Sanhedrin 7a:18סנהדרין ז׳ א:יח
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7aז׳ א

מצוה למימרא להו אי דינא בעיתו אי פשרה בעיתו היינו תנא קמא איכא בינייהו מצוה רבי יהושע בן קרחה סבר מצוה ת"ק סבר רשות

He means that it is a mitzva to say to them: Do you want a strict judgment, or do you want a compromise? The Gemara objects: Since this opinion is the same as that of the first tanna, who also allows compromise, it is redundant to teach it. The Gemara answers: There is a difference between them with regard to the question of whether it is a mitzva to arrange a compromise. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa holds that it is a mitzva to offer them the option of compromise, and the first tanna holds that it is merely permitted.

היינו דר"ש בן מנסיא איכא בינייהו משתשמע דבריהן ואתה יודע להיכן הדין נוטה אי אתה רשאי לומר להן צאו ובצעו

The Gemara objects: If so, the opinion of the first tanna is the same as that of Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya. The Gemara answers that there is a difference between them with regard to the principle: After you hear their statements and you know where the judgment is leaning, it is not permitted for you to say to them: Go out and mediate. In that instance, the first tanna holds that it is still not too late to suggest mediation.

ופליגא דרבי תנחום בר חנילאי דאמר רבי תנחום בר חנילאי לא נאמר מקרא זה אלא כנגד מעשה העגל שנאמר (שמות לב, ה) וירא אהרן ויבן מזבח לפניו מה ראה א"ר בנימין בר יפת א"ר אלעזר ראה חור שזבוח לפניו

§ And the various Sages who offered interpretations of the verse: “And the covetous blesses himself, though he despises the Lord” (Psalms 10:3), disagree with the explanation of Rabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai. As Rabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai says: This verse was stated only with regard to the incident of the Golden Calf, as it is stated: “And Aaron saw this, and he built [vayyiven] an altar [mizbe’aḥ] before it…and said: Tomorrow shall be a feast to the Lord” (Exodus 32:5). What did Aaron see? Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet says that Rabbi Elazar says: He saw Hur, who had been appointed together with Aaron by Moses to lead the people during Moses’ absence (see Exodus 24:14), slaughtered before him, as he had protested the plan to fashion a calf and had been murdered by the people as a result. The verse is therefore interpreted not as: Aaron built an altar before the calf, but rather: He understood [vayyaven] from the slaughter [mizavuaḥ] before his own eyes; and he then called for a feast.

אמר אי לא שמענא להו השתא עבדו לי כדעבדו בחור ומיקיים בי (איכה ב, כ) אם יהרג במקדש ה' כהן ונביא ולא הויא להו תקנתא לעולם מוטב דליעבדו לעגל אפשר הויא להו תקנתא בתשובה

Aaron said to himself: If I do not listen to them now, they will do to me as they did to Hur, and the verse: “Shall the priest and the prophet be slain in the sanctuary of the Lord?” (Lamentations 2:20), will be fulfilled through me, and they will never have a remedy for such a sin. It is better for them to worship the calf, as it is possible they will have a remedy through repentance. Nevertheless, according to Rabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai, whoever praises Aaron for this compromise is provoking God.

והני תנאי (משלי יז, יד) פוטר מים ראשית מדון מאי דרשי ביה כדרב המנונא דאמר רב המנונא אין תחילת דינו של אדם נידון אלא על דברי תורה שנאמר פוטר מים ראשית מדון אמר רב הונא האי תיגרא דמיא לצינורא דבידקא דמיא כיון דרווח רווח

And with regard to those tanna’im who did not interpret the verse: “The beginning of strife is as when one releases water” (Proverbs 17:14), with regard to compromise, what do they derive from this verse? They understand the verse in accordance with the opinion of Rav Hamnuna, as Rav Hamnuna says: The beginning of a person’s judgment after he dies is that he is judged only concerning matters of Torah, as it is stated: “The beginning of strife is as when one releases water.” Based on this verse, Rav Huna says: This quarrel between people is comparable to a split in a hose caused by a burst of water, emptying into a field; once the split in the hose widens, it widens even more and can no longer be repaired. To save the field, the hose must be repaired as soon as it splits. The same is true with regard to a quarrel; it must be stopped as soon as it begins.

אביי קשישא אמר דמי לגודא דגמלא כיון דקם קם:

Abaye the Elder makes a similar point with a different metaphor, and says: A quarrel is comparable to a board in a wooden bridge. Once it has stood in its place and been stabilized, it continues to stand and becomes ever more rigid and stable. Consequently, the best time to address and end the dispute is at the very beginning.

