Chapter 2 ב׳
1 א

רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי וְרַבִּי חָמָא אֲבוּי דְּרַבִּי הוֹשֵׁעַ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֹא נִתַּן דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים אֶלָּא לְהִדָּרֵשׁ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברי הימים א ד, כא): בְּנֵי שֵׁלָה בֶן יְהוּדָה עֵר אֲבִי לֵכָה, אַב בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל לֵכָה. וְלַעְדָּה אֲבִי מָרֵשָׁה, אַב בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל מָרֵשָׁה. וּמִשְׁפְּחוֹת בֵּית עֲבֹדַת הַבֻּץ, זוֹ רָחָב הַזּוֹנָה שֶׁהִטְמִינָה הַמְרַגְּלִים בַּבּוּץ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יהושע ב, ו): וַתִּטְמְנֵם בְּפִשְׁתֵּי הָעֵץ, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּבוּסְמִין הָיְתָה עִסְקָהּ. לְבֵית אַשְׁבֵּעַ, שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּעוּ לָהּ הַמְּרַגְּלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע ב, יב): וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁבְעוּ נָא לִי בַּה'. (דברי הימים א ד, כב): וְיוֹקִים, שֶׁקִּיְּמוּ לָהּ הַשְּׁבוּעָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יהושע ו, כג): וַיָּבֹאוּ הַנְּעָרִים הַמְרַגְּלִים, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וְאֵת כָּל מִשְׁפְּחוֹתֶיהָ הוֹצִיאוּ, תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה מִשְׁפַּחְתָּהּ מָאתַיִם אֲנָשִׁים וְהָלְכוּ וְנִדְבְּקוּ בְּמָאתַיִם מִשְׁפָּחוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת, כֻּלָּן נִצּוֹלוֹת בִּזְכוּתָהּ. וְאֵת כָּל מִשְׁפַּחְתָּהּ לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא וְאֵת כָּל מִשְׁפְּחוֹתֶיהָ. וְאַנְשֵׁי כֹזֵבָה, שֶׁכִּזְּבָה בְּמֶלֶךְ יְרִיחוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע ב, ד): וַתֹּאמֶר כֵּן בָּאוּ אֵלַי הָאֲנָשִׁים וגו'. וְיוֹאָשׁ, שֶׁנִּתְיָאֲשָׁהּ מִן הַחַיִּים. וְשָׂרָף, שֶׁתִּקְנָה עַצְמָהּ לִשְׂרוּפִין. אֲשֶׁר בָּעֲלוּ לְמוֹאָב, שֶׁבָּאתָה וְנִדְבְּקָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְעָלוּ מַעֲשֶׂיהָ לְאָבִיהָ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם. וְיָשֻׁבִי לָחֶם, שֶׁנִּדְבְּקָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (משלי ט, ה): לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחֲמִי. וְהַדְּבָרִים עַתִּיקִים, רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן אוֹמְרִים דְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ סְתוּמִין כָּאן וּמְפֹרָשִׁין בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר. (דברי הימים א ד, כג): הֵמָּה הַיּוֹצְרִים, אֵלּוּ הַמְּרַגְּלִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יהושע ב, א): וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן מִן הַשִּׁטִּים וגו', רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה חַד אָמַר כְּלֵי נַגָּרוּת הָיָה בְּיָדָם, מְרַגְּלִים חֶרֶשׁ לֵאמֹר, רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר כְּלֵי קַדָּרוּת הָיָה בְּיָדָם, מְקַדְּרִין חֶרֶשׂ לֵאמֹר. תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי חֶרֶשׁ כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶם עֲשׂוּ עַצְמְכֶם חֵרְשִׁין וְאַתֶּם עוֹמְדִים עַל רָזֵיהֶם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁאַתֶּם עוֹשִׂים עַצְמְכֶם חֵרְשִׁים אַתֶּם עוֹמְדִין עַל אָפְנָיִם שֶׁלָּהֶם. וְישְׁבֵי נְטָעִים שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקִיאִין בִּנְטִיעָה, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יג, כג): וַיִּכְרְתוּ מִשָּׁם זְמוֹרָה. וּגְדֵרָה, שֶׁהִטְמִינָה אוֹתָן אַחֲרֵי הַגָּדֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַתֹּאמֶר לָהֶם הָהָרָה לֵּכוּ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁשָּׁרְתָה עָלֶיהָ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ עַד שֶׁלֹא נִכְנְסוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לָאָרֶץ, וְכִי מֵהֵיכָן הָיְתָה יוֹדַעַת שֶׁחוֹזְרִין לִשְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים, מִכָּן שֶׁשָּׁרְתָה עָלֶיהָ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ. עִם הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּמְלַאכְתוֹ יָשְׁבוּ שָׁם, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ עֲשָׂרָה כֹּהֲנִים נְבִיאִים עָמְדוּ מֵרָחָב הַזּוֹנָה: יִרְמְיָה, חִלְקִיָּה, שְׂרָיָה, מַחְסֵיָה, חֲנַמְאֵל, שַׁלּוּם, בָּרוּךְ, נֵרִיָה, יְחֶזְקֵאל, בּוּזִי. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אַף חֻלְדָּה הַנְּבִיאָה מִבְּנֵי בָנֶיהָ שֶׁל רָחָב הַזּוֹנָה הָיְתָה.

Rabbi Simon, in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, and Rabbi Chama the father of Rabbi Hoshea in the name of Rabbi [Yehudah]: Chronicles was only given for exegetical purposes. See [this will be proven through the exegesis of the following verses] it is written: ["The sons of Shelah son of Judah: Er father of Lecah, Laadah father of Mareshah, and the families of the linen factory at Beth-ashbea; and Jokim, and the men of Cozeba and Joash, and Saraph, who married into Moab and Jashubi Lehem (the records are ancient). These were the potters who dwelt at Netaim and Gederah; they dwelt there in the king’s service (1 Chronicles 4:21-23)."] The sons of Shelah son of Judah: Er father of Lecah (1 Chronicles 4:21)": that is the "father" president [father] of the court of Lecah. "Laadah father of Mareshah": leader of the court of Mareshah. "And the families of the linen factory": this is Rahab, the harlot who hid the spies in linen; see it is written: "Now she had taken them up to the roof and hidden them under some stalks of linen (Joshua 2:6)". Rabbi Yehudah the son of Rabbi Simon: "linen was her business". "At Beth-ashbea" because the spies made a vow (nishbe'u) to her, as it is said: "Now, since I have shown loyalty to you, swear to me by Hashem (Joshua 2:12)". "And Jokim" Because they paid (qiyymu) a vow to her; see! it is written: "So the young spies went in (Joshua 6:23)". And what does "and brought out all her families (Joshua 6:23)" teach us? Rabbi Shimon son of Yochai the tanna taught that even if her family was two hundred men and they mend and were joined to two hundred other families, they all were saved by her merit. "And all her family" is not said, but rather "All her families". "And men of Cozebah": because she lied (kizzvah) to the king of Jericho, as it is said: "“It is true,” she said, “the men did come to me, but I didn’t know where they were from (Joshua 2:4)". "And Joash" because she did not care (nitya'asah) about her life. "And Saraf" because she exposed herself to the punishment of burning (srufin). "Who made themselves husbands to Moab": because she came and joined herself to Israel and her deeds ascended to her Father in Heaven. "And Jashubi Lahem": because she was joined to Israel and they accepted the Torah, as it is written about her: "Go and fight (lachamu) those attacking me (Psalm 34:1)". "And the records are ancient": Rabbi Ayyvu and Rabbi Yehudah the son of Rabbi Simon were saying the words express hidden things, but they are clearer in another place. ""These are the potters": they are the spies. See!, it is written: "Joshua son of Nun secretly (cheresh) sent two spies from Shittim (Joshua 2:1)". Rabbi Yehudah and Rabbi Nehemiah: One said: "There were tools of carpenters (naggarut) in their hands, as it says "spies (meragglim) said". Rabbi Nehemiah says: "Pottery vessels were in their hands, and they said" "We are potters"". Rabbi Shimon the son of Yochai the tanna taught "secretly (cheresh)" is as its heard: he said to them: "Make yourselves dumb (chershin) and understand their secrets. Rabbi Shimon son of Eleazar says: "You make yourselves dumb (chershim) and you understand their affairs". "And those be dwell in Netaim": These were practiced in planting (neti'ah), as it is said: "And there they cut down a branch (Numbers 13:23)". "And Gederah"" because she hid them behind a fence (gader) as it is said: "Make for the hills (Joshua 2:16)". There are those who say that the Ruach Hakodesh rested upon her when Israel was being gathered to the land. And how from all of that did she know they were returning in three days? Because the Ruach Hakodesh rested on her. "They dwelt there in the king’s service": from this they said: "Ten kohanim who were prophets descended from Rahab the harlot: Jeremiah, Hilkiah, Seraiah, Mahasyah, Hanameel, Shallum, Baruch, Neriah, Ezekiel, Buzi". And there are those who said: "Also Huldah the prophetess descended from the sons of the sons of Rahab the harlot".

