Sanhedrin 108a:11סנהדרין ק״ח א:יא
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רשעים במשפט וחטאים בעדת צדיקים על כן לא יקומו רשעים במשפט זה דור המבול וחטאים בעדת צדיקים אלו אנשי סדום אמרו לו אינם עומדין בעדת צדיקים אבל עומדין בעדת רשעים

in judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous” (Psalms 1:5). “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment”; this is referring to the generation of the flood, about whom it is written: “The wickedness of man was great upon the earth” (Genesis 6:5). “Nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous”; these are the people of Sodom, about whom it is written: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners” (Genesis 13:13). The Sages said to Rabbi Neḥemya: They will not stand in judgment for resurrection in the congregation of the righteous, but they will stand in judgment in the congregation of the wicked.

(מרגלים אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר (במדבר יד, לז) וימותו האנשים מוציאי דבת הארץ רעה במגפה לפני ה' וימותו בעולם הזה במגפה לעולם הבא)

The spies who spread an evil report of their visit to Canaan have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And those men who spread the evil report about the land died by plague before the Lord” (Numbers 14:37). “And…died” indicates in this world; “by plague” indicates for the World-to-Come.

דור המדבר אין להם חלק לעולם הבא ואין עומדין בדין שנאמר (במדבר יד, לה) במדבר הזה יתמו ושם ימותו דברי רבי עקיבא ר' אליעזר אומר עליהם הוא אומר (תהלים נ, ה) אספו לי חסידי כורתי בריתי עלי זבח

The members of the generation of the wilderness have no share in the World-to-Come and will not stand in judgment, as it is stated: “In this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die” (Numbers 14:35). “They shall be consumed” indicates in this world; “and there they shall die” indicates for the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eliezer says: The members of the generation of the wilderness were essentially righteous, and about them the verse says: “Gather My pious together to Me, those that have entered into My covenant by offering” (Psalms 50:5). It is they who entered into the covenant with God and they will certainly be rewarded in the future.

עדת קרח אינה עתידה לעלות שנאמר (במדבר טז, לג) ותכס עליהם הארץ בעולם הזה ויאבדו מתוך הקהל לעולם הבא דברי ר"ע ר"א אומר עליהם הוא אומר (שמואל א ב, ו) ה' ממית ומחיה מוריד שאול ויעל:

The assembly of Korah is not destined to arise for resurrection, as it is stated: “And the earth closed upon them” (Numbers 16:33), meaning in this world, and also: “And they perished from among the assembly” (Numbers 16:33), meaning in the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eliezer says: About them the verse says: “The Lord kills and makes alive; He lowers to the grave, and raises” (I Samuel 2:6), indicating that the assembly of Korah has a share in the World-to-Come.

גמ׳ ת"ר דור המבול אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר (בראשית ז, כג) וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה וימח את כל היקום בעולם הזה וימחו מן הארץ לעולם הבא דברי ר"ע ר"י בן בתירא אומר לא חיין ולא נדונין שנאמר (בראשית ו, ג) לא ידון רוחי באדם לעולם לא דין ולא רוח דבר אחר לא ידון רוחי שלא תהא נשמתן חוזרת לנדנה

gemara The Sages taught in a baraita: The members of the generation of the flood have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And He obliterated every living thing that was upon the face of the ground, from man to cattle to creeping animal to the birds of the heaven; and they were obliterated from the earth” (Genesis 7:23). “And He obliterated every living thing” indicates in this world, whereas “and they were obliterated from the earth” indicates for the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: The members of the generation of the flood will neither live nor be judged, as it is stated: “My soul shall not abide [yadon] in man forever” (Genesis 6:3), meaning neither will they stand in judgment [din], nor shall their souls be restored to them. Alternatively, “My soul shall not abide” means their souls will not return to their sheaths [nadan], i.e., to their bodies.

ר' מנחם בר יוסף אומר אפילו בשעה שהקב"ה מחזיר נשמות לפגרים מתים נשמתן קשה להם בגיהנם שנאמר (ישעיהו לג, יא) תהרו חשש תלדו קש רוחכם אש תאכלכם

Rabbi Menaḥem, son of Rabbi Yosef, says: Even at a time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, restores souls to lifeless corpses, the souls of the generation of the flood will afflict them harshly as if they were in Gehenna, as it is stated: “You shall conceive chaff; you shall bring forth straw; your soul is a fire that shall devour you” (Isaiah 33:11).

