48:22מ״ח:כ״ב
1 א

שכם, חלק, כמו כי תשיחמו שכם (תהלים כ"א), ולעובדו שכם אחד (צפניה ג׳:ט׳).

שכם, another word meaning חלק. The word occurs in the same sense in Psalms 21,13 כי תשיתמו שכם, as well as in Tzefania 3,9 ולעבדו שכם אחד.

2 ב

אשר לקחתי, כמו אשר אקח, כי כן מנהג הלשון לאמר עבר במקום עתיד במקומות רבים, ובדברי הנבואה ברוב.

אשר לקחתי מיד האמורי, as if the Torah had written this in the future tense, i.e. “which I am going to take from the Emorite.” It is quite common for the past tense to be employed instead of the future tense. When reporting prophecies, Scripture very frequently resorts to describing something in the future as if it had already taken place. [presumably in order to strengthen the belief of the reader in such prophecies, positive ones, to the fulfillment of which one looks forward. Ed.]

3 ג

ובאמרו לקחתי, ר"ל שילקחו בני, וכן בחרבי ובקשתי, בחרב בני ובקשתם. והנה אמר יהושע לישראל לא בחרבך ולא בקשתך (כ"ד י"ב), לפיכך מפרשים בחרבי ובקשתי בעזרת האל שהוא חרבי וקשתי, על דרך מגיני וקרן ישעי (שמואל ב' כ"ב), סלעי ומצודתי (שם).

When Yaakov said: לקחתי, “I will take or I took,” he did not refer to his own person but to the extension of himself, his children or offspring. The same is true also when he said: ובחרבי ובקשתי, “and with my sword and with my bow.” He referred to the sword and bow used by the members of the tribes of Ephrayim and Menashe in the conquest during the days of Joshua. Although we read in the Book of Joshua 24,12 לא בחרבך ולא בקשתך, that Joshua is reminding the Jewish people that their victory was not due to their prowess in the martial arts, our sages already explained that Joshua did not mean to deny the facts, but to deny faulty interpretations of the facts, by not giving the credit for their success to G’d’s help, or in this case, for the assistance of the merit of their illustrious ancestor Yaakov. This is not the only time in Scripture that we encounter such apparently enigmatic statements. We read in Samuel II 22,3 that David speaks of G’d being “my shield, my fortress and my refuge.” Any fool can understand that David did not consider G’d as an invisible shield, seeing he had refused to use one in his fight against Goliath, for instance. He indicated that without G’d’s help, even if holding a shield in his hand, such a shield would have been powerless to protect him.

4 ד

וזכר האמורי כי הוא היה העצום שבשבעה גוים, כמו שאמר ואנכי השמדתי את האמורי מפניכם אשר כגובה ארזים גבהו (עמוס ב' ט') ובדרש כי על העיר שכם אמר שנתנה יעקב ליוסף שיהיה נקבר בה. וכן היו מפרשים לקחתי שלקחוהו שמעון ולוי, והאמורי הוא החתי:

When Yaakov made reference to האמורי, he did so merely because this tribe was the most ferocious and powerful among all the Canaanite tribes Joshua faced. We find this confirmed in Amos 2,9 ואנכי השמדתי את האמורי מפניהם אשר כגובה הארזים גבהו, “and I have destroyed the Emorite before them, whose stature was as tall as the cedar’s and who was as stout as the oak, etc.” According to Bereshit Rabbah end of chapter 96 as quoted by Rashi, Yaakov had referred to the city of Shechem, Yaakov telling Joseph that the city in which he would eventually be buried would be part of his tribal territory. The word לקחתי is also understood by the Midrash as in the past tense, and as referring to what had happened there at the time. Shimon and Levi, Yaakov’s sons, had conquered that city, and the Emorite and the Hittite are two different names for the same tribe.