2 ב

רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי פָּתַר קְרָאֵי בְּדָוִד, בְּנֵי שֵׁלָה בֶן יְהוּדָה עֵר אֲבִי לֵכָה, אַב בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל לֵכָה. וְלַעְדָּה אֲבִי מָרֵשָׁה, אַב בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל מָרֵשָׁה. וּמִשְׁפְּחוֹת בֵּית עֲבֹדַת הַבֻּץ, זֶה דָּוִד שֶׁהָיָה עוֹסֵק בַּפָּרֹכֶת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב כא, יט): וַיַּךְ אֶלְחָנָן, זֶה דָּוִד שֶׁחֲנָנוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בֶּן יַעֲרֵי, בֶּן שֶׁהָיָה גָּדֵל בַּיַּעַר, אֹרְגִים, שֶׁעָסַק בַּפָּרֹכֶת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֹרְגִים, שֶׁהָיוּ מַעֲלִין לוֹ אֶת הַהֲלָכָה וְהוּא אוֹרְגָהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֵלּוּ סַנְהֶדְּרִין שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹרְגִין עִמּוֹ בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה. (דברי הימים א ד, כא): לְבֵית אַשְׁבֵּעַ, שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פט, ד): כָּרַתִּי בְּרִית לִבְחִירִי, וְיוֹקִים, שֶׁקִּיֵּם לוֹ הַשְּׁבוּעָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלב, יא): נִשְׁבַּע ה' לְדָוִד אֱמֶת לֹא יָשׁוּב מִמֶּנָּהּ. וְאַנְשֵׁי כֹזֵבָא, רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה וְרַבִּי יוֹנָתָן וְרַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר מַרְיוֹן וְאָמְרֵי לָהּ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא עִקַּר סַנְהֶדְּרִין מִשֶּׁל יְהוּדָה, מַאי טַעְמָא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מט, יב): חַכְלִילִי עֵינַיִם מִיָּיִן וּלְבֶן שִׁנַּיִם מֵחָלָב, שֶׁהָיוּ סוֹדְרִין אֶת הַהֲלָכָה בִּשְׁנַיִם, עַד שֶׁהָיוּ מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתָהּ בְּנִקָּיוֹן כְּחָלָב. וְיוֹאָשׁ, שֶׁנִּתְיָאֵשׁ מִן הַחַיִּים (דברי הימים א כא, יז): תְּהִי נָא יָדְךָ בִּי. וְשָׂרָף, שֶׁהִזְכִּיר מַעֲשֵׂה שְׂרוּפִים, ה' אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבוֹתֵינוּ. אֲשֶׁר בָּעֲלוּ לְמוֹאָב, שֶׁבָּא מֵרוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה. וְיָשֻׁבִי לָחֶם, שֶׁבָּא מִבֵּית לֶחֶם יְהוּדָה. וְהַדְּבָרִים עַתִּיקִים, רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ אָמַר זֶה דָּוִד וּשְׁלֹמֹה שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּבִנְיַן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר זֶה בְּנָיָהוּ בֶּן יְהוֹיָדָע שֶׁנִּתְחַזֵּק עִם הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה בְּבִנְיַן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר זֶה יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּטְפַּל עִם יוֹאָשׁ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר זֶה יִרְמְיָה וִיחֶזְקֵאל שֶׁהִתְפַּלְּלוּ לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁלֹא לְהַחֲרִיב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. הֵמָּה הַיּוֹצְרִים, זֶה בֹּעַז וְרוּת. וְישְׁבֵי נְטָעִים, זֶה שְׁלֹמֹה שֶׁהָיָה דוֹמֶה כְּנֶטַע בְּמַלְכוּתוֹ. וּגְדֵרָה, אֵלּוּ סַנְהֶדְּרִין שֶׁהָיוּ גּוֹדְרִים עִמּוֹ בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה. עִם הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ יָשְׁבוּ שָׁם, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ לֹא מֵתָה רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה עַד שֶׁרָאֲתָה שְׁלֹמֹה בֶּן בְּנָהּ יוֹשֵׁב וְדָן דִּינָן שֶׁל זוֹנוֹת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (מלכים א ב, יט): וַיָּשֶׂם כִּסֵּא לְאֵם הַמֶּלֶךְ זוֹ בַּת שֶׁבַע, וַתֵּשֶׁב לִימִינוֹ זוֹ רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה.

Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachmani interpreted these verses from Chronicles as referring to David. "The sons of Shelah son of Judah: Er father of Lecah (1 Chronicles 4:21)": that is the "father" president [father] of the court of Lecah. "Laadah father of Mareshah": leader of the court of Mareshah. "And the families of the linen factory": this is David who worked on the Temple's curtain; see it is written (2 Samuel 21:19): "And Elhanan": this is David whom the Holy One, blessed be He, was gracious to. "Son of Jaare": the son who became great in the forest (ya'ar). "Oregim" because he worked on the temple's curtain ('arag means "weave")". Another explanation: "Oregim" because they raised up to him the halakhah and he wove it together. Another interpretation: "Oregim": they are the Sanhedrin because they wove the words of the Torah with him. "At Beth-ashbea" " because the Holy One, blessed be He, made a vow (nishb'a) to him, as it is said: "I have made a covenant with My chosen one; I have sworn to My servant David (Psalms 89:4)". "And Jokim" Because he paid (qiyyem) a vow to him; see! it is written: "Hashem swore to David a firm oath that He will not renounce (Psalms 132:11)". "And men of Cozebah": Rabbi Azariah and Rabbi Yonatan and Rabbi Yitzchak son of Maryon and those who say that it was Rabbi Jose son of Rabbi Chanina: "The major part of the Sanhedrin was from Judah. What is this based on? As it is said: "His eyes are darker than wine; His teeth are whiter than milk (Genesis 4:12)": and they were sharp (sodrin) in halakhah like teeth and they produced it as pure as "milk". And Joash" because he did not care (nitya'es) about his life, as it is said: "Let Your hand fall upon me (1 Chronicles 21:17)". "And Saraf" because he recalled the work of the burned ones (srufim): "O Hashem, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, our fathers (1 Chronicles 29:18)". "Who made themselves husbands to Moab" because he descended from Ruth the Moabitess. "And Jashubi Lahem": because he came from Bethlehem in Judah. "And the records are ancient": Rabbi Ayyvu said: "This is David and Solomon who were joined before the Holy One, blessed be He in the building of the Temple. Rabbi Yehudah son of Rabbi Simon said: "This is Benaiah son of Jehoiada who participated with King Solomon in building the Temple". Rabbi Yehudah said: "This is Jehoiada the High Priest who participated with Joash in repairing the Temple. Rabbi Nehemiah says: "This is Jeremiah and Ezekiel who were joined before the Holy One, blessed be He, that he not destroy the Temple. ""These are the potters (yotzrim)": this is Boaz (tz) and Ruth (r) [as indicated by the letters of their names]. "And those be dwell in Netaim": This is Solomon because he was like one who plants (net'a) a kingdom. "And Gederah": these are the Sanhedrin because they enclosed (godrim) with him the words of the Torah. "They dwelt there in the king’s service": Based on what did they say the Ruth the Moabitess did not die until she saw Solomon the son of her son sitting and judging the case of the harlots. See! It is written: "And he had a throne placed for the queen mother": this is Bathsheba, "and she sat on his right (1 Kings 2:19)", this is Ruth the Moabitess.

