בִּגְדּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. the garment of Adam, the first man, was created at this time, as it is stated: “And God made for Adam and his wife garments of skins and clothed them” (Genesis 3:21).
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים מְכוּסִּים מִבְּנֵי אָדָם, אֵלּוּ הֵן: יוֹם הַמִּיתָה, וְיוֹם הַנֶּחָמָה, וְעוֹמֶק הַדִּין, וְאֵין אָדָם יוֹדֵעַ מָה בְּלִבּוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵירוֹ, וְאֵין אָדָם יוֹדֵעַ בַּמֶּה מִשְׂתַּכֵּר, וּמַלְכוּת בֵּית דָּוִד מָתַי תַּחְזוֹר, וּמַלְכוּת חַיֶּיבֶת מָתַי תִּכְלֶה. Apropos the list of items created during twilight, the Gemara cites that the Sages taught: Seven matters are concealed from people, and they are: The day of death; and the day of consolation from one’s concerns; the profundity of justice, ascertaining the truth in certain disputes; and a person also does not know what is in the heart of another; and a person does not know in what way he will earn a profit; and one does not know when the monarchy of the house of David will be restored to Israel; and when the wicked Roman monarchy will cease to exist.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים עָלוּ בְּמַחְשָׁבָה לִיבָּרְאוֹת, וְאִם לֹא עָלוּ — דִּין הוּא שֶׁיַּעֲלוּ: עַל הַמֵּת שֶׁיַּסְרִיחַ. וְעַל הַמֵּת שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּכֵּחַ מִן הַלֵּב. וְעַל הַתְּבוּאָה שֶׁתֵּרָקֵב. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים: עַל הַמַּטְבֵּעַ שֶׁיֵּצֵא. The Sages taught on a similar note: The thoughts of three matters arose in God’s mind to be created, and if they did not arise in His thoughts, by right they should have arisen in His thoughts, as they are fundamental to the existence of the world. God created a world in which a corpse rots, so that it requires burial and the family does not continually suffer by seeing the corpse; that the deceased are forgotten from the heart, and the sense of pain and loss diminishes with time; and that grain will rot so that it cannot be hoarded forever, and therefore one must sell his produce. And some say: He instituted that currency will circulate so that people will accept money as a method of payment.
מַתְנִי׳ מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב — עוֹשִׂין, מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה — אֵין עוֹשִׂין, וּבְכׇל מָקוֹם תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים בְּטֵלִים. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר: לְעוֹלָם יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם עַצְמוֹ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם. MISHNA: This mishna continues the previous discussion of customs. In a place where people were accustomed to perform labor on the Ninth of Av, one performs labor. In a place where people were accustomed not to perform labor, one does not perform labor. And in all places Torah scholars are idle and do not perform labor on the Ninth of Av, due to the mourning over the Temple’s destruction. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: With regard to the Ninth of Av, a person should always conduct himself as a Torah scholar and refrain from performing labor.
גְּמָ׳ אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: אֵין תַּעֲנִית צִיבּוּר בְּבָבֶל אֶלָּא תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב בִּלְבַד. לְמֵימְרָא דְּסָבַר שְׁמוּאֵל תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ אָסוּר? וְהָאָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ מוּתָּר. וְכִי תֵּימָא קָסָבַר שְׁמוּאֵל: כׇּל תַּעֲנִית צִיבּוּר בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ מוּתָּר, וְהָאֲנַן תְּנַן: ״אוֹכְלִין וְשׁוֹתִין מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם״. לְמַעוֹטֵי מַאי, לָאו לְמַעוֹטֵי בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת? לָא, לְמַעוֹטֵי מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁיכָה. GEMARA: Shmuel said: The only communal fast in Babylonia during which all the stringencies of a communal fast are observed is the Ninth of Av. The Gemara asks: Is that to say, based on the parallel he drew between them, that Shmuel holds that the Ninth of Av is as stringent as communal fast days, in that during twilight on the Ninth of Av all activities prohibited on the Ninth of Av are prohibited? But didn’t Shmuel say: During twilight of the Ninth of Av all activities prohibited on the Ninth of Av are permitted, and the Sages did not decree any prohibitions during this time? And if you say that Shmuel holds: With regard to every communal fast, during twilight those activities considered to be afflictions are permitted, didn’t we learn in a mishna with regard to a public fast day: One may eat and drink while it is still day? The Gemara analyzes this statement: What does the expression: While it is still day, come to exclude? What, isn’t it to exclude twilight of a communal fast day, when these activities are prohibited? The Gemara rejects this: No, it is to exclude the time after dark, when these afflictions are certainly in effect.
