כְּאִיסּוּרוֹ: מָה אִיסּוּרוֹ בִּכְזַיִת, אַף חֲזָרָתוֹ בִּכְזַיִת. is analogous to its prohibition. Just as its prohibition is only when it is the size of an olive-bulk, so too, the requirement to return it is only when it is the size of an olive-bulk.
תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר: זֶה וְזֶה כִּשְׁתֵּי בֵיצִים, וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים. Another opinion on this issue was taught in a baraita. Rabbi Natan says: The minimum measure for both this and that, leaven and sacrificial meat, is two egg-bulks of prohibited material, but the Rabbis did not agree with him.
״וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא יִהְיֶה אוֹר יְקָרוֹת וְקִפָּאוֹן״. מַאי ״יְקָרוֹת וְקִפָּאוֹן״? Incidental to the discussion of leaving Jerusalem and its surrounding area, the Gemara cites expositions of a prophetic passage, including a statement that God will eventually expand the boundaries of Jerusalem. The verse states: “And it shall come to pass on that day that there shall not be light, but heavy clouds [yekarot] and thickness [vekippaon]” (Zechariah 14:6). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the expression “yekarot vekippaon”?
אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: זֶה אוֹר שֶׁיָּקָר בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וְקָפוּי לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. Rabbi Elazar said: This is the light currently provided by the sun, which is significant [yakar] in this world and insignificant [kafuy] in the World-to-Come, when the moon will shine as brightly as the sun does now and the sun will be seven times brighter than it is currently.
רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר: אֵלּוּ נְגָעִים וְאֹהָלוֹת, שֶׁיְּקָרִין הֵן בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וּקְפוּיִין הֵן לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: This expression refers to the tractates of Nega’im and Oholot, which are weighty [yekarim] owing to their difficulty in this world, as they are among the most complex subjects, but will be easy [kefuyin] in the World-to-Come, when people will be much wiser.
וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר: אֵלּוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁיְּקָרִין הֵן בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וּקְפוּיִין הֵן לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. כִּי הָא דְּרַב יוֹסֵף בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי חֲלַשׁ וְאִיתְנְגִיד, כִּי הֲדַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲבוּהּ: מַאי חֲזֵית? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: עוֹלָם הָפוּךְ רָאִיתִי, עֶלְיוֹנִים לְמַטָּה, וְתַחְתּוֹנִים לְמַעְלָה. אָמַר לוֹ: בְּנִי, עוֹלָם בָּרוּר רָאִיתָ. וַאֲנַן הֵיכִי הָתָם? כִּי הֵיכִי דְּאִיתוּ אֲנַן הָכָא, הָכִי אִיתִינַן הָתָם. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These are people who are considered important [yekarim] in this world and unimportant [kefuyim] in the World-to-Come. This is like the incident involving Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who became ill and was about to expire. When he returned to good health, his father said to him: What did you see when you were about to die? He said to him: I saw an inverted world. Those above, i.e., those who are considered important in this world, were below, insignificant, while those below, i.e., those who are insignificant in this world, were above. He said to him: My son, you have seen a clear world. The world you have seen is the true world, as in that world people’s standings befit them. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: And where are we, the Torah scholars, there? Rav Yosef responded: Just as we are regarded here, so are we regarded there.
וְשָׁמַעְתִּי שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים: אַשְׁרֵי מִי שֶׁבָּא לְכָאן וְתַלְמוּדוֹ בְּיָדוֹ. וְשָׁמַעְתִּי שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים: הֲרוּגֵי מַלְכוּת אֵין אָדָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמוֹד בִּמְחִיצָתָן. Rav Yosef added: And I heard that they were saying in that world: Praiseworthy is the one who arrives here with his studies in hand. And I also heard that they were saying: Those executed by the government enjoy such an exalted status that no one can stand in their enclosure.
(וּמַאן) נִינְהוּ? אִילֵימָא רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וַחֲבֵירָיו — מִשּׁוּם הֲרוּגֵי מַלְכוּת וְתוּ לָא?! אֶלָּא: הֲרוּגֵי לוֹד. The Gemara asks: And who are these martyrs that Rav Yosef was referring to? If you say that he was referring to Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues, who were martyred, this cannot be: Is their elevated status due only to the fact that they were martyred by the Roman government and nothing more? These men were exceptional in their piety and sanctity during their lives as well. Rather, it is referring to the martyrs of Lod, Pappos and Luliyanos, who gave themselves up to be martyred for the sake of the Jewish people. They falsely admitted to killing the king’s daughter in order to prevent a harsh decree from being issued against the entire community. Although they were not known for exceptional piety before that event, they are considered to be extremely holy due to their martyrdom.
״בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה עַל מְצִלּוֹת הַסּוּס קֹדֶשׁ לַה׳״. מַאי ״מְצִלּוֹת הַסּוּס״? The Gemara continues to expound the section of the book of Zechariah cited above. The verse states: “On that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses [metzillot hasus]: Holy unto the Lord” (Zechariah 14:20). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the expression metzillot hasus?
אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהוֹסִיף עַל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם עַד שֶׁהַסּוּס רָץ וּמֵצֵיל. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the future the Holy One, Blessed be He, will extend Jerusalem by as much as the distance that a horse can run the entire time it casts a shadow [metzeil]. Jerusalem will be so large that a horse running from one side of the city in the morning will not arrive at the other end of the city until midday, when its shadow will have disappeared.
רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר: כׇּל מְצִילּוֹת שֶׁתּוֹלִין לַסּוּס בֵּין עֵינָיו — יִהְיֶה קֹדֶשׁ לַה׳. Rabbi Elazar said: All decorative bells [metzillot] that one hangs between the eyes of a horse will be sanctified to God, i.e., they will be consecrated for the Temple treasury.
וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר: כׇּל בִּיזָּה שֶׁבּוֹזְזִין יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁהַסּוּס רָץ וּמֵצֵיל — יִהְיֶה קֹדֶשׁ לַה׳. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: All spoils that the Jewish people will take from gentiles who wage war against them, up to the time a horse runs and casts a shadow [metzeil], i.e., half a day, will be sanctified for God.
בִּשְׁלָמָא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר כׇּל בִּיזָּה שֶׁבָּזְזוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, הַיְינוּ דִּכְתִיב: ״וְהָיָה הַסִּירוֹת בְּבֵית ה׳ כַּמִּזְרָקִים לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ״. אֶלָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר בְּהָנָךְ תַּרְתֵּי, מַאי ״וְהָיָה הַסִּירוֹת בְּבֵית ה׳״? מִילְּתָא אַחֲרִיתִי קָאָמַר, דְּמִתְעַתְּרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִתְנַדְּבִי וּמַיְיתִי. The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who said that this expression refers to all spoils that the Jewish people will take, this is as it is written in the continuation of the verse, which mentions additional treasure donated to the Temple: “And the pots in the Lord’s house shall be like the basins before the altar.” However, according to the ones who said these other two explanations, what is the meaning of: “And the pots in the Lord’s house”? The Gemara explains that according to these opinions the verse is saying something else: It is prophesying that in the future the Jewish people will become wealthy and bring donations to the Temple.
בִּשְׁלָמָא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר בִּיזָּה, הַיְינוּ דִּכְתִיב: ״וְלֹא יִהְיֶה כְנַעֲנִי עוֹד בְּבֵית ה׳ צְבָאוֹת״. אֶלָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר הָנָךְ תַּרְתֵּי, מַאי ״וְלֹא יִהְיֶה כְנַעֲנִי״? אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה: אֵין כָּאן עָנִי. The Gemara goes on to ask: Granted, according to the one who said that this expression refers to spoils, this is as it is written in the next verse: “And on that day there shall no longer be a merchant [kena’ani] in the house of the Lord of hosts” (Zechariah 14:21), as he will no longer be needed. However, according to the ones who said these other two explanations, what is the meaning of the expression: “There shall no longer be a merchant”? Rabbi Yirmeya said: The word kena’ani is in fact a contraction of the phrase: There is no poor person here [ein kan ani]. In other words, there will no longer be poor people, and therefore the Jews themselves will be able to donate whatever is needed in the Temple (Maharsha).
וּכְנַעֲנִי מְנָלַן דְּאִיקְּרִי תַּגָּר? דִּכְתִיב: ״וַיַּרְא שָׁם יְהוּדָה בַּת אִישׁ כְּנַעֲנִי״. מַאי ״כְּנַעֲנִי״? אִילֵּימָא כְּנַעֲנִי מַמָּשׁ, אֶפְשָׁר בָּא אַבְרָהָם וְהִזְהִיר אֶת יִצְחָק, בָּא יִצְחָק וְהִזְהִיר אֶת יַעֲקֹב, וִיהוּדָה אָזֵיל וְנָסֵיב?! אֶלָּא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: בַּת גַּבְרָא תַּגָּרָא, דִּכְתִיב: ״כְּנַעַן בְּיָדוֹ מֹאזְנֵי מִרְמָה״. וְאִיבָּעֵית אֵימָא מֵהָכָא: ״אֲשֶׁר סוֹחֲרֶיהָ שָׂרִים כִּנְעָנֶיהָ נִכְבַּדֵּי אָרֶץ״. And from where do we derive that a merchant can be called a kena’ani? As it is written: “And Judah saw there the daughter of a certain kena’ani…and he took her, and went in unto her” (Genesis 38:2). What is the meaning of the word kena’ani in this context? If you say it refers to an actual Canaanite, is it possible that Abraham warned Isaac not to marry a Canaanite woman, and Isaac warned Jacob to the same effect, and nonetheless Judah went and married a Canaanite woman? Rather, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: She was the daughter of a merchant, as it is written: “As for the merchant [kena’an], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He loves to oppress” (Hosea 12:8). And if you wish, say instead that this meaning of the word can be understood from the following verse, which describes Tyre: “Whose traders are princes, whose merchants [kinaneha] are the honorable of the earth” (Isaiah 23:8).