3 ג

רַבִּי מְנַחֵם בַּר אָבִין פָּתַר קְרָיָיה בְּמשֶׁה, וְיוֹקִים, עַל שֵׁם (במדבר י, לה): קוּמָה ה' וְיָפֻצוּ אֹיְבֶיךָ. אַנְשֵׁי כֹזֵבָא, שֶׁעָשָׂה דָּבָר שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּמוֹ כְּזָבִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לב, יא): לָמָּה ה' יֶחֱרֶה אַפְּךָ בְּעַמֶּךָ. יוֹאָשׁ, עַל שֶׁנִּתְיָאֵשׁ מִן הַחַיִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לב, לב): וְאִם אַיִן מְחֵנִי נָא. וְשָׂרָף, שֶׁהִזְכִּיר מַעֲשֵׂה שְׂרוּפִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לב, יג): זְכֹר לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדֶיךָ. אֲשֶׁר בָּעֲלוּ לְמוֹאָב, שֶׁבָּאוּ וְעָלוּ מַעֲשָׂיו הַנְּעִימִים לִפְנֵי אָבִיו שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם. וְיָשֻׁבִי לָחֶם, שֶׁעָלָה לַמָּרוֹם וְשָׁבָה הַתּוֹרָה, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים סח, יט): עָלִיתָ לַמָּרוֹם שָׁבִיתָ שֶׁבִי. וְהַדְּבָרִים עַתִּיקִים, רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן, רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁנִּתְעַתְּקוּ מֵהֶם הֶחֱזִירָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד, א): פְּסָל לְךָ וגו', הַדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ נֶאֶמְרוּ מִמַּעְתִּיקוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (בראשית יב, ח): וַיַּעְתֵּק מִשָּׁם, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר דְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ סְתוּמִין כָּאן וּמְפֹרָשִׁין בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, הֶחֱזִיר אוֹתָן לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד, כז): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל משֶׁה כְּתָב לְךָ אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּי עַל פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וגו'. הֵמָּה הַיּוֹצְרִים, עַל שֵׁם (בראשית ב, יט): וַיִּצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הֵמָּה הַיּוֹצְרִים, אֵלּוּ נַפְשׁוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, שֶׁבָּהֶם נִמְלַךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִבְרֹאת אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ. יוֹשְׁבֵי נְטָעִים, עַל שֵׁם (בראשית ב, ח): וַיִּטַּע ה' אֱלֹהִים. וּגְדֵרָה, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ה, כב): אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם. עִם הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ, עִם מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יָשְׁבוּ שָׁם נִשְׁמָתָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים שֶׁבָּהֶם נִמְלַךְ וּבָרָא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ.

Rabbi Menachem the son of Avin interpreted these verses from Chronicles as referring to Moses. "And Jokim", on the basis of "Advance (qumah), O Hashem! May Your enemies be scattered (Numbers 10:35)". "Men of Cozeba": they spoke of the Holy One, blessed be He, like liars (kezavim), as it is said: "Let not Your anger, O Hashem, blaze forth against Your people (Exodus 32:11)". "Joash" because he did not care (nitya'esh) about his life, as it is said: "but if not, erase me (Exodus 32:32)". "And Saraf" because he remembered the deed of those who were burned (serufin), as it is said: "Remember Your servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Israel (Exodus 32:13)". "Who became husbands to Moab" because his pleasant deeds went and ascended before his Father in Heaven. "And Jashubi Lechem" because he ascended upward and returned (shavah) to the Torah, as thus it is said: "You went up to the heights, having taken captives (shavita shevi) (Psalms 68:19)". "The records are ancient ('atiqim)": Rabbi Ayybu and Rabbi Yehudah son of Simon: Rabbi Ayybu said: "Even records which were removed (nit'atqu) from them, he strengthened them, as it is said: "Carve two tablets of stone like the first (Exodus 34:1)". These words describe the one said to move (ma'tiqo) the world, what you say, it said: "From there he moved on (vayya'teq) (Genesis 12:8)"". Rabbi Yehudah son of Rabbi Simon said: "The words describe unknown things here, but in another place they are clear that he strengthened them for him, as it is said: "And Hashem said: Write down these commandments, for in accordance with these commandments (Exodus 34:27)". "These are the potters (yotzrim)", on which: "And Hashem God formed (vayyitzer) out of the earth (Genesis 2:19)"". Another interpretation: "These are the potters": they are the souls of the righteous, because guided by them the Holy One, blessed be He, created his world. "Dwellers of Netaim": on which: "And Hashem planted (vayyitt'a) (Genesis 2:8)". "And of Gederah [fence]": on which: "Who set the sand as a boundary to the sea (Jeremiah 5:22)". "With the king in his service": with the King of Kings of Kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, the souls of the righteous dwelled there because by them he was guided and created his world.

4 ד

דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְיוֹקִים, זֶה אֱלִימֶלֶךְ. וְאַנְשֵׁי כֹזֵבָא, אֵלּוּ בָּנָיו שֶׁהָיוּ מְכֻזָּבִים. יוֹאָשׁ, שֶׁנִּתְיָאֲשׁוּ מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְשָׂרָף, שֶׁשָֹּׂרְפוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, רַבִּי מְנַחֲמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא וְכִי שָׂרְפוּ, אֶלָּא לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁבִּטֵּל מִן הַתּוֹרָה דָּבָר אֶחָד כְּאִלּוּ שְׂרָפָהּ. אֲשֶׁר בָּעֲלוּ לְמוֹאָב, שֶׁנָּשְׂאוּ נָשִׁים מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת וְשֶׁהִנִּיחוּ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִסְתַּפְּחוּ בִּשְׂדֵי מוֹאָב. וְיָשֻׁבִי לָחֶם, זֶה נָעֳמִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַתָּשָׁב נָעֳמִי וְרוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה כַלָּתָהּ עִמָּהּ הַשָּׁבָה מִשְֹּׂדֵי מוֹאָב וְהֵמָּה בָּאוּ בֵּית לֶחֶם. וְהַדְּבָרִים עַתִּיקִים, כְּבָר כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מְפֹרָשׁ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.

Another interpretation: "And Jokim": this is Elimelech. "And the men of Cozeba" these are his sons because they were made false (mekuzzavim). "Joash" because they give up on (nitya'ashu) the land of Israel. "And Saraf" because they burned (sarfu) the Torah. Rabbi Menachama in the name of Rabbi Acha: "And did they burn it? Rather this teaches you that anyone who departs from the Torah in even one matter it is as if they burned it". "Who became husbands to Moab" because they married Moabite women and they left Israel and they joined the field of Moab. "And Jashubi Lachem": this is Naomi, as it is said: "So Naomi returned (vattashav), and Ruth the Moabitess, her daughter-in-law, with her, who returned out of the field of Moab--and they came to Beth-lehem (lechem) (Ruth 1:22)". "And the records are ancient" and all of them, one by one, have been expounded for themselves.

5 ה

וְשֵׁם הָאִישׁ אֱלִימֶלֶךְ (רות א, ב), רַבִּי מֵאִיר הָיָה דּוֹרֵשׁ שֵׁמוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה הָיָה דוֹרֵשׁ שֵׁמוֹת. וְשֵׁם הָאִישׁ אֱלִימֶלֶךְ, שֶׁהָיָה אוֹמֵר אֵלַי תָבוֹא מַלְכוּת. וְשֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ נָעֳמִי, שֶׁהָיוּ מַעֲשֶׂיהָ נָאִים וּנְעִימִים. וְשֵׁם שְׁנֵי בָנָיו מַחְלוֹן וְכִלְיוֹן, מַחְלוֹן, שֶׁנִּמְחוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם. וְכִלְיוֹן, שֶׁכָּלוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם. אֶפְרָתִים, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אוֹמֵר פָּלָטִיאָנִי, וְרַבִּי בַּר רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר אָבְגָּנִיסְטִי. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶפְרָתִים, רַבִּי פִּנְחָס אָמַר כָּל אוֹתָהּ הָעֲטָרָה שֶׁנִּתְעַטֵּר אֶפְרַיִם מִיַּעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ בִּשְׁעַת פְּטִירָתוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם, אָמַר לוֹ, אֶפְרַיִם רֹאשׁ הַשֵּׁבֶט, רֹאשׁ הַיְשִׁיבָה, הַמְעֻלֶּה וְהַמְשֻׁבָּח שֶׁבְּבָנַי יִהְיֶה נִקְרָא לְשִׁמְךָ, (שמואל א א, א): בֶּן תֹּוֹחוּ בֶּן צוּף אֶפְרָתִי. (מלכים א יא, כו): וְיָרָבְעָם בֶּן נְבָט אֶפְרָתִי. (שמואל א יז, יב): וְדָוִד בֶּן אִישׁ אֶפְרָתִי. מַחְלוֹן וְכִלְיוֹן אֶפְרָתִים.

"The man’s name was Elimelech (Ruth 1:2": Rabbi Meir was interpreting names. Rabbi Joshua son of Karchah was also interpreting names. "The man’s name was Elimelech": he was saying: "To me (elai) will come the kingship (malkhut)". "His wife’s name was Naomi" because her deeds were pleasant (na'im) and pleasing (ne'imim). "and his two sons were named Mahlon and Chilion": Machlon because they were erased (nimchu) from the world. And Chilion because they were destroyed (kalu) from the world. "Ephrathites": Rabbi Joshua son of Levi says: "Royals (palatini)", and Rabbi the son of Rabbi Nechemiah says: "Nobles (eugenistai)". Another interpretation: "Ephrathites": Rabbi Pinchas said: "Ephraim was crowned with the whole crown from Jacob our father at the time he was departing (petirato) from the world. He said to him: "Ephraim, head of the tribe, head of the yeshivah, the ascended and the praised of my sons will be called by your name: "son of Tohu son of Zuph, an Ephraimite (1 Samuel 1:1)". "Jeroboam son of Nebat, an Ephraimite (1 Kings 11:26)". "David was the son of a certain Ephrathite (1 Samuel 17:12)". "Mahlon and Chilion—Ephrathites".