נֵימָא מְסַיַּיע לֵיהּ: אֵין בֵּין תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב לְיוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁזֶּה סְפֵיקוֹ אָסוּר, וְזֶה סְפֵיקוֹ מוּתָּר. The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this baraita supports Shmuel’s opinion: The only difference between the Ninth of Av and Yom Kippur is that with regard to this, Yom Kippur, its uncertainty is prohibited, as eating and drinking on Yom Kippur is prohibited by Torah law, whereas with regard to that, the Ninth of Av, its uncertainty is permitted, as the afflictions of the Ninth of Av are rabbinic decrees.
מַאי סְפֵיקוֹ מוּתָּר — לָאו בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת? לָא, כִּדְאָמַר רַב שִׁישָׁא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב אִידִי: לִקְבִיעָא דְיַרְחָא, הָכָא נָמֵי — לִקְבִיעָא דְיַרְחָא. The Gemara explains the support for Shmuel’s opinion: What is the meaning of the expression: With regard to that, the Ninth of Av, its uncertainty is permitted? Is it not referring to twilight, with regard to which there is uncertainty whether it is day or night? Apparently, it is permitted to eat during twilight on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara rejects this: No, it is as Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said in a different context: It is referring to uncertainty with regard to the determination of the first day of the new month, which would require observance of the Festival for two days. Here, too, the baraita is referring to uncertainty with regard to determination of the first day of the new month. Since the Ninth of Av is a fast of rabbinic origin, there is no requirement to observe two days.
דָּרֵשׁ רָבָא: עוּבָּרוֹת וּמְנִיקוֹת — מִתְעַנּוֹת וּמַשְׁלִימוֹת בּוֹ, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמִּתְעַנּוֹת וּמַשְׁלִימוֹת בְּיוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים, וּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ אָסוּר. וְכֵן אָמְרוּ מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן. וּמִי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הָכִי? וְהָאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב אֵינוֹ כְּתַעֲנִית צִיבּוּר. מַאי לָאו, לְבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת? לֹא, לִמְלָאכָה. Rava taught: Pregnant women and nursing women fast and complete the fast on the Ninth of Av in the manner that they fast and complete the fast on Yom Kippur, and during twilight on the Ninth of Av it is prohibited to eat or drink. And they likewise said so in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan. The Gemara asks: And did Rabbi Yoḥanan actually say that? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast decreed to pray for rain? What, isn’t it referring to the matter of twilight? Apparently, Rabbi Yoḥanan holds that it is permitted to eat and drink during twilight on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara answers: No, it is referring to performing labor, which is prohibited on the Ninth of Av, in contrast to other fasts.
מְלָאכָה? תְּנֵינָא: מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב — עוֹשִׂין, וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת — אֵין עוֹשִׂין. וַאֲפִילּוּ רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל לָא אָמַר אֶלָּא דְּכִי יָתֵיב וְלָא עָבֵיד, לָא מִיחְזֵי כְּיוּהֲרָא, אֲבָל מֵיסָר — לָא אָסַר. The Gemara expresses surprise: It is referring to performing labor? We already learned explicitly in the mishna: In a place where people were accustomed to perform labor on the Ninth of Av, one performs labor; in a place where people were accustomed not to perform labor, one does not perform labor. Apparently, the prohibition against performing labor on the Ninth of Av depends on local custom and is not an outright prohibition. And even Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel only said that one may conduct himself as a Torah scholar and refrain from performing labor because when one sits and does not perform labor, it does not appear as presumptuousness on his part. It does not create the impression that he actually considers himself a Torah scholar because others may simply think that he has no work to do. However, in terms of prohibiting the performance of labor, he does not prohibit performing labor on the Ninth of Av.
אֶלָּא: מַאי אֵינוֹ כְּתַעֲנִית צִיבּוּר — לִתְפִילַּת נְעִילָה. וְהָאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: וּלְוַאי שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל אָדָם וְהוֹלֵךְ כׇּל הַיּוֹם כּוּלּוֹ! Rather, what is the meaning of the expression: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast? It was stated with regard to the closing prayer. On a communal fast day there are four prayers, and on Yom Kippur there are five prayers, but on the Ninth of Av there are only three prayers, like an ordinary weekday. But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: If only a person would continue to pray throughout the entire day? This indicates that according to Rabbi Yoḥanan, a person may recite additional prayers if he so chooses.
