵי, קַנְיָא מִינַּהּ — אֲסִיר. אָמַר רָבָא: וְאִם כְּלִי קִיוָּאֵי הוּא — מוּתָּר.
to remove it from the reed upon which it is hanging is permitted; however, to remove the reed from it is prohibited. Since the reed is not a vessel, it is set-aside. Rava said: And if it is hung on a weaver’s vessel, it is permitted to remove the vessel as well. Although its primary function is for a prohibited labor, since it is a vessel, it may be moved.
אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: הַאי כִּישְׁתָּא דְיַרְקָא, אִי חַזְיָא לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה — שְׁרֵי לְטַלְטוֹלַהּ, וְאִי לָא — אֲסִיר.
Rav Ḥisda said: This bundle of vegetables, if it is suitable for animal food, it is permitted to move it on Shabbat, but if not, it is prohibited to move it.
אָמַר רַב חִיָּיא בַּר אָשֵׁי אָמַר רַב: הַאי תַּלְיָא, דְבִשְׂרָא — שְׁרֵי לְטַלְטוֹלֵהּ, דְּכַוְורֵי — אֲסִיר.
Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said as follows: In the case of this hook, if it is used for hanging meat, it is permitted to move it, as it is also suitable for other uses. However, if it is a hook for hanging fish, it is prohibited to move it, because it smells bad (Rabbeinu Ḥananel) and is used exclusively for fish.
אָמַר רַב קַטִּינָא: הָעוֹמֵד בָּאֶמְצַע הַמִּטָּה, כְּאִילּוּ עוֹמֵד בִּכְרֵיסָהּ שֶׁל אִשָּׁה. וְלָאו מִילְּתָא הִיא.
Rav Ketina said: One who stands on a board in the middle of a bed, it is as though he were standing on the stomach of a woman. Just as he would certainly injure the woman, he will certainly break the bed (ge’onim). The Gemara comments: And it is not a correct matter, and it is not accepted as halakha.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: בַּר בֵּי רַב דְּזָבֵין יַרְקָא — לִיזְבֵּין אֲרִיכָא, כִּישָּׁא כִּי כִישָּׁא, וְאוּרְכָּא מִמֵּילָא.
On the topic of the bundle of vegetables, the Gemara cites additional advice on similar issues that Rav Ḥisda said to poor scholars experiencing difficulty earning a livelihood: A student of a Torah academy who buys vegetables should buy long ones. A bundle is a bundle, and they have a standard thickness at a standard price. However, the addition of length comes on its own for free.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: בַּר בֵּי רַב דְּזָבֵין קַנְיָא — לִיזְבֵּין אֲרִיכָא, טוּנָא כִּי טוּנָא, וְאוּרְכָּא מִמֵּילָא.
And Rav Ḥisda also said: A student of a Torah academy who buys reeds should buy long ones, since a bundle is a bundle. Bundles of reeds have a standard thickness, but the length comes on its own for free.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: בַּר בֵּי רַב [דְּלָא נְפִישָׁא לֵיהּ רִיפְתָּא] — לָא לֵיכוֹל יַרְקָא, מִשּׁוּם דְּגָרֵיר. וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: אֲנָא לָא בַּעֲנִיּוּתִי אֲכַלִי יַרְקָא, וְלָא בְּעַתִּירוּתִי אֲכַלִי יַרְקָא. בַּעֲנִיּוּתִי — מִשּׁוּם דְּגָרֵיר. בְּעַתִּירוּתִי — דְּאָמֵינָא: הֵיכָא דְּעָיֵיל יַרְקָא, לֵיעוּל בִּשְׂרָא וְכַוְורֵי.