6 ו

וַיָּבוֹאוּ שְׂדֵה מוֹאָב וַיִּהְיוּ שָׁם, בַּתְּחִלָּה בָּאוּ לָהֶם בָּעֲיָרוֹת, מָצְאוּ אוֹתָם פְּרוּצִים בַּעֲבֵרוֹת, אַחַר כָּךְ בָּאוּ לָהֶם לַכְּרַכִּים מָצְאוּ אוֹתָם מְדֻחָקִין בְּמַיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזְרוּ לָהֶם בָּעֲיָרוֹת וַיָּבוֹאוּ שְׂדֵה מוֹאָב וַיִּהְיוּ שָׁם.

"They came to the country of Moab and remained there. (Ruth 1:2)": at first they came to them in the cities and they found them out of control with abominations, and then they came to them in the country and found them deficient in water, and then they went back to them in the cities "They came to the country of Moab and remained there".

7 ז

וַיָּמָת אֱלִימֶלֶךְ אִישׁ נָעֳמִי (רות א, ג), תַּנְיָא הַכֹּל לָמוּת, וְהַכֹּל לְמִיתָה, וְאַשְׁרָיו לָאָדָם שֶׁיָּצָא בְּשֵׁם טוֹב מִן הָעוֹלָם. מֵת הָאִישׁ מִי מְחַסְּרוֹ אֶלָּא אִשְׁתּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיָּמָת אֱלִימֶלֶךְ אִישׁ נָעֳמִי, מֵתָה הָאִשָּׁה מִי מְחַסְרָהּ אֶלָּא בַּעְלָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מח, ז): וַאֲנִי בְּבֹאִי מִפַּדָּן מֵתָה עָלַי רָחֵל, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן עָלַי מִיתָתָהּ שֶׁל רָחֵל, אָמַר יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ וְקָשָׁה עָלַי מִיתָתָהּ שֶׁל רָחֵל מִכָּל הַצָּרוֹת הַבָּאוֹת עָלַי.

"Elimelech, Naomi’s husband, died (Ruth 1:3)": the tannaim taught that everyone is going to die and everyone is going to death, and it is praiseworthy for a man who goes out of the world with a good name. A man dies, who is diminished by him but his wife?, as it is said: "Elimelech, Naomi’s husband, died". And a woman dies, and who is diminished by her but her husband?, as it is said: "when I was returning from Paddan, Rachel died, to my sorrow (Genesis 48:7)". Rabbi Yochanan said: "[literally] the death of Rachel is upon me". Rabbi Jacob our father: "More difficult upon me was the death of Rachel than all the troubles that came upon me".

8 ח

אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יְהוֹצָדָק, גִּילִין וְגִילִין, חֲבוּרוֹת וַחֲבוּרוֹת, מֵבִיא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לָעוֹלָם, מֵת אֶחָד מִן הַגִּיל, יִדְאַג כָּל הַגִּיל, חָבֵר אֶחָד מִן הַחֲבוּרָה תִּדְאַג כָּל הַחֲבוּרָה, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר אַבָּא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אַרְכִיּוֹת אַרְכִיּוֹת הֵן, וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן נִכְנָס לְתוֹךְ אַרְכִי שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כִּמְלֹא נִימָא. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא מִיָמַי לֹא קָרִיתִי לְאִשְׁתִּי אִשְׁתִּי וּלְבֵיתִי בֵּיתִי, אֶלָּא לְאִשְׁתִּי בֵּיתִי, וּלְבֵיתִי אִשְׁתִּי, וְלֹא קָרִיתִי לְשׁוֹרִי שׁוֹרִי וּלְשָׂדִי שָׂדִי, אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹרִי שָׂדִי וּלְשָׂדִי שׁוֹרִי. וַתִּשָּׁאֵר הִיא וּשְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ נַעֲשֵׂית הִיא שְׁיָרֵי מְנָחוֹת.

Rabbi Yochanan said: "From where did Rabbi Shimon son of Jehozadak: "Contemporaries and contemporaries, friendship groups and friendship groups, the Holy One, blessed be He, brings into the world: one from a group of contemporaries dies and the whole group of contemporaries sorrows. A friend from a group of friends dies and the whole friendship group sorrows, as Rabbi Samuel son of Abba said in the name of Rabbi Yochanan: "Eras are eras, and one of them does not enter into the era of his companion even by a little bit". Rabbi Jose the son of Chalafta said: "In my days I did not call my wife "my wife" and my house "my house" but rather I called my wife "my house" and my house "my wife". And I did not call my ox "my ox" and my field "my field" but rather I called my ox "my field" and my field "my ox". "And she was left (vattisha'er) with her two sons (Ruth 1:3)": Rabbi Chanina son of Rabbi Abbahu: "she was made as the remnant (sheyarei) of meal offerings".

9 ט

וַיִּשְׂאוּ לָהֶם נָשִׂים מֹאֲבִיּוֹת (רות א, ד), תָּנֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר לֹא גִּיְּרוּם וְלֹא הִטְבִּילוּ אוֹתָם וְלֹא הָיְתָה הֲלָכָה לְהִתְחַדֵּשׁ, וְלֹא הָיוּ נֶעֱנָשִׁין עֲלֵיהֶם, עַמּוֹנִי וְלֹא עַמּוֹנִית, מוֹאָבִי וְלֹא מוֹאָבִית. שֵׁם הָאַחַת עָרְפָּה, שֶׁהָפְכָה עֹרֶף לַחֲמוֹתָהּ. וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית רוּת, שֶׁרָאֲתָה בְּדִבְרֵי חֲמוֹתָהּ. רַבִּי בֵּיבַי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי רְאוּבֵן אָמַר, רוּת וְעָרְפָּה בְּנוֹתָיו שֶׁל עֶגְלוֹן הָיוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ג, יט): דְּבַר סֵתֶר לִי אֵלֶיךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר הָס וגו', וּכְתִיב (שופטים ג, כ): וְאֵהוּד בָּא אֵלָיו וגו' וַיֹּאמֶר אֵהוּד דְּבַר אֱלֹהִים לִי אֵלֶיךָ וַיָּקָם מֵעַל הַכִּסֵּא, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתָּה עָמַדְתָּ מִכִּסְאֲךָ לִכְבוֹדִי, חַיֶּיךָ הֲרֵינִי מַעֲמִיד מִמְךָ בֵּן יוֹשֵׁב עַל כִּסֵּא ה'. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם כְּעֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים, כִּשְׁלשִׁים כְּאַרְבָּעִים אוֹ חָסֵר אוֹ יוֹתֵר.

"They married Moabite women (Ruth 1:4)": The tannaim taught in the name of Rabbi Meir that they did not convert them nor did they immerse them and the new halakhah has not been made and they were not unpunished on account of them: [the halakhah being] Ammonite and not Ammonitess; Moabite and not Moabitess. "The name of the one was Orpah" because she turned her back (oref) on her mother-in-law. "The name of the other was Ruth" because she looked (ra'atah) to the words of her mother-in-law. Rabbi Beivai in the name of Rabbi Reuben said: "Ruth and Orpah were the daughters of Eglon, as it is said: "I have a secret message for you.” The king thereupon commanded, “Silence!” (Judges 3:19)". And it is written: "and when Ehud approached him...Ehud said, “I have a message for you from God”; whereupon he rose from his seat. (Judges 3:20)", and he said to him: "The Holy One, blessed be He said: "You stood from your throne for my glory, as you live I will cause to rise from you a son sitting on the throne of Hashem"". "And they lived there about ten years": like 30 or 40, more or less.

