Pesachim 50a:15פסחים נ׳ א:טו
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save 'Pesachim 50a:15'
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
50aנ׳ א

כאיסורו מה איסורו בכזית אף חזרתו בכזית

is analogous to its prohibition. Just as its prohibition is only when it is the size of an olive-bulk, so too, the requirement to return it is only when it is the size of an olive-bulk.

תניא רבי נתן אומר זה וזה כשתי ביצים ולא הודו לו חכמים

Another opinion on this issue was taught in a baraita. Rabbi Natan says: The minimum measure for both this and that, leaven and sacrificial meat, is two egg-bulks of prohibited material, but the Rabbis did not agree with him.

והיה ביום ההוא לא יהיה אור יקרות וקפאון מאי יקרות וקפאון

Incidental to the discussion of leaving Jerusalem and its surrounding area, the Gemara cites expositions of a prophetic passage, including a statement that God will eventually expand the boundaries of Jerusalem. The verse states: “And it shall come to pass on that day that there shall not be light, but heavy clouds [yekarot] and thickness [vekippaon]” (Zechariah 14:6). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the expression yekarot vekippaon”?

אמר רבי אלעזר זה אור שיקר בעולם הזה וקפוי לעולם הבא

Rabbi Elazar said: This is the light currently provided by the sun, which is significant [yakar] in this world and insignificant [kafuy] in the World-to-Come, when the moon will shine as brightly as the sun does now and the sun will be seven times brighter than it is currently.

רבי יוחנן אמר אלו נגעים ואהלות שיקרין הן בעולם הזה וקפויין הן לעולם הבא

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: This expression refers to the tractates of Nega’im and Oholot, which are weighty [yekarim] owing to their difficulty in this world, as they are among the most complex subjects, but will be easy [kefuyin] in the World-to-Come, when people will be much wiser.

ורבי יהושע בן לוי אמר אלו בני אדם שיקרין הן בעולם הזה וקפויין הן לעולם הבא כי הא דרב יוסף בריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי חלש ואיתנגיד כי הדר אמר ליה אבוה מאי חזית אמר ליה עולם הפוך ראיתי עליונים למטה ותחתונים למעלה אמר לו בני עולם ברור ראית ואנן היכי התם כי היכי דאיתו אנן הכא הכי איתינן התם

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These are people who are considered important [yekarim] in this world and unimportant [kefuyim] in the World-to-Come. This is like the incident involving Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who became ill and was about to expire. When he returned to good health, his father said to him: What did you see when you were about to die? He said to him: I saw an inverted world. Those above, i.e., those who are considered important in this world, were below, insignificant, while those below, i.e., those who are insignificant in this world, were above. He said to him: My son, you have seen a clear world. The world you have seen is the true world, as in that world people’s standings befit them. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: And where are we, the Torah scholars, there? Rav Yosef responded: Just as we are regarded here, so are we regarded there.

ושמעתי שהיו אומרים אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ושמעתי שהיו אומרים הרוגי מלכות אין אדם יכול לעמוד במחיצתן

Rav Yosef added: And I heard that they were saying in that world: Praiseworthy is the one who arrives here with his studies in hand. And I also heard that they were saying: Those executed by the government enjoy such an exalted status that no one can stand in their enclosure.

(ומאן) נינהו אילימא רבי עקיבא וחביריו משום הרוגי מלכות ותו לא אלא הרוגי לוד

The Gemara asks: And who are these martyrs that Rav Yosef was referring to? If you say that he was referring to Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues, who were martyred, this cannot be: Is their elevated status due only to the fact that they were martyred by the Roman government and nothing more? These men were exceptional in their piety and sanctity during their lives as well. Rather, it is referring to the martyrs of Lod, Pappos and Luliyanos, who gave themselves up to be martyred for the sake of the Jewish people. They falsely admitted to killing the king’s daughter in order to prevent a harsh decree from being issued against the entire community. Although they were not known for exceptional piety before that event, they are considered to be extremely holy due to their martyrdom.

ביום ההוא יהיה על מצלות הסוס קדש לה׳ מאי מצלות הסוס

The Gemara continues to expound the section of the book of Zechariah cited above. The verse states: “On that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses [metzillot hasus]: Holy unto the Lord” (Zechariah 14:20). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the expression metzillot hasus?

אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי עתיד הקדוש ברוך הוא להוסיף על ירושלים עד שהסוס רץ ומציל

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the future the Holy One, Blessed be He, will extend Jerusalem by as much as the distance that a horse can run the entire time it casts a shadow [metzeil]. Jerusalem will be so large that a horse running from one side of the city in the morning will not arrive at the other end of the city until midday, when its shadow will have disappeared.

רבי אלעזר אמר כל מצילות שתולין לסוס בין עיניו יהיה קדש לה׳

Rabbi Elazar said: All decorative bells [metzillot] that one hangs between the eyes of a horse will be sanctified to God, i.e., they will be consecrated for the Temple treasury.

ורבי יוחנן אמר כל ביזה שבוזזין ישראל עד שעה שהסוס רץ ומציל יהיה קדש לה׳

And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: All spoils that the Jewish people will take from gentiles who wage war against them, up to the time a horse runs and casts a shadow [metzeil], i.e., half a day, will be sanctified for God.

בשלמא למאן דאמר כל ביזה שבזזו ישראל היינו דכתיב והיה הסירות בבית ה׳ כמזרקים לפני המזבח אלא למאן דאמר בהנך תרתי מאי והיה הסירות בבית ה׳ מילתא אחריתי קאמר דמתעתרי ישראל ומתנדבי ומייתי

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who said that this expression refers to all spoils that the Jewish people will take, this is as it is written in the continuation of the verse, which mentions additional treasure donated to the Temple: “And the pots in the Lord’s house shall be like the basins before the altar.” However, according to the ones who said these other two explanations, what is the meaning of: “And the pots in the Lord’s house”? The Gemara explains that according to these opinions the verse is saying something else: It is prophesying that in the future the Jewish people will become wealthy and bring donations to the Temple.

בשלמא למאן דאמר ביזה היינו דכתיב ולא יהיה כנעני עוד בבית ה׳ צבאות אלא למאן דאמר הנך תרתי מאי ולא יהיה כנעני אמר רבי ירמיה אין כאן עני

The Gemara goes on to ask: Granted, according to the one who said that this expression refers to spoils, this is as it is written in the next verse: “And on that day there shall no longer be a merchant [kena’ani] in the house of the Lord of hosts” (Zechariah 14:21), as he will no longer be needed. However, according to the ones who said these other two explanations, what is the meaning of the expression: “There shall no longer be a merchant”? Rabbi Yirmeya said: The word kena’ani is in fact a contraction of the phrase: There is no poor person here [ein kan ani]. In other words, there will no longer be poor people, and therefore the Jews themselves will be able to donate whatever is needed in the Temple (Maharsha).

וכנעני מנלן דאיקרי תגר דכתיב וירא שם יהודה בת איש כנעני מאי כנעני אילימא כנעני ממש אפשר בא אברהם והזהיר את יצחק בא יצחק והזהיר את יעקב ויהודה אזיל ונסיב אלא אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש בת גברא תגרא דכתיב כנען בידו מאזני מרמה ואיבעית אימא מהכא אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ:

From where do we derive that a merchant is called kena’ani? As it is written: “And Judah saw there the daughter of a certain kena’aniand he took her, and went in unto her” (Genesis 38:2). What is the meaning of the word kena’ani in this context? If you say it refers to an actual Canaanite, is it possible that Abraham warned Isaac not to marry a Canaanite woman, and Isaac warned Jacob to the same effect, and nonetheless Judah went and married a Canaanite woman? Rather, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: She was the daughter of a merchant, as it is written: “As for the merchant [kena’an], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He loves to oppress” (Hosea 12:8). And if you wish, say instead that this meaning of the word can be understood from the following verse, which describes Tyre: “Whose traders are princes, whose merchants [kinaneha] are the honorable of the earth” (Isaiah 23:8).

והיה ה׳ למלך על כל הארץ ביום ההוא יהיה ה׳ אחד ושמו אחד אטו האידנא לאו אחד הוא

The Gemara cites another verse from the prophecy at the end of the book of Zechariah: “And the Lord shall be King over all the earth, on that day shall the Lord be one and His name one” (Zechariah 14:9). The Gemara asks: Is that to say that now He is not one?

אמר רבי אחא בר חנינא לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה על בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב ועל בשורות רעות אומר ברוך דיין האמת לעולם הבא כולו הטוב והמטיב

Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. In this world, upon good tidings one recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good, and over bad tidings one recites: Blessed…the true Judge. In the World-to-Come one will always recite: Blessed…Who is good and does good. There will be only one mode of blessing God for tidings.

ושמו אחד מאי אחד אטו האידנא לאו שמו אחד הוא

The verse states: “On that day shall the Lord be one and His name one.” The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the word one in this context? Is that to say that now His name is not one?

אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה נכתב ביוד הי ונקרא באלף דלת אבל לעולם הבא כולו אחד נקרא ביוד הי ונכתב ביוד הי

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. In this world, God’s name that is written with the letters yod and heh is read as Adonai, which begins with the letters alef and dalet. God’s name is not pronounced in the same way as it is written. However, in the World-to-Come it will all be one, as God’s name will be both read with the letters yod and heh and written with the letters yod and heh.

סבר רבא למדרשה בפירקא אמר ליה ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב

Rava thought to expound upon the correct punctuation and enunciation of the name of God during his public lecture before one of the Festivals. A certain old man said to him: The word forever is written in the verse: “This is My name forever [le’olam]” (Exodus 3:15) without the letter vav, such that it can be read le’alem, to conceal, meaning that the name should be concealed.

רבי אבינא רמי כתיב זה שמי לעלם וזה זכרי לדור דור אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביוד הא ונקרא אני באלף דלת:

Rabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written in the verse: “This is My name forever,” implying a requirement to conceal the name of God, and in the very next phrase it states: “And this is My memorial unto all generations” (Exodus 3:15), which indicates that the name of God is to be publicized and remembered by all. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I, i.e., My name, is not read as I am written. I am written with the letters yod and heh, and I am read with the letters alef and dalet.



הדרן עלך אלו עוברין

מתני׳ מקום שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בערבי פסחים עד חצות עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין ההולך ממקום שעושין למקום שאין עושין או ממקום שאין עושין למקום שעושין נותנין עליו חומרי מקום שיצא משם וחומרי מקום שהלך לשם

MISHNA: In a place where the people were accustomed to perform labor on Passover eve until midday, one may do so on that day. In a place where the people were accustomed not to perform labor, one may not do so. The performance of labor on the eve of Passover is not prohibited by Torah law, but is dependent on local custom. If one travels from a place where people perform labor on Passover eve to a place where people do not perform labor, or from a place where people do not perform labor on Passover eve to a place where people perform labor, the Sages impose upon him the stringencies of both the place from which he left and the stringencies of the place to which he went. In both cases, he may not perform labor.