Chapter 1 א׳
1 א

וַיְהִי בִּימֵי שְׁפֹט הַשֹּׁפְטִים (רות א, א), אוֹי לַדּוֹר שֶׁשָּׁפְטוּ אֶת שׁוֹפְטֵיהֶם, וְאוֹי לַדּוֹר שֶׁשּׁוֹפְטָיו צְרִיכִין לְהִשָּׁפֵט, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ב, יז): וְגַם אֶל שֹׁפְטֵיהֶם לֹא שָׁמֵעוּ, וּמִי הָיוּ, רַב אָמַר בָּרָק וּדְבוֹרָה הָיוּ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר, שַׁמְגַּר וְאֵהוּד הָיוּ. רַב הוּנָא אָמַר דְּבוֹרָה וּבָרָק וְיָעֵל הָיוּ, שְׁפֹט חַד, שֹׁפְטִים תְּרֵין, הַשֹּׁפְטִים תְּלָתָא.

"In the days the judges judged (Ruth 1:1)" [which could also be "the judges were judged"]. Woe to a generation that judges its judges and woe to a generation whose judges need to be judged. As it says: "And they didn't listen to their judges (Judges 2:17)". Who were those judges? Rav said: "They were Barak and Deborah". Rabbi Yehoshua Ben Levi said: "They were Shamgar and Ehud". Rav Huna said: "They were Deborah, Barak, and Yael". 'Judge' means one, 'judges' two, and 'the judges' three".

2 ב

רַבִּי שָׁאַל לְרַבִּי בְּצַלְאֵל, מַהוּ דִכְתִיב (הושע ב, ז): כִּי זָנְתָה אִמָּם, אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁשָֹּׂרָה אִמֵּנוּ זוֹנָה הָיְתָה. אָמַר לוֹ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, אֶלָּא אֵימָתַי דִבְרֵי תוֹרָה מִתְבַּזִּין בִּפְנֵי עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבַּעְלֵיהֶן מְבַזִּין אוֹתָם, אֲתָא רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אַבְדִימֵי וְעָבְדֵיהּ שְׁמוּעָה, אֵימָתַי דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה נַעֲשִׂין כְּזוֹנוֹת בִּפְנֵי עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבַּעְלֵיהֶן מְבַזִּין אוֹתָם. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מַיְיתֵי לָהּ מֵהָכָא (קהלת ט, טז): וְחָכְמַת הַמִּסְכֵּן בְּזוּיָה, וְכִי חָכְמָתוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא שֶׁהָיָה מִסְכֵּן, בְּזוּיָה הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא מַהוּ מִסְכֵּן מִי שֶׁהוּא בָּזוּי בִּדְבָרָיו, כְּגוֹן זָקֵן יוֹשֵׁב וְדוֹרֵשׁ (דברים טז, יט): לֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפָּט, וְהוּא מַטֶּה מִשְׁפָּט. לֹא תַכִּיר פָּנִים, וְהוּא מַכִּיר פָּנִים. לֹא תִקַּח שֹׁחַד, וְהוּא לוֹקֵחַ שֹׁחַד, (שמות כב, כא): כָּל אַלְמָנָה וְיָתוֹם לֹא תְעַנּוּן, וְהוּא מְעַנֶּה אוֹתָם. שִׁמְשׁוֹן הָלַךְ אַחַר עֵינָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים יד, ג): אוֹתָהּ קַח לִי כִּי הִיא יָשְׁרָה בְּעֵינָי. גִּדְעוֹן עָבַד עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ח, כז): וַיַּעַשׂ אוֹתוֹ גִּדְעוֹן לְאֵפוֹד, הֱוֵי שֶׁאֵין לְךָ מִסְכֵּן גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה, אוֹי לַדַּיָּן שֶׁמַּכִּיר פָּנִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט. תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא (ויקרא יט, טו): לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהַדַּיָּן שֶׁמְּקַלְקֵל הַדִּין קָרוּי חֲמִשָּׁה שֵׁמוֹת, עָוֶל, שָׂנאוּי, מְשֻׁקָּץ, חֵרֶם, תּוֹעֵבָה. וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא קוֹרֵא עָלָיו חֲמִשָּׁה, רָע, מְנָאֵץ, מֵפֵר בְּרִית, מַכְעִיס, וּמַמְרֶה. וְגוֹרֵם חֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים לָעוֹלָם, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הָאָרֶץ, וּמְחַלֵּל אֶת הַשֵּׁם, וּמְסַלֵּק אֶת הַשְּׁכִינָה, וּמַפִּיל יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּחֶרֶב, וּמַגְלָם מֵאַרְצָם. אוֹי לַדּוֹר שֶׁמְּקֻלְקָל בְּמִדָּה זוֹ. תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא (ויקרא יט, לה): לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט בַּדִּין, אִם לַדִּין כְּבָר אָמוּר בַּדִּין, אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר בַּמִּשְׁפָּט, בַּמִּדָּה, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהַמּוֹדֵד נִקְרָא דַּיָּן, וְאִם שִׁקֵּר קָרוּי חֲמִשָּׁה שֵׁמוֹת, וְגוֹרֵם חֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים. אוֹי לַדּוֹר שֶׁמִּדּוֹתָיו שֶׁל שֶׁקֶר, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי בְּנָיָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי הוּנָא, אִם רָאִיתָ דּוֹר שֶׁמִּדּוֹתָיו שֶׁל שְׁקָרִים מַלְכוּת בָּאָה וּמִתְגָּרָה בְּאוֹתוֹ הַדּוֹר, מַה טַּעַם (משלי יא, א): מֹאזְנֵי מִרְמָה תּוֹעֲבַת ה', וּכְתִיב (משלי יא, א): בָּא זָדוֹן וַיָּבֹא קָלוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבָּא, כְּתִיב (מיכה ו, יא): הַאֶזְכֶּה בְּמֹאזְנֵי רֶשַׁע, אֶפְשָׁר כֵּן שֶׁדּוֹר שֶׁמִּדּוֹתָיו שֶׁל שֶׁקֶר זוֹכֶה, אֶלָּא וּבְכִיס אַבְנֵי מִרְמָה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי אַף משֶׁה רְמָזָהּ לָהֶן לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בַּתּוֹרָה (דברים כה, יג): לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּכִיסְךָ, לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּבֵיתְךָ אֵיפָה וְאֵיפָה, וְאִם עָשָׂה כֵן סוֹף שֶׁהַמַּלְכוּת בָּאָה וּמִתְגָּרָה בּוֹ, דִּכְתִיב (דברים כה, טז): כִּי תוֹעֲבַת ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה כָּל עֹשֵׂה עָוֶל, וּכְתִיב (דברים כה, יז): זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְךָ עֲמָלֵק בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם.