שמע"י ושת"י שב"ע זמירו"ת הו"א סימן:

§ Apropos the previous discussion, the Gemara recounts several incidents in which passersby recited popular proverbs. Shimi ushti, sheva zemirot hu is a mnemonic device for these incidents.

ההוא דהוה קאמר ואזיל טוביה דשמע ואדיש חלפוה בישתיה מאה א"ל שמואל לרב יהודה קרא כתיב פוטר מים ראשית מדון ריש מאה דיני

There was a certain man who was saying as he walked: It is good for a person who hears statements said against him and yet remains silent, as a hundred misfortunes pass him by as a result. Upon hearing this, Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: A verse is written that conveys the message of this aphorism: “The beginning of strife is as when one releases water” (Proverbs 17:14). The words “beginning [poter] of strife [reishit madon]” allude to: The beginning of one hundred litigations [reish me’a dinei]. Troubles are avoided if one overlooks and excuses [poter] an offense.

ההוא דהוה קאמר ואזיל אתרתי תלת גנבא לא מיקטל א"ל שמואל לרב יהודה קרא כתיב (עמוס ב, ו) כה אמר ה' על שלשה פשעי ישראל ועל ארבעה לא אשיבנו

There was a certain man who was saying as he walked by: For only two or three thefts, the thief is not executed by the heavenly court. Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: A verse is written that conveys the message of this aphorism: “So says the Lord: For three transgressions of Israel, or for four, I will not repay it” (Amos 2:6). Shmuel interprets the verse rhetorically, as if saying: Will I not repay the fourth offense? Accordingly, before the fourth offense, it is still possible to rectify the sins.

ההוא דהוה קאמר ואזיל שב בירי לשלמנא וחדא לעביד ביש א"ל שמואל לרב יהודה קרא כתיב (משלי כד, טז) כי שבע יפול צדיק וקם (ורשע יפול באחת)

There was a certain man who was saying as he walked: Seven pits are dug for the man of peace, and he escapes all of them, and one pit is dug for the evildoer, and he cannot escape it. Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: A verse is written that conveys the message of this aphorism: “For a righteous man falls seven times, and rises up again, but the wicked shall fall at once” (see Proverbs 24:16, 28:18).

ההוא דהוה קאמר ואזיל דאזיל מבי דינא שקל גלימא ליזמר זמר וליזיל באורחא א"ל שמואל לרב יהודה קרא כתיב (שמות יח, כג) וגם כל העם הזה על מקומו יבא בשלום

There was a certain man who was saying as he walked: With regard to one who goes from the court, and his cloak has been taken from him in the course of the proceedings, i.e., he lost all his money due to a ruling against him, let him sing a song and go happily on the way. Although he lost the case, he has benefited from justice being served. Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: A verse is written with regard to Yitro’s advice for judiciary reforms that conveys the message of this aphorism: “And all these people shall also go to their place in peace” (Exodus 18:23). If justice is served, all the litigants, not only those who emerge victorious, can leave in peace.

ההוא דהוה קאמר ואזיל היא ניימא ודיקולא שפיל אמר ליה שמואל לרב יהודה קרא כתיב (קהלת י, יח) בעצלתים ימך המקרה וגו'

There was a certain man who was saying as he walked: If a woman is carrying a basket on her head, when she is dozing the reed basket falls. Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: A verse is written that conveys the message of this aphorism: “By laziness the rafters sink in; and through idleness of the hands the house leaks” (Ecclesiastes 10:18).

ההוא דהוה קאמר ואזיל גברא דרחיצנא עליה אדייה לגזיזיה וקם א"ל שמואל לרב יהודה קרא כתיב (תהלים מא, י) גם איש שלומי אשר בטחתי בו וגו'

There was a certain man who was saying as he walked: The man upon whom I relied has lifted his fist [ligzizeih] and stood against me. Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: A verse is written that conveys the message of this aphorism: “Indeed, my own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, who did eat of my bread, has lifted up his heel against me” (Psalms 41:10).

ההוא דהוה קאמר ואזיל כי רחימתין הוה עזיזא אפותיא דספסירא שכיבן השתא דלא עזיזא רחימתין פוריא בר שיתין גרמידי לא סגי לן אמר רב הונא קראי כתיבי מעיקרא כתיב (שמות כה, כב) ונועדתי לך שם ודברתי אתך מעל הכפורת ותניא ארון תשעה וכפורת טפח הרי כאן עשרה

There was a certain man who was saying about his marriage as he walked: When our love was strong, we could have slept on a bed that was the width of a sword. Now that our love is not strong, a bed of sixty cubits is not sufficient for us. Rav Huna said: Verses are written that convey these sentiments. Initially, it was written: “I will meet with you there and I will speak with you from above the Ark Cover” (Exodus 25:22), and it is taught in a baraita: The Ark of the Covenant was itself nine handbreadths high, and the Ark Cover was one handbreadth thick. There is a total height of ten handbreadths here. At first, when God had great affection for Israel, the Divine Presence was revealed within the confines of this limited space.