ת"ר דור המבול לא נתגאו אלא בשביל טובה שהשפיע להם הקב"ה ומה כתיב בהם (איוב כא, ט) בתיהם שלום מפחד ולא שבט אלוה עליהם וכתיב (איוב כא, י) שורו עבר ולא יגעיל תפלט פרתו ולא תשכל וכתיב (איוב כא, יא) ישלחו כצאן עויליהם וילדיהם ירקדון וכתיב (איוב כא, יב) ישאו בתוף וכנור וישמחו לקול עוגב וכתיב יבלו ימיהם בטוב ושנותם בנעימים וכתיב וברגע שאול יחתו

The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Sota 3:10): The generation of the flood became haughty and sinned due only to the excessive goodness that the Holy One, Blessed be He, bestowed upon them. And what is written concerning them, indicating that goodness? “Their houses are safe without fear, nor is the rod of God upon them” (Job 21:9). And it is written: “Their bull sires, and will not fall; their cow calves, and does not cast her calf” (Job 21:10). And it is written: “They send forth their little ones like a flock, and their children dance” (Job 21:11). And it is written: “They sing to the timbrel and harp, and rejoice at the sound of the pipe” (Job 21:12). And it is written: “They shall spend their days in prosperity, and their years in pleasures” (Job 36:11). And it is written: “And peacefully they go down to the grave” (Job 21:13).

והיא גרמה שאמרו לאל (איוב כא, יד) סור ממנו ודעת דרכיך לא חפצנו מה שדי כי נעבדנו ומה נועיל כי נפגע בו אמרו כלום צריכין אנו לו אלא לטיפה של גשמים יש לנו נהרות ומעינות שאנו מסתפקין מהן אמר הקב"ה בטובה שהשפעתי להן בה מכעיסין אותי ובה אני דן אותם שנאמר (בראשית ו, יז) ואני הנני מביא את המבול מים

And that success caused them to say to God: “Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of Your ways. What is the Almighty, that we should serve Him, and what profit should we have if we pray unto Him” (Job 21:14–15). The members of the generation of the flood said: Do we need Him for anything, even for the drop of rain that He causes to fall? We have rivers and springs from which we take our supply of water; we do not fear Him. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: With the goodness that I bestowed upon them, with that they infuriate Me and with it I will sentence them, as it is stated: “And behold I will bring the flood of water” (Genesis 6:17).

ר' יוסי אמר דור המבול לא נתגאו אלא בשביל גלגל העין שדומה למים [שנאמר (בראשית ו, ב) ויקחו להם נשים מכל אשר בחרו] לפיכך דן אותן במים שדומה לגלגל העין שנאמר (בראשית ז, יא) נבקעו כל מעינות תהום רבה וארבות השמים נפתחו

Rabbi Yosei says: The generation of the flood became haughty due only to the covetousness of the eyeball, which is similar to water, as it is stated: “And the sons of the prominent men saw that the daughters of men were fair; and they took for themselves wives from anyone they chose” (Genesis 6:2). Consequently, God punished them with water, which is similar to an eyeball [legalgal ha’ayin], as it is stated: “All the fountains [mayenot] of the great deep were breached, and the flues of heaven were opened” (Genesis 7:11).

א"ר יוחנן דור המבול ברבה קלקלו וברבה נידונו ברבה קלקלו שנאמר (בראשית ו, ה) וירא ה' כי רבה רעת האדם וברבה נידונו שנאמר (בראשית ז, יא) כל מעינות תהום רבה א"ר יוחנן שלשה נשתיירו מהם בלועה דגדר וחמי טבריא ועיניא רבתי דבירם

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: The members of the generation of the flood sinned with “great” and were punished with “great.” They sinned with “great,” as it is stated: “And the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great” (Genesis 6:5). And they were punished with great, as it is stated: “All the fountains of the great deep were breached” (Genesis 7:11). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Three fountains of the great deep that were breached in the flood remained, and boiling water continues to flow in them as it did during the flood. They are: Beloa of Gader, and the hot springs of Tiberias, and the great spring of Beiram.

(בראשית ו, יב) כי השחית כל בשר את דרכו על הארץ א"ר יוחנן מלמד שהרביעו בהמה על חיה וחיה על בהמה והכל על אדם ואדם על הכל א"ר אבא בר כהנא וכולם חזרו חוץ מתושלמי

With regard to the verse: “For all flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth” (Genesis 6:12), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: This teaches that the people of the generation of the flood mated male domesticated animals with female undomesticated animals, and male undomesticated animals with female domesticated animals, and all male animals with human females, and human males with all female animals. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says: And after the flood all of the creatures returned to mate with their own species, except for the bird called tushlami, which continued to mate with other species.