And Rav Ḥisda further said: A student of a Torah academy who does not have much bread should not eat a vegetable, because it whets the appetite. And Rav Ḥisda said: I neither ate a vegetable in my state of poverty, nor did I eat a vegetable in my state of wealth. In my poverty, I did not eat a vegetable because it whets the appetite. In my wealth, I did not eat a vegetable because I said: Where a vegetable enters, let meat and fish enter instead.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: בַּר בֵּי רַב דְּלָא נְפִישָׁא לֵיהּ רִיפְתָּא — לָא לִיבְצַע בַּצּוֹעֵי. (וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: בַּר בֵּי רַב דְּלָא נְפִישָׁא לֵיהּ רִיפְתָּא — לָא לִיבְצַע. מַאי טַעְמָא? — דְּלָא עָבֵיד בְּעַיִן יָפָה.) וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: אֲנָא מֵעִיקָּרָא לָא הֲוַאי בָּצַעְנָא עַד דִּשְׁדַאי יָדִי בְּכוּלֵּי מָנָא, וְאַשְׁכַּחִי [בֵּיהּ כׇּל צֻרְכִּי].
And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who does not have much bread should not cut it into thin slices; rather, he should eat what he has in one helping. And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who does not have much bread should not break it for guests. What is the reason? As he will not do so in a generous manner. And Rav Ḥisda said: Originally, I would not break bread until I placed my hand in the entire dish to assure that I found that there was enough bread to meet my needs.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: הַאי מַאן דְּאֶפְשָׁר לֵיהּ לְמֵיכַל נַהֲמָא דִשְׂעָרֵי וְאָכַל דְּחִיטֵּי קָעָבַר מִשּׁוּם ״בַּל תַּשְׁחִית״. וְאָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: הַאי מַאן דְּאֶפְשָׁר לְמִישְׁתֵּי שִׁיכְרָא וְשָׁתֵי חַמְרָא — עוֹבֵר מִשּׁוּם ״בַּל תַּשְׁחִית״. וְלָאו מִילְּתָא הִיא — ״בַּל תַּשְׁחִית״ דְּגוּפָא עֲדִיף.
And Rav Ḥisda also said: One who is able to eat barley bread and nevertheless eats wheat bread violates the prohibition against wanton destruction. One who wastes resources is comparable to one who destroys items of value. And Rav Pappa said: One who is able to drink beer and nevertheless drinks wine violates the prohibition against wanton destruction. The Gemara comments: And this is not a correct matter, as the prohibition against destruction of one’s body takes precedence. It is preferable for one to care for his body by eating higher quality food than to conserve his money.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: בַּר בֵּי רַב דְּלֵית לֵיהּ מִשְׁחָא — נִימְשֵׁי בְּמַיָּא דַחֲרִיצִי.
And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who has no oil should wash, i.e., smear himself, with ditch water, as the scum that accumulates in it is as useful as oil.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: בַּר בֵּי רַב דְּזָבֵין אוּמְצָא — לִיזְבֵּין אוּנְקָא, דְּאִית בֵּיהּ תְּלָתָא מִינֵי בִישְׂרָא.
And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who buys meat should buy from the neck [unka], as there are three types of meat there.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: בַּר בֵּי רַב דְּזָבֵין כִּיתּוֹנִיתָא — לִיזְבַּן מִדִּנְהַר אַבָּא, וְנִיחַוְּורַהּ כֹּל תְּלָתִין יוֹמִין, דִּמְפַטְּיָא לֵיהּ תְּרֵיסַר יַרְחֵי שַׁתָּא, וַאֲנָא עָרְבָא. מַאי ״כִּיתּוֹנִיתָא״? — כִּיתָּא נָאָה.
And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who buys a linen shirt [kitonita] should buy it from those who work by the river Abba, and should wash it every thirty days, so that it will last him for the twelve months of the year. And I guarantee that the shirt will remain in good shape. The Gemara comments: What is the meaning of kitonita? A fine class [kita], as fine clothing provide one entry into a well-dressed class of people.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: בַּר בֵּי רַב לָא לִיתִּיב אַצִּיפְּתָא חַדְתָּא, דִּמְכַלְּיָא מָאנֵיהּ.
And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy should not sit on a new mat, as its dampness ruins his garments.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: בַּר בֵּי רַב לָא לִישַׁדַּר מָאנֵיהּ לְאוּשְׁפִּיזֵיהּ לְחַוּוֹרֵיהּ לֵיהּ, דְּלָאו אוֹרַח אַרְעָא, דִּילְמָא חָזֵי בֵּיהּ מִידֵּי וְאָתֵי לְמִגַּנְּיָא.