Rebbe asked Rabbi Betzlel: "Why does it say: "your mother prostitutes herself (Hosea 2:7)"? Is it possible Sarah the matriarch did so? He told him: "Heavens forbid! It means that the words of Torah are disrespected by the simpletons when their own expounders disrespect them. I heard from Rabbi Yaakov bar Avdimei and Ovadia: "words of Torah are treated as prostitutes by the simpletons when those who expound them disrespect them"". Rabbi Yochanan added: "How do we know this? From here: "The poor man's wisdom is not respected (Ecclesiastes 9:16)". Was the wisdom of poor Rabbi Akiva disrespected? No, "poor" means somebody who disrespects his own words. Such as an elder sitting and teaching "be fair in judgement (Deuteronomy 16:19)", and he isn't fair in judgement; "ignore your relationship with the litigants (Deuteronomy 16:19)", and he does not ignore his relationship; "take no bribes(Deuteronomy 16:19)", and he takes bribes. "Do not oppress the widow and orphan (Exodus 22:21)", and he does oppress them. Samson went after his eyes, as it says: "Give her to me for she seems good to me (Judges 14:3)". Gideon worshiped stars as it says: "And he made it into an ephod (Judges 8:27)". There is no worse poverty than this. Woe to the judge who is not fair in judgment! Rabbi Chiyya taught: ""You shall not render an unfair decision: do not favor the poor or show deference to the rich; judge your kinsman fairly (Leviticus 19:15)" teaches that the judge who perverts justice is called by five names: harmful, hated, detestable, excommunicated, abomination. And the Holy One, blessed be He, calls upon him five names: evil, blasphemer, transgressor of the covenant, provoker of anger, rebel. He adds five things to the world: making the land impure, desecrating the name of God, removing the Shekhinah, destroying Israel with the sword, exiling them from their land". Woe to the generation that is perverted thus! Rabbi Chiyya taught: ""You shall not render an unfair decision (Leviticus 19:15)" in legal judgment (din). If to legal judgment this relates , then why does it say "in judgment (bemishpat)"? It means "in measurement", as if it teaches that the one who measures is called a judge, and if he lies, he is called by five names, and he adds five things". Woe to the generation whose measures are false! As Rabbi Banaya in the name of Rabbi Huna: "If I saw a generation whose measures were false, the kingdom comes and battles against that generation. Upon what is this based? "False scales are an abomination to Hashem (Proverbs 11:1)", and it is written "When arrogance appears, disgrace follows (Proverbs 11:2)". Rabbi Berachya said in the name of Rabbi Abba: "It is written: "Shall he be acquitted despite wicked balances (Micah 6:11)". Can it be that a generation whose measures are false is acquitted? Rather, "and a bag of fraudulent weights? (Micah 6:11)"". Rabbi Levi: "Yet Moses allegorically spoke of this to them, to Israel, in the Torah: "You shall not have in your pouch alternate weights, larger and smaller. You shall not have in your house alternate measures, a larger and a smaller (Deuteronomy 25:13-14)", and if one does this, then finally a kingdom comes and battles against him, as it is written: "For everyone who does those things, everyone who deals dishonestly, is abhorrent to Hashem your God (Deuteronomy 25:16)" and it is written: "Remember what Amalek did to you on your journey, after you left Egypt (Deuteronomy 25:17)".

3 ג

אָמַר רַבִּי, בְּרָכוֹת מְבָרְכוֹת לְבַעְלֵיהֶן, וּקְלָלוֹת מְקַלְּלוֹת לְבַעְלֵיהֶן. בְּרָכוֹת מְבָרְכוֹת לְבַעְלֵיהֶן, דִּכְתִיב (דברים כה, טו): אֶבֶן שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִהְיֶה, וְאִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵן, יִהְיֶה לָךְ. וּקְלָלוֹת מְקַלְּלוֹת לְבַעְלֵיהֶן, דִּכְתִיב (דברים כה, יג): לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְכִיסְךָ אֶבֶן וָאָבֶן, וְאִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵן, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתָּה בִּקַּשְׁתָּ לַעֲשׂוֹת גְּדוֹלָה וּקְטַנָּה, חַיֶּיךָ אֲפִלּוּ קְטַנָה אֵין מַסְפִּיקִין בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע לַעֲשׂוֹת, דִּכְתִיב (דברים כה, יג): לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּכִיסְךָ. וְדִכְוָותָהּ (שמות כ, יט): לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתָּה בִּקַּשְׁתָּ לַעֲשׂוֹת לִי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וְזָהָב, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁל עֵץ אֵין מַסְפִּיקִין בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע לַעֲשׂוֹת, דִּכְתִיב: לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם.

Rabbi [Yehudah] said: "Blessings bless their masters, and curses curse their masters. Blessings bless their masters, as is written: "You must have completely honest weights and completely honest measures, if you are to endure long on the soil that Hashem your God is giving you (Deuteronomy 25:15)" and if you do thus, this will be to you. And curses curse their masters, as is written: "You shall not have in your pouch alternate weights, larger and smaller (Deuteronomy 25:13)" and if you do thus, the Holy One, blessed be He, said: "You sought to do great and a small, and by your life and not even the small will be supplied to the hand of he who does evil, as it is written: "You shall not have in your pouch (Deuteronomy 25:13)". And furthermore: "With Me, therefore, you shall not make any gods of silver, nor shall you make for yourselves any gods of gold (Exodus 20:20)". The Holy One, blessed be He said: "You sought to make for me gods of silver and gold. As you live ones of wood will not be supplied into the hand of he who does evil, as it written: "nor shall you make for yourselves"".

4 ד

וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ, עֲשָׂרָה רְעָבוֹן בָּאוּ לָעוֹלָם, אֶחָד בִּימֵי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֶחָד בִּימֵי לֶמֶךְ, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי יִצְחָק, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי יַעֲקֹב, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אֱלִישָׁע, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי דָּוִד, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי שְׁפֹט הַשֹּׁפְטִים, וְאֶחָד שֶׁמִּתְגַּלְגֵּל וּבָא לָעוֹלָם. אֶחָד בִּימֵי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ג, יז): אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי לֶמֶךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ה, כט): מִן הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אֵרַרָה ה'. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יב, י): וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי יִצְחָק, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כו, א): וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ מִלְּבַד הָרָעָב הָרִאשׁוֹן. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי יַעֲקֹב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מה, ו): כִּי זֶה שְׁנָתַיִם הָרָעָב בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים א יז, א): אִם יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁנִים הָאֵלֶּה טַל וּמָטָר. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אֱלִישָׁע, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב ו, כה): וַיְהִי רָעָב גָּדוֹל בְּשֹׁמְרוֹן. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי דָוִד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב כא, א): וַיְהִי רָעָב בִּימֵי דָוִד שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי שְׁפֹט הַשֹּׁפְטִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ. וְאֶחָד שֶׁמִּתְגַּלְגֵּל וּבָא לָעוֹלָם, דִּכְתִיב (עמוס ח, יא): וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ לֹא רָעָב לַלֶּחֶם וְלֹא צָמָא לַמַּיִם. רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל עִקַּר אַוְותֶנְטִיָּיה שֶׁלָּהֶם הָיָה רָאוּי לָבוֹא בִּימֵי שָׁאוּל וְלֹא הָיָה רָאוּי לָבוֹא בִּימֵי דָוִד, וְעַל יְדֵי שֶׁהָיָה שָׁאוּל גְּרוֹפִית שֶׁל שִׁקְמָה וְלֹא יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בּוֹ, גִּלְגְלוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וֶהֱבִיאוֹ אֵצֶל דָּוִד, שֶׁהוּא גְּרוֹפִית שֶׁל זַיִת וְהָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בּוֹ, מַתְלָא אָמַר שִׁילָה חֲטָא וְיוֹחָנָא מִשְׁתַּלְּמָא, כָּךְ כֻּלָּם לֹא בָאוּ בִּבְנֵי אָדָם שְׁפוּפִין אֶלָּא בִּבְנֵי אָדָם גִּבּוֹרִים שֶׁהָיוּ יְכוֹלִין לַעֲמֹד בָּהֶן. רַבִּי חִיָּא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר, לְזַגָּג שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּיָדוֹ קֻפָּה מְלֵאָה כּוֹסוֹת דְּיוֹטְרִיטוֹן, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהָיָה מְבַקֵּשׁ לִתְלוֹת קֻפָּתוֹ הָיָה מֵבִיא יָתֵד וְתוֹקְעָהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ תּוֹלֶה קֻפָּתוֹ. כָּךְ כֻּלָּם לֹא בָאוּ בִּבְנֵי אָדָם שְׁפוּפִין אֶלָּא בִּבְנֵי אָדָם גִּבּוֹרִים. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הֲוָה קָרֵי עֲלֵיהוֹן (ישעיה מ, כט): נֹתֵן לַיָּעֵף כֹּחַ. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ שְׁנַיִם בָּאוּ בִּימֵי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא אֶחָד בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי לֶמֶךְ. רָעָב שֶׁהָיָה בִּימֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ שֶׁל בַּצֹרֶת הָיָה, שָׁנָה עָבְדַת שָׁנָה לָא עָבְדַת, אֲבָל רָעָב שֶׁבָּא בִּימֵי אֱלִישָׁע, שֶׁל מְהוּמָה הָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב ו, כה): עַד הֱיוֹת רֹאשׁ חֲמוֹר בִּשְׁמֹנִים כֶּסֶף. רָעָב שֶׁבָּא בִּימֵי שְׁפֹט הַשֹּׁפְטִים, רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי דוֹסָא אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁתַּיִם סְאוֹת הָיוּ וְנַעֲשׂוּ אַרְבָּעִים וְאַחַת, וְהָא תָּנֵי לֹא יֵצֵא אָדָם לְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיוּ סָאתַיִם לְקוּחוֹת בְּשֶׁקֶל, אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אֵימָתַי בִּזְּמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹצֵא לִקַּח, אֲבָל מוֹצֵא לִקַּח אֲפִלּוּ סְאָה בְּשֶׁקֶל לֹא יֵצֵא יִשְׂרָאֵל חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. וְהָא תַנְיָא בִּשְׁעַת הַדֶּבֶר בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה כְּנֹס הָרֶגֶל, וּבִשְׁעַת רְעָבוֹן פַּזֵּר הָרֶגֶל, לָמָּה נֶעֱנַשׁ אֱלִימֶלֶךְ, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהִפִּיל לִבָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהֶם, לְבוּלְיָטִין שֶׁהָיָה שָׁרוּי בִּמְדִינָה, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה סְבוּרִין עָלָיו וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאִם יָבוֹאוּ שְׁנֵי בַּצֹּרֶת הוּא יָכוֹל לְסַפֵּק אֶת הַמְּדִינָה עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים מָזוֹן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּאת שְׁנַת בַּצֹּרֶת יָצְתָה לָהּ שִׁפְחָתוֹ מְעַיְּלַת בְּסִידְקִי וְקֻפָּתָהּ בְּיָדָהּ, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְּדִינָה אוֹמְרִים, זֶהוּ שֶׁהָיִינוּ בְּטוּחִים עָלָיו שֶׁאִם תָּבוֹא בַּצֹּרֶת הוּא יָכוֹל לְפַרְנֵס אוֹתָנוּ עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים, וַהֲרֵי שִׁפְחָתוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת בְּסִידְקִי וְקֻפָּתָהּ בְּיָדָהּ. כָּךְ אֱלִימֶלֶךְ הָיָה מִגְּדוֹלֵי הַמְּדִינָה וּמִפַּרְנָסֵי הַדּוֹר, וּכְשֶׁבָּאוּ שְׁנֵי רְעָבוֹן אָמַר עַכְשָׁיו כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל מְסַבְּבִין פִּתְחִי, זֶה בְּקֻפָּתוֹ וְזֶה בְּקֻפָּתוֹ, עָמַד וּבָרַח לוֹ מִפְּנֵיהֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֶחֶם יְהוּדָה.