(בראשית ו, ג) ויאמר ה' לנח קץ כל בשר בא לפני א"ר יוחנן בא וראה כמה גדול כחה של חמס שהרי דור המבול עברו על הכל ולא נחתם עליהם גזר דינם עד שפשטו ידיהם בגזל שנאמר (בראשית ו, יג) כי מלאה הארץ חמס מפניהם והנני משחיתם את הארץ וכתיב (יחזקאל ז, יא) החמס קם למטה רשע לא מהם ולא מהמונם ולא מהמהם ולא נה בהם

With regard to the verse: “And God said to Noah: The end of all flesh is come before Me, for the earth is filled with robbery through them, and behold, I will destroy them with the earth” (Genesis 6:13), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Come and see how great is the power of robbery, as the generation of the flood violated every precept, but their sentence to be destroyed was not sealed until they extended their hands and engaged in robbery, as it is stated: “For the earth is filled with robbery through them, and behold, I will destroy them with the earth” (Genesis 6:13). And it is written: “Robbery is risen up into a rod of wickedness; nothing comes from them, nor from their multitude, nor from any of them, nor shall there be wailing [no’ah] for them” (Ezekiel 7:11).

א"ר אלעזר מלמד שזקף עצמו כמקל ועמד לפני הקב"ה ואמר לפניו רבש"ע לא מהם ולא מהמונם ולא מהמהם ולא נה בהם

Rabbi Elazar says: This teaches that robbery straightened itself like a rod and stood before the Holy One, Blessed be He, and said before Him: Master of the Universe: “Nothing comes from them, nor from their multitude, nor from any of them, nor shall there be wailing for them,” i.e., none of the robbers are fit to exist.

(ואף על נח נחתם גזר דין שנא' ולא נח בהם) תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל אף על נח נחתך גזר דין אלא שמצא חן בעיני ה' שנאמר (בראשית ו, ז) נחמתי כי עשיתם ונח מצא חן בעיני ה'

And the sentence of Noah was also sealed; he was going to die with the rest of the generation of the flood, as it is stated: Nor shall there be No’aḥ for them. The Gemara interprets the term spelled nun, heh, in the aforementioned verse, as if it were spelled nun, ḥet. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The sentence of Noah was also decided; but he was spared through the kindness of God due to the fact that he found favor in the eyes of God, as it is stated: “For I regret that I have made them. And Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord” (Genesis 6:7–8). The juxtaposition of the term “and Noah” to the phrase “for I regret that I have made them” indicates that Noah should have been killed as well.

(בראשית ו, ו) וינחם ה' כי עשה את האדם בארץ כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמר הקב"ה יפה עשיתי שתקנתי להם קברות בארץ מאי משמע כתיב הכא וינחם ה' וכתיב התם (בראשית נ, כא) וינחם אותם וידבר על לבם

It is written: Vayyinaḥem the Lord that He made man on the earth [ba’aretz]” (Genesis 6:6). The meaning of the term “vayyinaḥem” is subject to a dispute. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said in explanation: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I did well that I prepared graves for people in the earth [ba’aretz]. The Gemara asks: From where is it inferred that the term “vayyinaḥem” has a positive connotation? The Gemara answers: It is written here: “Vayyinaḥem,” and it is written there: “And he comforted them [vayenaḥem otam] and spoke to their heart” (Genesis 50:21).

ואיכא דאמרי לא יפה עשיתי שתקנתי להם קברות בארץ כתיב הכא וינחם וכתיב התם (שמות לב, יד) וינחם ה' על הרעה אשר דבר לעשות לעמו

And there are those who say that the term “vayyinaḥem” has a different meaning: I did not do well that I prepared graves for people in the earth, as I should not have created them in order to destroy them. From where is it inferred that the term “vayyinaḥem” has a negative connotation? It is written here: “Vayyinaḥem,” and it is written there: “And the Lord regretted [vayyinaḥem] the evil that He thought to do to His people” (Exodus 32:14).

(בראשית ו, ט) אלה תולדות נח [נח איש צדיק תמים היה בדורותיו] א"ר יוחנן בדורותיו ולא בדורות אחרים וריש לקיש אמר בדורותיו כ"ש בדורות אחרים

§ With regard to the verse: “These are the generations of Noah; Noah was a righteous man, and wholehearted in his generations” (Genesis 6:9), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Relative to the other people of his generation he was righteous and wholehearted, but not relative to those of other generations. And Reish Lakish says: In his generation he was righteous and wholehearted despite being surrounded by bad influences; all the more so would he have been considered righteous and wholehearted in other generations.

א"ר חנינא משל דרבי יוחנן למה הדבר דומה לחבית של יין שהיתה מונחת במרתף של חומץ במקומה ריחה נודף שלא במקומה אין ריחה נודף א"ר אושעיא משל דריש לקיש למה הדבר דומה לצלוחית של פלייטון שהיתה מונחת במקום הטנופת במקומה ריחה נודף וכ"ש במקום הבוסם

Rabbi Ḥanina says: There is a parable for the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan; to what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a barrel of wine that was placed in a cellar where vinegar is stored; in its place, its fragrance diffuses, i.e., is noticeable, relative to the odor of the vinegar. When it is not in its place surrounded by vinegar, its fragrance does not diffuse, and its pleasant odor is not sensed. Rabbi Oshaya says: There is a parable for the statement of Reish Lakish; to what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a flask of perfume [palyaton] that was placed in a location of filth. In its place its fragrance diffuses despite the ambient odor, and all the more so is its fragrance noticeable if it is placed in a location where there is perfume.

(בראשית ז, כג) וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה אם אדם חטא בהמה מה חטאה

With regard to the verse: “And He obliterated every living thing that was upon the face of the ground, from man to cattle to creeping animal to the birds of the heaven” (Genesis 7:23), the Gemara asks: If man sinned, in what way did the animal kingdom sin that it, too, warranted destruction?

תנא משום רבי יהושע בן קרחה משל לאדם שעשה חופה לבנו והתקין מכל מיני סעודה לימים מת בנו עמד (ובלבל) [ופזר] את חופתו אמר כלום עשיתי אלא בשביל בני עכשיו שמת חופה למה לי אף הקב"ה אמר כלום בראתי בהמה וחיה אלא בשביל אדם עכשיו שאדם חוטא בהמה וחיה למה לי

The Gemara answers: It was taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: There is a parable for this matter, to a man who fashioned a wedding canopy for his son and prepared all sorts of food for the wedding feast. Sometime later, before the wedding, his son died. What did the man do? He arose and dismantled his son’s wedding canopy. He said: Did I do this for any reason other than for my son? Now that my son has died, why do I need a wedding canopy? So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Did I create domesticated animals and non-domesticated animals for any reason other than for man? Now that man sins and is sentenced to destruction, why do I need domesticated animals and non-domesticated animals?

(בראשית ז, כב) מכל אשר בחרבה מתו ולא דגים שבים

It is written: “Of all that was on dry land died” (Genesis 7:22), from which it is inferred: But not the fish that are in the sea, which are not on dry land.

דרש ר' יוסי דמן קסרי מאי דכתיב (איוב כד, יח) קל הוא על פני מים תקולל חלקתם בארץ מלמד שהיה נח הצדיק מוכיח בהם ואומר להם עשו תשובה ואם לאו הקב"ה מביא עליכם את המבול ומקפה נבלתכם על המים כזיקין שנאמר קל הוא על פני מים ולא עוד אלא שלוקחין מהם קללה לכל באי עולם שנאמר (איוב כד, יח) תקולל חלקתם בארץ

Rabbi Yosei from Caesarea taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “He is swift upon the face of the waters; their portion is cursed in the earth; he turns not by way of the vineyards” (Job 24:18)? This teaches that Noah the righteous would rebuke the people of his generation and say to them: Repent. And if you do not, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring a flood upon you and float your corpses on the water like wineskins filled with air that float on water, as it is stated: “He is swift upon the face of the waters.” Moreover, a curse is taken from them to all who enter the world, as people will curse others, saying: They shall be like the generation of the flood. As it is stated: “Their portion is cursed in the earth.”

לא יפנה דרך כרמים מלמד שהיו מפנים דרך כרמים אמר לו ומי מעכב אמר להם פרידה אחת יש לי להוציא מכם

The conclusion of that verse: “He turns not by way of the vineyards,” teaches that they would clear a path through vineyards. They said to Noah: And who is preventing the flood from coming? Noah said to them: I have one pigeon, Methuselah, who will die at his appointed time, which I must remove from among you before the flood.