10 י

וַיָּמֻתוּ גַּם שְׁנֵיהֶם מַחְלוֹן וְכִלְיוֹן (רות א, ה), רַבִּי חוּנְיָא וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּרַבִּי אָבִין וְרַבִּי זַבְדָא חֲתָנֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי לֵוִי, לְעוֹלָם אֵין בַּעַל הָרַחֲמִים פּוֹרֵעַ מִן הַנְּפָשׁוֹת תְּחִלָּה, מִמִּי אַתְּ לָמֵד מֵאִיּוֹב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב א, יד): וּמַלְאָךְ בָּא אֶל אִיּוֹב וַיֹּאמַר הַבָּקָר הָיוּ חֹרְשׁוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא הֶרְאָה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵעֵין דּוּגְמָא שֶׁל הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, (עמוס ט, יג): וְנִגַּשׁ חוֹרֵשׁ בַּקֹּצֵר (איוב א, טו): וַתִּפֹּל שְׁבָא וַתִּקָּחֵם. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא יָצְאוּ מִכְּפַר קְרִינוֹס וְהָלְכוּ כָּל הָאֲבוֹלִין עַד מִגְדַּל צַבָּעִים וּמֵתוּ שָׁם, (איוב א, טו): וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק אֲנִי לְבַדִּי. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא רַק מִעוּט, אַף הוּא מְשֻׁבָּר וּמֻלְּקֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן לְבַדִּי, (איוב א, טז): עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר, אַף הוּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר בְּשׂוֹרָתוֹ מִיָּד מֵת. (איוב א, יז): עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר כַּשְׂדִּים שָׂמוּ שְׁלשָׁה רָאשִׁים, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁמַע אִיּוֹב הִתְחִיל מְגַיֵּס חֵילוֹתָיו לַמִּלְחָמָה, אָמַר כַּמָּה חֲיָלוֹת אֲנִי יָכוֹל לְחַיֵּל, כַּמָּה גְּיָסוֹת אֲנִי יָכוֹל לְגַיֵּס, וְהָאֻמָּה בְּזוּיָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּעוֹלָם (ישעיה כג, יג): הֵן אֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים זֶה הָעָם לֹא הָיָה, הַלְּוַאי לֹא הָיָה בָּא לְהַפִּיל אֵימָתוֹ עָלַי, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ (איוב א, טז): אֵשׁ הָאֱלֹהִים נָפְלָה מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם, אָמַר מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם הוּא, מָה אֲנִי יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת, (איוב לא, לד): וָאֶדֹּם לֹא אֵצֵא פָתַח, מִיָּד (איוב ב, ח): וַיִּקַּח לוֹ חֶרֶשׂ לְהִתְגָּרֵד בּוֹ. אַף בְּמִצְרַיִם כָּךְ הָיָה (תהלים קה, לג): וַיַּךְ גַּפְנָם וּתְאֵנָתָם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים עח, מח): וַיַּסְגֵּר לַבָּרָד בְּעִירָם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים עח, נא): וַיַּךְ כָּל בְּכוֹר בְּמִצְרָיִם. וְאַף בִּנְגָעִים כֵּן, בַּתְּחִלָּה הֵן בָּאִין עַל בֵּיתוֹ, אִם חָזַר בּוֹ מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו, הֲרֵי הֵן טְעוּנִין חֲלִיצָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יד, מ): וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ. אִם חָזַר בּוֹ מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו, טְעוּנִין נְתִיצָה. חָזַר בּוֹ מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו, בָּאִים עַל הַבְּגָדִים וּטְעוּנִים כִּבּוּס. חָזַר בּוֹ מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו, טְעוּנִין קְרִיעָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג, נו): וְקָרַע אֹתוֹ מִן הַבֶּגֶד. אִם חָזַר בּוֹ מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו, טְעוּנִין שְׂרֵפָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג, נב): וְשָׂרַף אֶת הַבֶּגֶד. אַחַר כָּךְ הֵן בָּאִין עַל גּוּפוֹ, אִם חָזַר בּוֹ מוּטָב וְאִם לָאו, יוֹצֵא וּבָא. אִם חָזַר בּוֹ מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו (ויקרא יג, מו): בָּדָד יֵשֵׁב מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה מוֹשָׁבוֹ. וְאַף בְּמַחְלוֹן וְכִלְיוֹן כָּךְ הָיָה, בַּתְּחִלָּה מֵתוּ סוּסֵיהֶם, חֲמוֹרֵיהֶם, גְּמַלֵּיהֶם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ, וַיָּמָת אֱלִימֶלֶךְ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ, וַיָּמֻתוּ גַּם שְׁנֵיהֶם מַחְלוֹן וְכִלְיוֹן. וַתִּשָּׁאֶר הָאִשָּׁה, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא נֶעֶשְׂתָה שְׁיָרֵי שְׁיָרִים.

"Then those two—Mahlon and Chilion—also died (Ruth 1:5)": Rabbi Chunya and Rabbi Yehoshua son of Rabbi Avin and Rabbi Zavda his son-in-law of Rabbi Levi: "The master of mercies at first does not take punishment from souls". From what do you teach this? From Job, as it is said: "A messenger came to Job and said, “The oxen were plowing (Job 1:14)". Rabbi Chama son of Rabbi Chanina said: "The Holy One, blessed be He, revealed to him a vision, a sketch of the world to come: "The plowman shall meet the reaper (Amos 9:13)", "when Sabeans attacked them and carried them off (Job 1:15)"". Rabbi Abba son of Kahana said: "They went out from Kefar Kerinos and the walked all the Avalonim to the tower of the dyers and they died there: "Only I alone have escaped to tell you (Job 1:15)"". Rabbi Chanina said: "The word "only" (raq) is a limitation word, and so he was broken and beaten". Rabbi Yudan said: "The word "alone" (levadi) is a limitation: "This one was still speaking (Job 1:16)" and while he was speaking his account, he died". "This one was still speaking when another came and said, “A Chaldean formation of three columns (Job 1:17)": Rabbi Samuel son of Nachman said: "When Job heard he began to stir his ranks for war, and he said: "How many ranks am I able to arm and how many squads am I able to form, and this nation in this world is despised: "Behold the land of Chaldea— This is the people that has ceased to be (Isaiah 23:13)"; if only they had not come to cause the fear of them to fall upon me". And when he said to him: "God’s fire fell from heaven (Job 1:16)", Job said: This is from heaven? What can I do "so that I keep silent and do not step outdoors (Job 31:34)" and so "he took a potsherd to scratch himself as he sat in ashes (Job 2:8)". But in Egypt it was this way: "He struck their vines and fig trees (Psalm 105:33)" and later "He gave their beasts over to hail, their cattle to lightning bolts (Psalms 78:48)" and still later: "He struck every first-born in Egypt (Psalm 78:51)". And so with plagues it is this way: in the beginning they come on his house. If he repents for himself it is made good, and if not, look the contaminated ones are removed, as it is said: "the priest shall order the stones with the plague in them to be pulled out (Leviticus 14:40)". And if he repents for himself it is made good, and if not, the whole is demolished. If he repents for himself, it is made good, but if not the plagues come upon his clothes and the contaminated ones must be washed. And if he repents for himself, it is made good, and if not the contaminated clothes are torn, as it is said: "he shall tear it out from the cloth (Leviticus 13:56)". If he repents for himself, it is made good, and if not the contaminated clothes are burned, as it is said: "He shall burn the clothing (Leviticus 13:52)". And finally the plagues come upon his body. And if he repents, it is made good, and if not, he leaves and comes back. And if he repents, it is made good, and if not: "Being unclean, he shall dwell apart; his dwelling shall be outside the camp (Leviticus 13:46)". And so with Machlon and Chilion it went this way: at first their horses, donkeys, and camels died, and then later, Elimelech died, and after that "Then those two—Mahlon and Chilion—also died so the woman was left (sha'er) ": Rabbi Chanina said: "She was made the reside of residue (sheyarei sheyarim)".

11 יא

וַתָּקָם הִיא וְכַלֹתֶיהָ וַתָּשָׁב מִשְֹּׂדֵי מוֹאָב כִּי שָׁמְעָה בִּשְׂדֵה מוֹאָב (רות א, ו), שָׁמְעָה מֵהָרוֹכְלִין הַמַּחֲזִירִין בָּעֲיָרוֹת, וּמַה שָּׁמְעָה, כִּי פָקַד ה' אֶת עַמּוֹ לָתֵת לָהֶם לָחֶם. כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר (תהלים צד, יד): כִּי לֹא יִטּשׁ ה' עַמּוֹ וְנַחֲלָתוֹ לֹא יַעֲזֹב, וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר (שמואל א יב, כב): כִּי לֹא יִטּשׁ ה' אֶת עַמּוֹ בַּעֲבוּר שְׁמוֹ הַגָּדוֹל, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בַּעֲבוּר עַמּוֹ וְנַחֲלָתוֹ, וּפְעָמִים שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל שְׁמוֹ הַגָּדוֹל. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ כְּשֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל זַכָּאִין, בַּעֲבוּר עַמּוֹ וְנַחֲלָתוֹ, וּכְשֶׁאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל זַכָּאִין, בַּעֲבוּר שְׁמוֹ הַגָּדוֹל. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּשְׁבִיל עַמּוֹ וְנַחֲלָתוֹ, בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ בַּעֲבוּר שְׁמוֹ הַגָּדוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מח, יא): לְמַעֲנִי לְמַעֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה.

"She started out with her daughters-in-law to return from the country of Moab for in the country of Moab she had heard (Ruth 1:6)": she heard from the merchants traveling in the cities. And what did she hear? "that Hashem had taken note of His people and given them food". One scripture says: "For Hashem will not forsake His people; He will not abandon His very own (Psalms 94:14)". Another scripture says: "For the sake of His great name, Hashem will never abandon His people (1 Samuel 12:22)". Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachmani said: "Sometimes he acts for the sake of his people and his heritage, and at other times he acts for the sake of his great name". Rabbi Ayybu said: "When Israel is innocent, for the sake of his people and heritage. When Israel is not innocent, for the sake of his great name". And the rabbis said: "In the land of Israel for the sake of his people and his heritage, and outside the land of Israel for the sake of his great name, as it is said: "For My sake, My own sake, do I act (Isaiah 48:11)"".

12 יב

וַתֵּצֵא מִן הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר הָיְתָה שָׁמָּה (רות א, ז), וַתֵּצֵא, וְכִי לֹא יָצְאתָה מִשָּׁם אֶלָּא הִיא, וַהֲלֹא כַּמָּה גַּמָּלִים יָצְאוּ, כַּמָּה חַמָּרִים יָצְאוּ, וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ וַתֵּצֵא, רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן גָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּעִיר, הוּא זִיוָהּ, וְהוּא הוֹדָהּ, וְהוּא הֲדָרָהּ, וְהוּא שִׁבְחָהּ. פָּנָה מִשָּׁם, פָּנָה זִיוָהּ, פָּנָה הוֹדָהּ, פָּנָה הֲדָרָהּ, פָּנָה שִׁבְחָהּ. וְכֵן אַתְּ מוֹצֵא בְּיַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ כְּשֶׁיָּצָא מִבְּאֵר שֶׁבַע, וְכִי לֹא יָצָא מִשָּׁם אֶלָּא הוּא, וַהֲלֹא כַּמָּה גַּמָּלִים יָצְאוּ, כַּמָּה חַמָּרִים יָצְאוּ, וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ וַיֵּצֵא, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהַצַּדִּיק בָּעִיר, הוּא זִיוָהּ, וְהוּא הוֹדָהּ, וְהוּא הֲדָרָהּ וְהוּא שִׁבְחָהּ. יָצָא מִשָּׁם פָּנָה זִיוָהּ, פָּנָה הוֹדָהּ, פָּנָה הֲדָרָהּ, פָּנָה שִׁבְחָהּ. נִיחָא תַּמָּן דְּלָא הֲוָת אֶלָּא אוֹתָהּ הַצַּדֶּקֶת, בְּרַם הָכָא לָא הֲוָה יִצְחָק תַּמָּן, אֶלָּא אָמַר רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן לֹא דּוֹמָה זְכוּת צַדִּיק אֶחָד לִזְכוּת שְׁנֵי צַדִּיקִים. וַתֵּלַכְנָה בַדֶּרֶךְ לָשׁוּב אֶל אֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, עָבְרוּ עַל שׁוּרַת הַדִּין וְהָלְכוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַתֵּלַכְנָה בַדֶּרֶךְ, הוּצְרָה עֲלֵיהֶם הַדֶּרֶךְ, שֶׁהָלְכוּ בְּיָחֵף. וַתֵּלַכְנָה, הָיוּ עֲסוּקוֹת בְּהִלְכוֹת גֵּרִים.

"Accompanied by her two daughters-in-law, she left the place where she had been living (Ruth 1:7)": "She left": Did no one leave except for her? And how many camels left, how many she-asses left, but you say "She left"! Rabbi Azariah in the name of Rabbi Yehudah the son of Rabbi Simon: "Great in the city, he is its splendor, he is its glory, and he is its beauty, and he is its praise. He turns from there and its splendor turns, its glory turns, its beauty turns, its praise turns. And so you bought forth Jacob our father when he left Beersheba, and did leave except him from there? And how many camels left, how many she-asses left, but you say "he left (Genesis 28:10)"! When a righteous man is in the city, he is its splendor, he is its glory, and he is its beauty, and he is its praise. And when he leaves there its splendor turns, its glory turns, its beauty turns, its praise turns". So this teaches that there was no one except for Naomi who was righteous, but in the latter situation, how can it be? Was not Isaac there? Rather, Rabbi Azariah in the name of Rabbi Azariah the son of Simon: "Not similar is the memory of one righteous man to two righteous men". "And they set out on the road back to the land of Judah (Ruth 1:7)". Rabbi Yehudah said and Rabbi Yochanan said: "They transgressed the standard of the law and they walked on a festival day". Another opinion: "And they set out on the road": the way was difficult for them because they walked barefoot. [Another]: "And they set out on the road": they were focused on the ways (telakhnah is connected to hilkhot from the root halakh) of conversion.

13 יג

וַתֹּאמֶר נָעֳמִי לִשְׁתֵּי כַתֶיהָ לֵכְנָה שֹּׁבְנָה אִשָּׁה לְבֵית אִמָּהּ (רות א, ח), לְבֵית אֻמָּתָהּ. אַבְנִימוֹס הַגַּרְדִּי מֵתָה אִמּוֹ וְעָלָה רַבִּי מֵאִיר לְהֵרָאוֹת לוֹ פָּנִים, וּמָצָא אוֹתָם יוֹשְׁבִין אֲבֵלִים, לְאַחַר זְמַן מֵת אָבִיו וְעָלָה רַבִּי מֵאִיר לְהֵרָאוֹת לוֹ פָּנִים, וּמָצָא אוֹתָן עֲסוּקִין בִּמְלַאכְתָּן. אָמַר לוֹ, כִּמְדֻמֶּה אֲנִי שֶׁאִמְךָ חֲבִיבָה עָלֶיךָ יוֹתֵר מֵאָבִיךָ, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא כֵן כְּתִיב, אִשָּׁה לְבֵית אִמָּהּ וְלֹא לְבֵית אָבִיהָ. אָמַר לוֹ, יָפֶה אָמַרְתָּ שֶׁאֵין אָב לְגוֹי,

"But Naomi said to her two daughters-in-law, “Turn back, each of you to her mother’s house (Ruth 1:8)": to the house of her people. Avnimos of Gadara, his mother died and Rabbi Meir went up to visit him and he found them sitting in mourning. And at another time his father died and Rabbi Meir went up to visit him and found them busy about their work. He said to him: "From appearances, I think that your mother is more beloved to you than your father". Avdimos said to him: "Is it not written: "Turn back, each of you to her mother’s house" but not "to her father's house"? He responded to him: "You spoke well for a gentile has no father".

14 יד

יַעַשׂ ה' עִמָּכֶם חֶסֶד, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר אָדָא אָמַר, יַעֲשֶׂה כְּתִיב, כַּאֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם עִם הַמֵּתִים, שֶׁנִּטְפַּלְתֶּם בְּתַכְרִיכֵיהוֹן, וְעִמָּדִי, שֶׁוִתְּרוּ לָהּ כְּתֻבּוֹתֵיהֶן. אָמַר רַבִּי זְעֵירָא, מְגִלָּה זוֹ אֵין בָּהּ לֹא טֻמְאָה, וְלֹא טָהֳרָה, וְלֹא אִסּוּר, וְלֹא הֶתֵּר, וְלָמָּה נִכְתְּבָה לְלַמֶּדְךָ כַּמָּה שָׂכָר טוֹב לְגוֹמְלֵי חֲסָדִים.

"God will deal kindly with you (Ruth 1:8)" . Rabbi Chanina son of Ada says, "He will deal (ya'aseh)" is what is written (k'tiv), "as you dealt with the dead" when you were occupied with their shrouds, "and with me" when they renounced their ketubot. Rabbi Zeira says: "This book [of Ruth] does not have anything in it concerned with impurity or purity nor what is forbidden and what is permitted. So why is it written? To teach us the greatness of the reward for acts of lovingkindness."

15 טו

יִתֵּן ה' לָכֶם (רות א, ט), אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי כָּל אוֹתָן הַטּוֹבוֹת וְהַנֶּחָמוֹת שֶׁעָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִתֵּן לִשְׁלֹמֹה, דִּכְתִיב (מלכים א ה, ט): וַיִּתֵּן אֱלֹהִים חָכְמָה לִשְׁלֹמֹה, יִהְיוּ מִכֶּם. וּמְצֶאןָ מְנוּחָה, וּמְצֶאןָ כְּתִיב, אַחַת מוֹצֵאת, שְׁתַּיִם לֹא מוֹצְאוֹת. אִשָּׁה בֵּית אִשָּׁהּ, מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין קוֹרַת רוּחַ לְאִשָּׁה, אֶלָּא בְּבֵית בַּעֲלָהּ. וַתִּשַּׁק לָהֶן וַתִּשֶֹּׂאנָה קוֹלָן וַתִּבְכֶּינָה, וַתֹּאמַרְנָה לָהּ, וַתֹּאמֶר נָעֳמִי שֹׁבְנָה בְנֹתַי לָמָּה תֵלַכְנָה עִמִּי הַעוֹד לִי בָנִים בְּמֵעַי וְהָיוּ לָכֶם לַאֲנָשִׁים וגו', וְכִי יֵשׁ אָדָם מְיַבֵּם אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו שֶׁלֹא הָיָה בְּעוֹלָמוֹ.

"May Hashem grant (yitten) (Ruth 1:9)": Rabbi Jose said: "All those good and consoling actions which the Holy One, blessed be He would "grant" to Solomon, as it is written: "God granted (vayyitten) Solomon wisdom (1 Kings 5:9)" and these will be from you. "Each of you find security": "you find" is written: one will find, but two will not find. "In the house of a husband": thus there is no fulfillment of the spirit for a woman except in the house of her husband. "And she kissed them farewell. They broke into weeping and said to her, “No, we will return with you to your people.” But Naomi replied, “Turn back, my daughters! Why should you go with me? Have I any more sons in my body who might be husbands for you?" (Ruth 1:9-11): Does a man perform a levirate marriage to the wife of his brother if he is not in the world at that time? [No.]

16 טז

שֹׁבְנָה בְנֹתַי לֵכְנָה (רות א, יב), רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, בְּשָׁלשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת כְּתִיב כָּאן (רות א, ח): שֹׁבְנָה, (רות א, יא): שֹׁבְנָה, (רות א, יב): שֹׁבְנָה, כְּנֶגֶד שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים שֶׁדּוֹחִין אֶת הַגֵּר, וְאִם הִטְרִיחַ יוֹתֵר מִכָּאן מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק (איוב לא, לב): בַּחוּץ לֹא יָלִין גֵּר, לְעוֹלָם יְהֵא אָדָם דּוֹחֶה בִּשְׂמֹאל וּמְקָרֵב בִּימִין. כִּי זָקַנְתִּי מִהְיוֹת לְאִישׁ וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לִמְדָךְ הַתּוֹרָה דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ שֶׁאֵין תַּשְׁמִישׁ בַּיּוֹם אֶלָּא בַּלַּיְלָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (אסתר ב, יד): בָּעֶרֶב הִא בָאָה וּבַבֹּקֶר הִיא שָׁבָה, וּכְתִיב: גַּם הָיִיתִי הַלַּיְלָה לְאִישׁ.

"Turn back, my daughters, go (Ruth 1:12)": Rabbi Samuel bar Nachmani in the name of Rabbi Yudin son of Rabbi Chanina [explains]: "In three places it is written here "return (Ruth 1:8)", "return (Ruth 1:11)", "return (Ruth 1:12)" corresponding to the three times we push away a [potential] convert. And if he bothers [trying to convert] longer than that we accept him". Rabbi Yitzchak said "A convert should not stay over outside (Job 31:32)": [this teaches that] A person should always push away with his left and bring closer with his right. "for I am too old to be married": Rabbi Yochanan said: "The Torah teaches you the way of the land, that one does not have sex during the day but rather at night. See! It is written: "She would go in the evening and leave in the morning (Esther 2:14)" and it is written: "even if I were married tonight".

17 יז

וְגַם הָיִיתִי, שֶׁיָּלַדְתִּי בָנִים, הָא אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי הַלַּיְלָה לְאִישׁ יָלַדְתִּי בָנִים, אֶלָּא הֲלָהֵן תְּשַׂבֵּרְנָה, יְכוֹלוֹת אַתֶּם יוֹשְׁבוֹת עַד אֲשֶׁר יִגְדָּלוּ הֲלָהֵן תֵּעָגֵנָה, יְכוֹלוֹת אַתֶּם יוֹשְׁבוֹת עֲגוּנוֹת לְבִלְתִּי הֱיוֹת לְאִישׁ אַל בְּנֹתַי, אַלְלַי בְּנוֹתַי, כִּי מַר לִי מְאֹד מִכֶּם, בִּשְׁבִילְכֶם, כִּי יָצְאָה בִי וּבְבָנַי וּבְבַעְלִי יַד ה'.

"Even if I were married tonight and I also bore sons" that is even if I were to have a husband tonight and I bore sons, but still "should you wait for them to grow up? (Ruth 1:13): would you be able to wait and "on their account debar yourselves from marriage? Oh no, my daughters! My lot is far more bitter than yours, for the hand of Hashem has struck out against me.

18 יח

רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ פָּתַר קְרָיָיא בְּמשֶׁה, אָמַר משֶׁה לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם בְּהֵן קִלַסְתִּיךָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים י, יד): הֵן לַה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם וּשְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם, וְהָיִיתִי סָבוּר שֶׁתִּתֵּן לִי פְּרוֹפְקֹפְּיָא, הֲלָהֵן תֵּעָגֵנָה, הוֹגַעְתַּנִי בְּמַלְאַךְ הַמָּוֶת, הֵן שְׁבַקְתְּ גַּבִּי וְאָמַרְתָּ לִי הֵן קָרְבוּ יָמֶיךָ לָמוּת, וְחוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַל בְּנֹתַי אַלְּלַי בָּנַי, כִּי מַר לִי מְאֹד מִכֶּם, בִּשְׁבִילְכֶם בִּי וּבְאָחִי יָצְתָה יַד ה'.

Rabbi Chanina son of Rabbi Abbahu interpreted this verse as referring to Moses. Moses said before the Holy One, blessed be He: "Master of the world, with the word "behold" I praised you, as it is said: "Behold, the heavens to their uttermost reaches belong to Hashem your God (Deuteronomy 10:14)" and I was hopeful that you would give me a promotion. Did you not "on their account debar" me, you caused the Angel of Death to touch me and thus you abandoned me and said to me: "behold, days are approaching when you must die (Deuteronomy 34:14)". And you returned and said to Israel: "Woe my daughters and sons, my lot is far more bitter than yours because of you "the hand of Hashem has struck out against me".

19 יט

אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי, כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ יַד ה', מַכַּת דֶּבֶר הִיא, וּבִנְיַן אָב שֶׁבְּכֻלָּם (שמות ט, ג): הִנֵּה יַד ה' הוֹיָה. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר יָד תָּבְעוּ וְיָד פָּגְעָה בָּם. אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן בַּיּוֹצְאִין הָיְתָה מַגֵּפָה, בַּיּוֹשְׁבִין לֹא הָיְתָה מַגֵּפָה. תַּלְמִידֵי דְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה מַיְיתֵי לָהּ מֵהָתָם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שופטים ב, טו): בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ יַד ה' הָיְתָה בָּם לְרָעָה, בַּיּוֹצְאִין הָיְתָה מַגֵּפָה בַּיּוֹשְׁבִין לֹא הָיְתָה מַגֵּפָה. אָמַר רַבִּי רְאוּבֵן אַף בְּנֵיהֶן הָיוּ מְצֵרִין אַחֲרֵיהֶם וְאוֹמְרִים מָתַי יָמוּתוּ אֵלֶּה וְנִכָּנֵס אָנוּ לָאָרֶץ.

Rabbi Levi said: "Every place where it is said "the hand of Hashem" that is the plague of sickness, and it is a binyan av deduction that applies to all of them: "Then the hand of Hashem will strike your livestock in the fields—the horses, the asses, the camels, the cattle, and the sheep—with a very severe pestilence (Exodus 9:3)"". Bar Kappara said: "They wanted a hand and pestilence was on them". Rabbi Simon said: "When they went forth there was a plague, but when they rested there was not a plague". The students of Rabbi Nechemyah derived from the following: it is written: "When they went forth, the hand of Hashem was against them to their undoing (Judges 2:15)": when they went forth there was a plague, and when they stayed there was not a plague. Rabbi Reuben said: "So their children harassed them and said: "When will these people die and we will be gathered into the land?"".

20 כ

וַתִּשֶֹּׂנָה קוֹלָן וַתִּבְכֶּינָה (רות א, יד), חָסֵר אל"ף, תָּשַׁשׁ כֹּחָן, שֶׁהֵן מְהַלְּכוֹת וּבוֹכוֹת. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַרְבָּעִים פְּסִיעוֹת הָלְכָה עָרְפָּה עִם חֲמוֹתָהּ, וְנִתְלָה לִבְנָהּ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א יז, טז): וַיִּגַּשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הַשְׁכֵּם וְהַעֲרֵב. רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַרְבָּעָה מִילִין הָלְכָה עָרְפָּה עִם חֲמוֹתָהּ, וְעָמְדוּ מִמֶּנָּהּ אַרְבָּעָה גִּבּוֹרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב כא, כב): אַרְבַּעַת אֵלֶּה יֻלְּדוּ לְהָרָפָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַלַּיְלָה שֶׁפֵּרְשָׁה עָרְפָּה מֵחֲמוֹתָהּ נִתְעָרְבוּ בָּהּ עֶרְוַת גּוֹיִם שֶׁל מֵאָה בְּנֵי אָדָם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל א יז, כג): וְהוּא מְדַבֵּר עִמָּם וגו' מִמַּעַרְכוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים, מִמַּעַרְוֹת כְּתִיב, מִמֵּאָה עָרְלוֹת גּוֹיִם שֶׁנִּתְעָרוּ בָּהּ כָּל הַלַּיְלָה. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר אַף כֶּלֶב אֶחָד, דִּכְתִיב (שמואל א יז, מג): וַיֹּאמֶר הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶל דָּוִד הֲכֶלֶב אָנֹכִי.