וכתיב (מלכים א ו, ב) והבית אשר בנה המלך שלמה לה' ששים אמה ארכו ועשרים רחבו ושלשים אמה קומתו ולבסוף כתיב (ישעיהו סו, א) כה אמר ה' השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי איזה בית אשר תבנו לי וגו'

And it is written: “And the house that King Solomon built for the Lord, its length was sixty cubits, and its breadth twenty cubits, and its height thirty cubits” (I Kings 6:2). And at the end, when Israel sinned, the whole of the space of the Temple was not expansive enough for the Divine Presence to rest within it, as it is written: “Thus says the Lord: The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool; where is the house that you may build for Me? And where is the place that may be My resting place?” (Isaiah 66:1). In times of discord, the Temple is an insufficient resting place for the Divine Presence.

מאי משמע דהאי לא תגורו לישנא דכנושי הוא אמר רב נחמן אמר קרא (דברים כח, לט) ויין לא תשתה ולא תאגור רב אחא בר יעקב אמר מהכא (משלי ו, ח) תכין בקיץ לחמה אגרה בקציר מאכלה רב אחא בריה דרב איקא אמר מהכא (משלי י, ה) אוגר בקיץ בן משכיל:

The Gemara returns to analyzing the Tosefta. From where may it be inferred that this expression: “You shall not be afraid [taguru]” (Deuteronomy 1:17), is a term for gathering in, so that the term may be interpreted to mean that a judge may not keep his ruling to himself? Rav Naḥman said: The verse states: “You shalt plant vineyards and dress them, but you shall neither drink of the wine, nor gather [te’egor]” (Deuteronomy 28:39). Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says it is derived from here: “She provides her bread in the summer, and gathers [agra] her food in the harvest” (Proverbs 6:8). Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Ika, says it is derived from here: “A wise son gathers [oger] in the summer” (Proverbs 10:5).

אמ"ת ממו"ן ירא"ה סימן: אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כל דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו משרה שכינה בישראל שנאמר (תהלים פב, א) אלהים נצב בעדת אל בקרב אלהים ישפוט וכל דיין שאינו דן דין אמת לאמיתו גורם לשכינה שתסתלק מישראל שנאמר (תהלים יב, ו) משוד עניים מאנקת אביונים עתה אקום יאמר ה' וגו'

§ The Gemara provides a mnemonic device indicating the following series of statements about judges and their functions: Emet mamon yireh. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: Any judge who judges a judgment according to absolute truth [emet] causes the Divine Presence to rest among Israel, as it is stated: “God stands in the congregation of God; in the midst of the judges He judges” (Psalms 82:1), indicating that the Divine Presence is in the midst of the court. And every judge who does not judge a judgment according to absolute truth causes the Divine Presence to withdraw from Israel, as it is stated: “For the oppression of the poor, for the sighing of the needy, now will I arise, says the Lord” (Psalms 12:6). God will arise and leave the people as a result of oppression.

ואמר רבי שמואל בר (נחמן) אמר רבי יונתן כל דיין שנוטל מזה ונותן לזה שלא כדין הקדוש ברוך הוא נוטל ממנו נפשו שנאמר (משלי כב, כב) אל תגזול דל כי דל הוא ואל תדכא עני בשער כי ה' יריב ריבם וקבע את קובעיהם נפש

And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: With regard to any judge who takes disputed property or money [mamon] from this litigant and gives it to that other litigant unlawfully, the Holy One, Blessed be He, takes his soul from him as punishment for his corruption, as it is stated: “Rob not the weak, because he is weak, neither crush the poor in the gate; for the Lord will plead their cause and despoil of life those who despoil them” (Proverbs 22:22–23). God cautions that He will take the life of one who steals from the poor at the gate, meaning in the courtroom, as the city gate was the traditional site of the community’s court.

ואמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן לעולם יראה דיין עצמו כאילו חרב מונחת לו בין ירכותיו וגיהנם פתוחה לו מתחתיו

And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: A judge should always view [yireh] himself as if a sword is placed between his thighs, so that if he leans to the right or to the left he will be injured, and as if Gehenna is opened up beneath him,