הָתָם חוֹבָה, הָכָא רְשׁוּת. וְאִיבָּעֵית אֵימָא: מַאי אֵינוֹ כְּתַעֲנִית צִיבּוּר — לְעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה. The Gemara answers: There, on a communal fast day, it is a requirement to recite four prayers; here, on the Ninth of Av, reciting additional prayers is optional according to Rabbi Yoḥanan. And if you wish, say instead: What is the meaning of the expression: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast? It is with regard to the twenty-four blessings that are recited on a communal fast, as six blessings were added to the eighteen blessings of the daily Amida prayer. On the Ninth of Av one recites only the standard eighteen blessings.
רַב פָּפָּא אָמַר: מַאי ״אֵינוֹ כְּתַעֲנִית צִיבּוּר״ — אֵינוֹ כָּרִאשׁוֹנוֹת, אֶלָּא כָּאַחֲרוֹנוֹת, וַאֲסוּרָה. Rav Pappa said: What is the meaning of the phrase: The Ninth of Av is not like a communal fast? It comes to teach a stringency. There are different types of communal fasts for rain. The first three fasts are the least stringent; the next three are more stringent; and the final seven fasts are the most stringent of all. The statement teaches that the Ninth of Av is not like the first fast days, which are more lenient in several respects; for example, they do not begin during twilight. Rather, it is like the final fast days, when eating and performing labor are prohibited during twilight.
מֵיתִיבִי: אֵין בֵּין תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב לְיוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים אֶלָּא שֶׁזֶּה סְפֵיקוֹ אָסוּר וְזֶה סְפֵיקוֹ מוּתָּר, מַאי סְפֵיקוֹ מוּתָּר — לָאו בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ! אָמַר רַב שִׁישָׁא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב אִידִי: לָא, לִקְבִיעָא דְיַרְחָא, הָא לְכׇל דְּבָרִים — זֶה וָזֶה שָׁוִין. The Gemara raises an objection: Didn’t we already learn that the only difference between the Ninth of Av and Yom Kippur is that with regard to this, Yom Kippur, its uncertainty is prohibited, because eating and drinking on Yom Kippur are prohibited by Torah law, whereas with regard to that, the Ninth of Av, its uncertainty is permitted? What is the meaning of the expression referring to the Ninth of Av: Its uncertainty is permitted? Is it not referring to its twilight, contrary to the statement of Rav Pappa? The Gemara rejects this. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said in a different context: No. It is uncertainty with regard to the determination of the first day of the new month. There is no requirement to observe a second day of the Ninth of Av. By inference, with regard to all other matters this and that are equal.
מְסַיַּיע לְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: אָסוּר לוֹ לְאָדָם שֶׁיּוֹשִׁיט אֶצְבָּעוֹ בְּמַיִם בְּתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאָסוּר לְהוֹשִׁיט אֶצְבָּעוֹ בְּיוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים. The Gemara comments: This statement supports the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar said: It is prohibited for a person to extend his finger into water on the Ninth of Av, just as it is prohibited for him to extend his finger into water on Yom Kippur.
מֵיתִיבִי: אֵין בֵּין תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב לְתַעֲנִית צִיבּוּר אֶלָּא שֶׁזֶּה אָסוּר בַּעֲשִׂיַּית מְלָאכָה וְזֶה מוּתָּר בַּעֲשִׂיַּית מְלָאכָה בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ. הָא לְכׇל דִּבְרֵיהֶם — זֶה וָזֶה שָׁוִין. וְאִילּוּ גַּבֵּי תַּעֲנִית צִיבּוּר תַּנְיָא: כְּשֶׁאָמְרוּ ״אָסוּר בִּרְחִיצָה״, לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא כׇּל גּוּפוֹ, אֲבָל פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו — לֹא! The Gemara raises an objection: The only difference between the Ninth of Av and a communal fast is that on this day, a communal fast, performance of labor is prohibited, and on that day, the Ninth of Av, performance of labor is permitted in a place where people are accustomed to perform labor. By inference, with regard to all other matters this and that are equal. However, with regard to a communal fast, it was taught in a baraita: When the Sages said that bathing is prohibited, they said it only with regard to washing one’s entire body, but with regard to washing one’s face, one’s hands, and one’s feet in increments, the Sages did not say that it was prohibited. Apparently, with respect to washing, the Rabbis were stricter with regard to the Ninth of Av than they were with regard to a communal fast.
אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: Rav Pappa said: