וְשָׁטִיחַ בְּחֹסֶר כֹּל אָמַר רַבִּי אַמֵּי אָמַר רַב בְּלֹא נֵר וּבְלֹא שֻׁלְחָן רַב חִסְדָּא אָמַר בְּלֹא אִשָּׁה רַב שֵׁשֶׁת אָמַר בְּלֹא שַׁמָּשׁ רַב נַחְמָן אָמַר בְּלֹא דֵּעָה תָּנָא בְּלֹא מֶלַח וּבְלֹא רְבָב
and a rug, as an exile needs those items and they are portable. The Sages interpreted the following verse describing the exile experience: “Therefore shall you serve your enemy whom the Lord shall send against you, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things; and he shall put a yoke of iron upon your neck, until he has destroyed you” (Deuteronomy 28:48). Rabbi Ami said that Rav said: “In want of all things” means without a lamp and without a table to eat upon. