מַתְנִי׳ בְּאַרְבָּעָה פְּרָקִים הָעוֹלָם נִידּוֹן: בַּפֶּסַח — עַל הַתְּבוּאָה, בַּעֲצֶרֶת — עַל פֵּירוֹת הָאִילָן, בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה — כׇּל בָּאֵי עוֹלָם עוֹבְרִין לְפָנָיו כִּבְנֵי מָרוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הַיּוֹצֵר יַחַד לִבָּם הַמֵּבִין אֶל כׇּל מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם״, וּבֶחָג נִידּוֹנִין עַל הַמַּיִם. MISHNA: At four times of the year the world is judged: On Passover judgment is passed concerning grain; on Shavuot concerning fruits that grow on a tree; on Rosh HaShana all creatures pass before Him like sheep [benei maron], as it is stated: “He Who fashions their hearts alike, Who considers all their deeds” (Psalms 33:15); and on the festival of Sukkot they are judged concerning water, i.e., the rainfall of the coming year.
גְּמָ׳ הֵי תְּבוּאָה? אִילֵּימָא הָא תְּבוּאָה דְּקָיְימָא, כׇּל הָנֵי הַרְפַּתְקֵי דַּעֲדוֹ עֲלַהּ אֵימַת אִיתְּדוּן? אֶלָּא תְּבוּאָה דְּמִזְדַּרְעָא. GEMARA: The mishna taught that on Passover judgment is passed concerning grain. The Gemara asks: Which grain is judged on Passover? If we say it is the grain that is presently standing in the fields ready to be reaped between Passover and Shavuot, when was judgment passed with regard to all those events [harpatkei] that already happened to the grain while it was growing in the winter? Rather, the mishna must be referring to the grain that will be sown over the coming year.
לְמֵימְרָא דְּחַד דִּינָא מִתַּדְנָא? וְהָתַנְיָא: תְּבוּאָה שֶׁאֵירַע בָּהּ קֶרִי אוֹ אוֹנֶס, קוֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח — נִידּוֹנֶית לְשֶׁעָבַר, לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח — נִידּוֹנֶית לְהַבָּא. אָדָם שֶׁאֵירַע בּוֹ קֶרִי אוֹ אוֹנֶס, קוֹדֶם יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים — נִידּוֹן לְשֶׁעָבַר, לְאַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים — נִידּוֹן לְהַבָּא. The Gemara asks further: Is this to say that only one judgment is passed concerning a particular crop, and no more? But isn’t it taught in a baraita: If grain suffers an incident or accident before Passover, it was judged in the past, the previous Passover; if this occurs after Passover, it was judged this Passover for the future. And similarly, if a person suffered an incident or accident before Yom Kippur, he was judged in the past, the previous Rosh HaShana; if this occurred after Yom Kippur, he was judged this Rosh HaShana for the future.
אָמַר רָבָא: שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ תְּרֵי דִינֵי מִתַּדְנָא. אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: הִלְכָּךְ, כִּי חָזֵי אִינָשׁ דְּמַצְלַח זַרְעָא אַפְלָא — לִיקַדֵּים וְלִיזְרַע חָרְפָא. דְּעַד דְּמָטֵי לְמֵדַיְינֵיהּ — קָדֵים סָלֵיק. Rava said: Learn from here that two judgments are passed concerning each crop, one covering the period between the time it is sown and Passover and another covering the period between Passover and the time it is harvested. Abaye said: Therefore, if a person sees that his slow-growing crops, those that are sown at the beginning of the winter but ripen only in the spring or summer, are doing well, he should quickly sow fast-growing crops, such as barley, which can be sown at the end of the winter and still ripen before Passover, as before it is brought to judgment on the next Passover it will already have successfully grown, since he knows that this year’s crops were judged for a favorable yield.
מַנִּי מַתְנִיתִין? לָא רַבִּי מֵאִיר, וְלָא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, וְלָא רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, וְלָא רַבִּי נָתָן. The Gemara raises a question about the mishna: Whose opinion is expressed in the mishna? It is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan.
דְּתַנְיָא: הַכֹּל נִידּוֹנִים בָּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, וּגְזַר דִּין שֶׁלָּהֶם נֶחְתָּם בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: הַכֹּל נִידּוֹנִין בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, וּגְזַר דִּין שֶׁלָּהֶם נֶחְתָּם כׇּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בִּזְמַנּוֹ: בַּפֶּסַח — עַל הַתְּבוּאָה, בַּעֲצֶרֶת — עַל פֵּירוֹת הָאִילָן, בֶּחָג נִידּוֹנִין עַל הַמַּיִם. וְאָדָם נִידּוֹן בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, וּגְזַר דִּין שֶׁלּוֹ נֶחְתָּם בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. The Gemara explains: As it is taught in a baraita: All are judged on Rosh HaShana, and their sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: All are judged on Rosh HaShana, and their sentence is sealed each in its own time: On Passover the sentence is sealed concerning grain; on Shavuot concerning fruits that grow on a tree; on the festival of Sukkot they are judged concerning water; and mankind is judged on Rosh HaShana, and the sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur.
רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: אָדָם נִידּוֹן בְּכׇל יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וַתִּפְקְדֶנּוּ לִבְקָרִים״. רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר: אָדָם נִידּוֹן בְּכׇל שָׁעָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״לִרְגָעִים תִּבְחָנֶנּוּ״. Rabbi Yosei says: A person is judged every day, and not just once a year, as it is stated: “You visit him every morning” (Job 7:18), meaning that every morning an accounting is made and a judgment is passed. Rabbi Natan says: A person is judged every hour, as it is stated: “You try him every moment” (Job 7:18).
וְכִי תֵּימָא: לְעוֹלָם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה הִיא, וְכִי קָתָנֵי מַתְנִיתִין — אַגְּזַר דִּין, אִי הָכִי — קַשְׁיָא אָדָם! And lest you say that actually, the mishna is taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and when the mishna is taught, it is taught with regard to the sentence, and not the judgments, which are all passed on Rosh HaShana, if so, it is difficult with regard to mankind, as the mishna should have stated that the sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur.
אָמַר רָבָא: הַאי תָּנָא דְּבֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל הִיא, דְּתָנָא דְּבֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, בְּאַרְבָּעָה פְּרָקִים הָעוֹלָם נִידּוֹן: בַּפֶּסַח — עַל הַתְּבוּאָה, בַּעֲצֶרֶת — עַל פֵּירוֹת הָאִילָן, בְּחָג נִידּוֹנִין עַל הַמַּיִם. וְאָדָם נִידּוֹן בָּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, וּגְזַר דִּין שֶׁלּוֹ נֶחְתָּם בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. וְכִי קָתָנֵי מַתְנִיתִין — אַתְּחִלַּת דִּין. Rava said: The tanna of the mishna is a tanna from the school of Rabbi Yishmael, as a tanna from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: At four times of the year the world is judged: On Passover concerning grain; on Shavuot concerning fruits that grow on a tree; on the festival of Sukkot they are judged concerning water; and mankind is judged on Rosh HaShana and the sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur. And when the mishna is taught, it is taught with regard to the beginning of the judgment process, i.e., the judgment of mankind is initially passed on Rosh HaShana.
אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי? כִּדְקָאָמַר טַעְמֵיהּ: ״וַתִּפְקְדֶנּוּ לִבְקָרִים״! אֲנַן הָכִי קָאָמְרִינַן: מַאי טַעְמָא לָא אָמַר כְּרַבִּי נָתָן? בְּחִינָה — עַיּוֹנֵי בְּעָלְמָא הִיא. פְּקִידָה נָמֵי עַיּוֹנֵי בְּעָלְמָא הִיא?! Rav Ḥisda said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yosei? The Gemara is astonished by this question: Why ask about his reason? He stated his reason, the verse that states: “You visit him every morning.” The Gemara explains: This is what we are saying: If Rabbi Yosei relies on this verse, what is the reason that he did not state his opinion in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan that a person is judged every hour? And if you say that he holds that the verse “You try him every moment” cannot serve as proof, because trying merely indicates examination and not actual judgment, then in the same way visiting merely indicates examination. If so, there is no clear proof from this verse.
אֶלָּא אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: טַעְמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי מֵהָכָא: ״לַעֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפַּט עַבְדּוֹ וּמִשְׁפַּט עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל דְּבַר יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ״. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said: Rabbi Yosei’s reason is from here, another verse, which states: “To make the judgment of His servant and the judgment of His people Israel at all times, as each day may require” (I Kings 8:59), which indicates that the entire world is judged every day.
וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: מֶלֶךְ וְצִבּוּר — מֶלֶךְ נִכְנָס תְּחִלָּה לַדִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״לַעֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפַּט עַבְדּוֹ וּמִשְׁפַּט עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל״. מַאי טַעְמָא? אִיבָּעֵית אֵימָא: לָאו אוֹרַח אַרְעָא לְמֵיתַב מַלְכָּא אַבָּרַאי. וְאִיבָּעֵית אֵימָא: מִקַּמֵּי דְּלִיפּוֹשׁ חֲרוֹן אַף. § About this verse Rav Ḥisda said: When a king and a community are brought before God for judgment, the king is brought in for judgment first, as it is stated: “To make the judgment of His servant,” and afterward: “And the judgment of His people Israel.” What is the reason for this? If you wish, say that it is not proper conduct for the king to stand outside and wait for the trial of his subjects to come to an end. And if you wish, say instead that the king is brought in first so that he may be judged before God’s anger intensifies due to the sins of the community, and consequently he may be saved from overly harsh judgment.
אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: כְּמַאן מְצַלִּינַן הָאִידָּנָא אַקְּצִירֵי וְאַמְּרִיעֵי, כְּמַאן — כְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי. וְאִיבָּעֵית אֵימָא: לְעוֹלָם כְּרַבָּנַן, וְכִדְרַבִּי יִצְחָק. דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: יָפָה צְעָקָה לָאָדָם בֵּין קוֹדֶם גְּזַר דִּין בֵּין לְאַחַר גְּזַר דִּין. Rav Yosef said: In accordance with whose opinion do we pray nowadays on a daily basis for the sick and afflicted? The Gemara repeats the question: In accordance with whose opinion? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who holds that one is judged every day, and so there is reason to pray every day in order to affect the outcome of his judgment. And if you wish, say that actually, normative practice is even in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who hold that one is judged only once a year, but also in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak. As Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Crying out to God is beneficial for a person both before his sentence has been issued and after his sentence has been issued.
תַּנְיָא, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא: מִפְּנֵי מָה אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה הָבִיאוּ עוֹמֶר בַּפֶּסַח — מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַפֶּסַח זְמַן תְּבוּאָה הוּא, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: הָבִיאוּ לְפָנַי עוֹמֶר בַּפֶּסַח, כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּתְבָּרֵךְ לָכֶם תְּבוּאָה שֶׁבַּשָּׂדוֹת. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה הָבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם בָּעֲצֶרֶת — מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲצֶרֶת זְמַן פֵּירוֹת הָאִילָן הוּא, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: הָבִיאוּ לְפָנַי שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם בַּעֲצֶרֶת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְבָּרְכוּ לָכֶם פֵּירוֹת הָאִילָן. § It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: For what reason did the Torah say: Bring the omer offering on the second day of Passover? It is because Passover is the time of grain, the beginning of the grain harvest season, and therefore the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Bring the omer offering before Me on Passover so that the grain in the fields will be blessed for you. And for what reason did the Torah say: Bring the offering of the two loaves from the new wheat on Shavuot? It is because Shavuot is the time of the fruits that grow on a tree, when it begins to ripen, and therefore the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Bring the offering of the two loaves before Me on Shavuot so that the fruits that grow on a tree will be blessed for you.
וּמִפְּנֵי מָה אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה נַסְּכוּ מַיִם בֶּחָג — אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: נַסְּכוּ לְפָנַי מַיִם בֶּחָג, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְבָּרְכוּ לָכֶם גִּשְׁמֵי שָׁנָה. וְאִמְרוּ לְפָנַי בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה מַלְכִיּוֹת זִכְרוֹנוֹת וְשׁוֹפָרוֹת. מַלְכִיּוֹת — כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּמְלִיכוּנִי עֲלֵיכֶם, זִכְרוֹנוֹת — כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה זִכְרוֹנְיכֶם לְפָנַי לְטוֹבָה, וּבַמֶּה — בְּשׁוֹפָר. And for what reason did the Torah say: Pour water onto the altar in the Temple on the festival of Sukkot? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Pour water before Me on the festival of Sukkot so that the rains of the year, which begin to fall after Sukkot, will be blessed for you. And recite before Me on Rosh HaShana verses that mention Kingships, Remembrances, and Shofarot: Kingships so that you will crown Me as King over you; Remembrances so that your remembrance will rise before Me for good; and with what will the remembrance rise? It will rise with the shofar.
אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ: לָמָה תּוֹקְעִין בְּשׁוֹפָר שֶׁל אַיִל? אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: תִּקְעוּ לְפָנַי בְּשׁוֹפָר שֶׁל אַיִל, כְּדֵי שֶׁאֶזְכּוֹר לָכֶם עֲקֵידַת יִצְחָק בֶּן אַבְרָהָם, וּמַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם כְּאִילּוּ עֲקַדְתֶּם עַצְמְכֶם לְפָנַי. Similarly, Rabbi Abbahu said: Why does one sound a blast with a shofar made from a ram’s horn on Rosh HaShana? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Sound a blast before Me with a shofar made from a ram’s horn, so that I will remember for you the binding of Isaac, son of Abraham, in whose stead a ram was sacrificed, and I will ascribe it to you as if you had bound yourselves before Me.
וְאָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: לָמָּה תּוֹקְעִין בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה? לָמָּה תּוֹקְעִין?! רַחֲמָנָא אָמַר תִּקְעוּ! אֶלָּא: לָמָּה מְרִיעִין? מְרִיעִין?! רַחֲמָנָא אָמַר ״זִכְרוֹן תְּרוּעָה״! אֶלָּא: לָמָּה תּוֹקְעִין וּמְרִיעִין כְּשֶׁהֵן יוֹשְׁבִין, Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Why does one sound [tokin] a blast on Rosh HaShana? The Gemara is astonished by the question: Why do we sound a blast? The Merciful One states in the verse: “Sound [tiku] a shofar” (Psalms 81:4). Rather, the question is: Why does one sound a staccato series of shofar blasts [terua] in addition to a long continuous shofar blast [tekia]? The Gemara is still surprised by the question: Sound a terua? The Merciful One states: “In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall be a solemn rest unto you, a memorial proclaimed with the blast of horns [terua]” (Leviticus 23:24). Rather, Rabbi Yitzḥak asked about the common practice in Jewish communities, which is not explicitly stated in the Torah: Why does one sound a long, continuous shofar blast [tekia] and then a staccato series of shofar blasts [terua] while the congregation is still sitting before the silent prayer,