"There was a famine in the land (Ruth 1:1)". Ten famines have come into the world: one in the days of Adam the first man, one in the days of Lamech, and one in the days of Abraham, and one in the days of Isaac, and one in the days of Jacob, and one in the days of Elijah, and one in the days of Elisha, and one in the days of David, and one in the days "the judges judged", and one which changes and comes to the world. One in the days of Adam the first, as it is said: "Cursed be the ground because of you (Genesis 3:17)". And one in the days of Lamech, as it is said: "out of the very soil which Hashem placed under a curse (Genesis 5:29)". And one in the days of Abraham, as it is said: "There was a famine in the land, and Abram went down to Egypt (Genesis 12:10)". And one in the days of Isaac, as it is said: "There was a famine in the land—aside from the previous famine that had occurred in the days of Abraham (Genesis 26:1)". And one in the days of Jacob, as it is said: "It is now two years that there has been famine in the land (Genesis 45:6)". And one in the days of Elijah, as it is said: "there will be no dew or rain except at my bidding (1 Kings 17:1)". And one in the days of Elisha, as it is said: "There was a great famine in Samaria (2 Kings 6:25)". And one in the days of David, as it is said: "There was a famine during the reign of David, year after year for three years (2 Samuel 21:1)". And one in the day the judges judged, as it is said: "and there was famine in the land". And one that changes and comes to the world, as it is written: "when I will send a famine upon the land: not a hunger for bread or a thirst for water (Amos 8:11)". Rabbi Huna in the name of Rabbi Samuel: "The really actual one was was supposed to come upon them in the days of Saul and was not supposed to come in the days of David, and because Saul was a wooden vessel made from sycamore wood and was not able to withstand it, the Holy One, blessed be He, brought it to David, and he was a wooden vessel of olive wood and he was able to withstand it. A riddle says: "Shilo sinned and Yochanan was punished". Thus all of them did not come when men were weak, but rather when men were powerful and they were able to withstand them. Rabbi Chiyya in the name of Rabbi Shimon son of Elazar: "like a glass blower who had a basket full of cups and etched glass in his hand, and and then he was seeking to hang up his basket and he brought a peg and suspended himself from it first and then he would hang his basket". Thus all of them did not come when men were weak, but rather when men were powerful. Rabbi Berachya would always recite about them: "He gives strength to the weary (Isaiah 40:29)". Rabbi Berachya in the name of Rabbi Chelbo: "Two came in the days of Adam the first". Rabbi Huna in the name of Rab Acha: "One in the days of Abraham and one in the days of Lamech". The famine which was in the days of Elijah was of scarcity: one year produced and one year did not produce, but the famine which came in the days of Elisha, that was a real disaster, as it is said: "until a donkey’s head sold for eighty [shekels] of silver and a quarter of a kab of doves’ dung for five shekels (2 Kings 6:25)". Of the famine that came in the days the judges judged, Rabbi Huna in the name of Rabbi Dosa: "42 se'ot there were and became 41". See! It is taught by the tannaim that a man does not go forth outside the land, unless two se'ot can be acquired for a shekel. Rabbi Shimon son of Gamliel: "In what time does he not go out if he can acquire food? Rather if he goes to acquite food and if he can acquire a se'ah for a shekel he does not go out from Israel to another land. And see! The tannaim teach that in a time of plague and a time of war he sits on his feet, and in a time of plague he moves his feet. " Why was Elimelech punished? Because he struck [despair] into the hearts of Israel, for nothing did he rule the country, and the countrymen were sure that when the years of plague/famine would come, he would be able to sustain the country for 10 years with food! When the year of famine came to the land, his maid went to the market stalls and her basket was in her hand, and the people of the district said: "Is this the one whom we trusted in that when the famine came he would be able to provide for us for ten years? And see! His maid is standing in the market and her basket is in her hand!" Elimelech was one the great leaders of his district and one of the financial supporters of his generation. But when the years of famine came, he said, “Now all Israel will come knocking at my door, each one with his basket.” He got up and fled from them. This is the meaning of the verse, “and a man went [out] from Beth-lehem in Judah.