״וְהָיָה ה׳ לְמֶלֶךְ עַל כׇּל הָאָרֶץ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה ה׳ אֶחָד וּשְׁמוֹ אֶחָד״. אַטּוּ הָאִידָּנָא לָאו אֶחָד הוּא? The Gemara cites another verse from the prophecy at the end of the book of Zechariah: “And the Lord shall be King over all the earth, on that day shall the Lord be one and His name one” (Zechariah 14:9). The Gemara asks: Is that to say that now He is not one?
אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא בַּר חֲנִינָא: לֹא כָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, עַל בְּשׂוֹרוֹת טוֹבוֹת אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״, וְעַל בְּשׂוֹרוֹת רָעוֹת אוֹמֵר: ״בָּרוּךְ דַּיַּין הָאֱמֶת״. לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, כּוּלּוֹ ״הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב״. Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. In this world, upon good tidings one recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good, and over bad tidings one recites: Blessed…the true Judge. In the World-to-Come one will always recite: Blessed…Who is good and does good. There will be only one mode of blessing God for tidings.
״וּשְׁמוֹ אֶחָד״. מַאי ״אֶחָד״? אַטּוּ הָאִידָּנָא לָאו שְׁמוֹ אֶחָד הוּא? The verse states: “On that day shall the Lord be one and His name one.” The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the word one in this context? Is that to say that now His name is not one?
אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק: לֹא כָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, נִכְתַּב בְּיוֹד הֵי וְנִקְרָא בְּאָלֶף דָּלֶת. אֲבָל לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא כּוּלּוֹ אֶחָד, נִקְרָא בְּיוֹד הֵי וְנִכְתַּב בְּיוֹד הֵי. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. In this world, God’s name that is written with the letters yod and heh is read as Adonai, which begins with the letters alef and dalet. God’s name is not pronounced in the same way as it is written. However, in the World-to-Come it will all be one, as God’s name will be both read with the letters yod and heh and written with the letters yod and heh.
סְבַר רָבָא לְמִדְרְשַׁהּ בְּפִירְקָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ הָהוּא סָבָא: ״לְעַלֵּם״ כְּתִיב. Rava thought to expound upon the correct punctuation and enunciation of the name of God during his public lecture before one of the Festivals. A certain old man said to him: The word forever is written in the verse: “This is My name forever [le’olam]” (Exodus 3:15) without the letter vav, such that it can be read le’alem, to conceal, meaning that the name should be concealed.
רַבִּי אֲבִינָא רָמֵי: כְּתִיב ״זֶה שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם״ — ״וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדוֹר דּוֹר״. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: לֹא כְּשֶׁאֲנִי נִכְתָּב, אֲנִי נִקְרָא. נִכְתָּב אֲנִי בְּיוֹד הֵא, וְנִקְרָא אֲנִי בְּאָלֶף דָּלֶת. Rabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written in the verse: “This is My name forever,” implying a requirement to conceal the name of God, and in the very next phrase it states: “And this is My memorial unto all generations” (Exodus 3:15), which indicates that the name of God is to be publicized and remembered by all. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I, i.e., My name, is not read as I am written. I am written with the letters yod and heh, and I am read with the letters alef and dalet.
הַדְרָן עֲלָךְ אֵלּוּ עוֹבְרִין
מַתְנִי׳ מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּעַרְבֵי פְסָחִים עַד חֲצוֹת — עוֹשִׂין. מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת — אֵין עוֹשִׂין. הַהוֹלֵךְ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁעוֹשִׂין לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין, אוֹ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין לְמָקוֹם שֶׁעוֹשִׂין — נוֹתְנִין עָלָיו חוּמְרֵי מָקוֹם שֶׁיָּצָא מִשָּׁם וְחוּמְרֵי מָקוֹם שֶׁהָלַךְ לְשָׁם. MISHNA: In a place where the people were accustomed to perform labor on Passover eve until midday, one may do so on that day. In a place where the people were accustomed not to perform labor, one may not do so. The performance of labor on the eve of Passover is not prohibited by Torah law, but is dependent on local custom. If one travels from a place where people perform labor on Passover eve to a place where people do not perform labor, or from a place where people do not perform labor on Passover eve to a place where people perform labor, the Sages impose upon him the stringencies of both the place from which he left and the stringencies of the place to which he went. In both cases, he may not perform labor.