And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy should not give his clothes to his host to wash for him, as that is not proper behavior, for the host might see something on it, such as signs of a seminal emission, and he will be demeaned in the eyes of his host.
אֲמַר לְהוּ רַב חִסְדָּא לִבְנָתֵיהּ: תִּיהְוְיָין צְנִיעָן בְּאַפֵּי גַּבְרַיְיכוּ, לָא תֵּיכְלוּן נַהֲמָא בְּאַפֵּי גַבְרַיְיכוּ.
After citing Rav Ḥisda’s recommendations to students, the Gemara cites his advice to his daughters. Rav Ḥisda said to his daughters: Be modest before your husbands; do not eat bread before your husbands, lest you eat too much and be demeaned in their eyes.
לָא תֵּיכְלוּן יַרְקָא בְּלֵילְיָא, לָא תֵּיכְלוּן תַּמְרֵי בְּלֵילְיָא, וְלָא תִּשְׁתּוֹן שִׁיכְרָא בְּלֵילְיָא, וְלָא תִּיפְּנוֹן הֵיכָא דְּמִפְּנוּ גַּבְרַיְיכוּ.
Similarly, he advised: Do not eat vegetables at night, as vegetables cause bad breath. Do not eat dates at night and do not drink beer at night, as these loosen the bowels. And do not relieve yourself in the place where your husbands relieve themselves, so that they will not be revolted by you.
וְכִי קָא קָארֵי אִינִישׁ אַבָּבָא — לָא תֵּימְרוּן ״מַנּוּ״, אֶלָּא ״מַנִּי״.
And when a person calls at the door seeking to enter, do not say: Who is it, in the masculine form, but rather: Who is it, in the feminine form. Avoid creating the impression that you have dealings with other men.
נָקֵיט מַרְגָּנִיתָא בַּחֲדָא יְדֵיהּ וְכוּרָא בַּחֲדָא יְדֵיהּ. מַרְגָּנִיתָא — אַחְוִי לְהוּ, וְכוּרָא — לָא אַחְוִי לְהוּ עַד דְּמִיצְטַעֲרָן, וַהֲדַר אַחְוִי לְהוּ.
In order to demonstrate the value of modesty to his daughters, Rav Ḥisda held a pearl in one hand and a clod of earth in the other. The pearl he showed them immediately, and the clod of earth, he did not show them until they were upset due to their curiosity, and then he showed it to them. This taught them that a concealed object is more attractive than one on display, even if it is less valuable.
אֵין שׁוֹלִין אֶת הַכַּרְשִׁינִין. מַתְנִיתִין דְּלָא כִי הַאי תַּנָּא, דְּתַנְיָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר: אֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין בַּכְּבָרָה כׇּל עִיקָּר.
We learned in the mishna: One may not soak vetches in water in order to separate them from their chaff. However, one may take the straw in a sieve and place it into the trough of an animal. The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: One may not look at a sieve at all on Shabbat, lest one come to violate the prohibited labor of selecting.
מַתְנִי׳ גּוֹרְפִין מִלִּפְנֵי הַפַּטָּם וּמְסַלְּקִין לִצְדָדִין מִפְּנֵי הָרְעִי, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי דּוֹסָא, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין. נוֹטְלִין מִלִּפְנֵי בְּהֵמָה זוֹ וְנוֹתְנִין לִפְנֵי בְּהֵמָה זוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.
MISHNA: One may sweep hay from before an animal that is being fattened, and one may move hay to the sides for an animal that grazes on its own in the field (Rabbeinu Ḥananel); this is the statement of Rabbi Dosa. And the Rabbis prohibit doing so. One may take hay from before this animal and place it before that animal on Shabbat.
גְּמָ׳ אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ: רַבָּנַן אַרֵישָׁא פְּלִיגִי, אוֹ אַסֵּיפָא פְּלִיגִי, אוֹ אַתַּרְוַיְיהוּ פְּלִיגִי?
GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Do the Rabbis, who are stringent, disagree with the first clause of Rabbi Dosa’s statement, or do they disagree with the latter clause of the mishna, or do they disagree with both clauses?
תָּא שְׁמַע, דְּתַנְיָא: וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים אֶחָד זֶה וְאֶחָד זֶה — לֹא יְסַלְּקֶנּוּ לִצְדָדִין.
Come and hear a resolution from that which was taught in a baraita. And the Rabbis say: With regard to both this, hay placed before an animal set aside for fattening, and that, hay placed before an animal that grazes on its own, one may not move it to the sides. Apparently, the Rabbis rule stringently in both cases.
אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: מַחֲלוֹקֶת בְּאֵיבוּס שֶׁל קַרְקַע, אֲבָל בְּאֵיבוּס שֶׁל כְּלִי — דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל מוּתָּר. וְאֵיבוּס שֶׁל קַרְקַע מִי אִיכָּא לְמַאן דְּשָׁרֵי?! הָא קָא מַשְׁוֵי גּוּמּוֹת! אֶלָּא, אִי אִיתְּמַר הָכִי אִיתְּמַר: אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא מַחֲלוֹקֶת בְּאֵיבוּס שֶׁל כְּלִי, אֲבָל בְּאֵיבוּס שֶׁל קַרְקַע — דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר.
Rav Ḥisda said: This dispute is with regard to a trough formed in the ground; however, with regard to a trough which is a vessel, everyone agrees that it is permitted. The Gemara expresses surprise: Is there anyone who permits doing so in a trough formed in the ground? Isn’t one leveling holes and thereby performing the prohibited labors of building or plowing? Rather, if it was stated, it was stated as follows: Rav Ḥisda said: This dispute applies only to a trough that is a vessel; however, with regard to a trough formed in the ground, everyone agrees that it is prohibited, due to the concern lest one level holes.
וְנוֹטְלִין מִלִּפְנֵי בְּהֵמָה. תְּנָא חֲדָא: נוֹטְלִין מִלִּפְנֵי בְּהֵמָה שֶׁפִּיהָ יָפֶה וְנוֹתְנִין לִפְנֵי בְּהֵמָה שֶׁפִּיהָ רַע. וְתַנְיָא אִידַּךְ: נוֹטְלִין מִלִּפְנֵי בְּהֵמָה שֶׁפִּיהָ רַע וְנוֹתְנִין לִפְנֵי בְּהֵמָה שֶׁפִּיהָ יָפֶה!
We also learned in the mishna: One may take hay from before this animal and place it before that animal. It was taught in one baraita: One may take hay from before an animal whose mouth is fine and place it before an animal whose mouth is foul. And it was taught in another baraita: One may take hay from before an animal whose mouth is foul and place it in front of an animal whose mouth is fine. There is an apparent contradiction between the two baraitot.
אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: אִידֵּי וְאִידֵּי מִקַּמֵּי חַמְרָא לְקַמֵּי תוֹרָא — שָׁקְלִינַן, מִקַּמֵּי תוֹרָא לְקַמֵּי חַמְרָא — לָא שָׁקְלִינַן. וְהָא דְּקָתָנֵי ״נוֹטֵל מִלִּפְנֵי בְּהֵמָה שֶׁפִּיהָ יָפֶה״ — בַּחֲמוֹר, דְּלֵית לֵיהּ רִירֵי. ״וְנוֹתְנִין לִפְנֵי בְּהֵמָה שֶׁפִּיהָ רַע״ — בְּפָרָה,
Abaye said: Both this baraita and that baraita hold that one may take hay from before a donkey and place it before an ox. However, one may not take hay from before an ox and place it before a donkey. The formulation of the baraitot can be explained as follows: That which was taught: One may take hay from before an animal whose mouth is fine, is referring to a donkey, and the reason the baraita says its mouth is fine is because it has no spittle. Therefore, the donkey does not dampen the remaining hay with its saliva. And the statement: And one may place it before an animal whose mouth is foul, is referring to a cow,