5 ה

וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ, גַּרְדּוּם, אֶלָּא בּוֹא וּרְאֵה כַּמָּה חִבֵּב הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִּיאָתָהּ שֶׁל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל יוֹתֵר מִיצִיאָתָהּ, לְהַלָּן כְּתִיב (עזרא ב, סו): סוּסֵיהֶם, פִּרְדֵיהֶם, גְּמַלֵּיהֶם, בְּרַם הָכָא כְּתִיב: וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ, גַּרְדוּם, אֶלָּא לְהַלָּן עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהָיוּ יוֹצְאִין מֵהָאָרֶץ לְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, לֹא יִחֵס הַכָּתוּב אֶת מָמוֹנָם. וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ גַּרְדּוּם. לָגוּר בִּשְׂדֵה מוֹאָב, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא שָׂדֶה עִיר, עִיר מְדִינָה, מְדִינָה אִפַּרְכְיָא. שָׂדֶה עִיר (מלכים א ב, כו): עֲנָתֹת לֵךְ עַל שָׂדֶיךָ. עִיר מְדִינָה (יחזקאל ט, ד): עֲבֹר בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר בְּתוֹךְ יְרוּשָׁלָיִם. מְדִינָה אִפַּרְכְיָא, שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה. הוּא וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּשְׁנֵי בָנָיו, הוּא עִקָּר, וְאִשְׁתּוֹ טְפֵלָה לוֹ, וּבָנָיו טְפֵלִין לָהֶם.

"And a man of Bethlehem in Judah, with his wife and two sons, went to reside in the country of Moab (Ruth 1:1)". "A man went", a stump. Go and see how the Holy One, blessed be He, honored him in his coming to the land of Israel rather than his going out. There it is written: "Their horses...their mules...their camels (Ezra 2:66)". But see, above is written: "A man went", a stump. Rather there upon the hands of those who go out from the land, to outside the land, what is written does not describe their possessions. "A man went", a stump. "To reside in the country of Moab": Rabbi Levi said: "Every place where you go out into a field is a city, a city is is district, a district is a province. Field is a city: “Go to your field at Anathoth! (1 Kings 2:26)". City is a district: "Pass through the city, through Jerusalem (Ezekiel 9:4)". District is a province: "Over 127 districts (Esther 1:1)"". "With his wife and two sons": he was the chief, and his wife was secondary to him and his sons were secondary to them.