"They broke into weeping again (Ruth 1:14)": the word "they broke" is spelled without an alef. Thus, they were weakening as they walked about and wept. Rabbi Berechyah said in the name of Rabbi Yitzhak: "Forty paces did Orpah go with her mother-in-law and [for this reason, retribution] was suspended for her descendant Goliath for forty days, as it is said: “And the Philistine drew near morning and evening and presented himself for forty days (1 Samuel 17:16)"". Rabbi Yehudah said in the name of Rabbi Yitzhak: "Four miles did Orpah proceed with her mother-in-law and as a reward four mighty men descended from her, as it is said, “These four were descended from the Rafah (2 Samuel 21: 22)"". Rabbi Yitzhak said: "The whole of that night when Orpah separated from her mother, a hundred uncircumcised heathens raped her". Rabbi Tanchuma said: "Even one dog raped her, as it is written: "And the Philistine said to David, am I a dog? (1 Samuel 17:43)"".

21 כא

וַתִּשַּׁק עָרְפָּה לַחֲמוֹתָהּ, כָּל נְשִׁיקָה שֶׁל תִּפְלוּת בַּר מִן תְּלָת, נְשִׁיקָה שֶׁל גְדֻלָּה, וּנְשִׁיקָה שֶׁל פְּרָקִים, וּנְשִׁיקָה שֶׁל פְּרִישׁוּת. שֶׁל גְּדֻלָּה, דִּכְתִיב (שמואל א י, א): וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת פַּךְ הַשֶּׁמֶן וַיִּצֹּק עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּשָּׁקֵהוּ. שֶׁל פְּרָקִים, דִּכְתִיב (שמות ד, כז): וַיִּפְגְּשֵׁהוּ בְּהַר הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּשַּׁק לוֹ. שֶׁל פְּרִישׁוּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַתִּשַּׁק עָרְפָּה לַחֲמוֹתָהּ. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר אַף נְשִׁיקָה שֶׁל קְרִיבוּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כט, יא): וַיִּשַּׁק יַעֲקֹב לְרָחֵל, לָמָּה, שֶׁהָיְתָה קְרוֹבָתוֹ. וַתֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה שָׁבָה יְבִמְתֵּךְ וגו', כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁבָה אֶל עַמָּהּ שָׁבָה אֶל אֱלֹהֶיהָ.

"And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law farewell (Ruth 1:14)": every kiss is frivolous except for three: kisses of greatness, and kisses of meeting, and kisses of leaving. Of greatness, as it is written: "Samuel took a flask of oil and poured some on Saul’s head and kissed him (1 Samuel 10:1)". And kisses of meeting, as it is written: "He went and met him at the mountain of God, and he kissed him (Exodus 4:27)". And kisses of leaving, as it is said: "And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law farewell". Rabbi Tanchuma said: "Also kisses of affinity, as it is said: "Then Jacob kissed Rachel (Genesis 29:11)". Why? Because she had affinity with him. "So she said, “See, your sister-in-law has returned to her people and her gods (Ruth 1:15)".

22 כב

וַתֹּאמֶר רוּת אַל תִּפְגְּעִי בִי לְעָזְבֵךְ לָשׁוּב מֵאַחֲרָיִךְ (רות א, טז), מַהוּ אַל תִּפְגְּעִי בִי, אָמְרָה לָהּ לֹא תֶחֱטָא עָלַי, לָא תִסְּבִין פְּגָעַיִךְ מִנִּי, לְעָזְבֵךְ לָשׁוּב מֵאַחֲרָיִךְ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם דַּעְתִּי לְהִתְגַּיֵּר, אֶלָּא מוּטָב עַל יָדֵךְ וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי אַחֶרֶת. כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁמְעָה נָעֳמִי כָּךְ הִתְחִילָה סוֹדֶרֶת לָהּ הִלְכוֹת גֵּרִים, אָמְרָה לָהּ בִּתִּי אֵין דַּרְכָּן שֶׁל בְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵילֵךְ לְבָתֵּי תֵּיאַטְרָאוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי קִרְקָסִיאוֹת שֶׁל גּוֹיִם. אָמְרָה לָהּ, אֶל אֲשֶׁר תֵּלְכִי אֵלֵךְ. אָמְרָה לָהּ בִּתִּי אֵין דַּרְכָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל לָדוּר בְּבַיִת שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מְזוּזָה. אָמְרָה לָהּ, בַּאֲשֶׁר תָּלִינִי אָלִין עַמֵּךְ עַמִּי, אֵלּוּ עֳנָשִׁין וְאַזְהָרוֹת. וֵאלֹהַיִךְ אֱלֹהָי, שְׁאָר מִצְווֹת.

"And Ruth said: entreat me not to leave you and to return from following you (Ruth 1:16)"-- what does "entreat" [lit. "hurt"] mean? Ruth said to Naomi, "Do not sin against me by telling me to leave and return from following you. I intend to convert anyway, and it is better that I do it with you than with someone else." When Naomi heard this, she immediately began to lay out before her the laws of conversion. Naomi said, "My daughter, Jewish women do not go to the non-Jews' theaters and circuses." Ruth said, "Where you go, I will go." Naomi said, "My daughter, Jewish women do not live in a house where there is no mezuzah." Ruth said, "Where you lodge, I will lodge." "Your people shall be my people," refers to warning and punishment, and "Your God shall be my God" refers to the rest of the commandments.

23 כג

דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶל אֲשֶׁר תֵּלְכִי אֵלֵךְ. בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, בְּגִלְגָּל, בְּשִׁילֹה, בְּנֹב, בְּגִבְעוֹן, בְּבֵית עוֹלָמִים. בַּאֲשֶׁר תָּלִינִי אָלִין, לָנָה אֲנִי עַל קָרְבְּנוֹתַי. עַמֵּךְ עַמִּי, לְבַטֵּל עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁלִּי. וֵאלֹהַיִךְ אֱלֹהָי, לְשַׁלֵּם שְׂכַר פְּעֻלָּתִי.

Where you go I will go” [refers] to the tent of meeting, [and to the towns of] Gilgal, Shiloh, Nob, Gibeon, and the eternal house [in Jerusalem – i.e., to the various places where sacrifice to God will be mandated]. “And where you lodge, I will lodge” [means that] I will spend the night concerned for my sacrifices. “Your people shall be my people” [means that I shall] nullify my [attachment] to idols. “And your God shall be my God” [means that I am willing] to pay full recompense for my actions [according to the rewards and punishments set out in Jewish law].

24 כד

בַּאֲשֶׁר תָּמוּתִי אָמוּת (רות א, יז), אֵלּוּ אַרְבַּע מִיתוֹת בֵּית דִּין, סְקִילָה, שְׂרֵפָה, הֶרֶג וְחֶנֶק. וְשָׁם אֶקָּבֵר, אֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי קְבָרִים הַמְתֻקָּנִים לְבֵית דִּין, אֶחָד לַנִּסְקָלִין וְלַנִּשְׂרָפִין, וְאֶחָד לַנֶּהֳרָגִין וְלַנֶּחְנָקִין. כֹּה יַעֲשֶׂה ה' לִי וְכֹה יוֹסִיף, אָמְרָה לָהּ, בִּתִּי, כָּל מַה שֶּׁאַתְּ יְכוֹלָה לְסַגֵּל מִצְווֹת וּצְדָקוֹת, סַגְלִי בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא כִּי הַמָּוֶת יַפְרִיד בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵךְ.

Where you die, I will die (Ruth 1:17)” – These are the four capital punishments of the Jewish Court [to which Ruth is willing to become a subject]: stoning, burning, beheading, and strangulation. “And there I shall be buried” – [this refers to] the two cemeteries reserved for the court: one for [those who were] stoned or burnt; and one for [those who were] beheaded or strangled [Ruth said, regarding these punishments:] “Thus and more may Hashem do to me". [Naomi] said to her: “My daughter, all that which you are able to acquire, in terms of the commandments, and righteousness, [i.e., as a Jew, you must] acquire in this world; but in the future, [after we’re dead and buried, there is no opportunity to accrue more merit or to repent. At that time] “only death will separate between you and me."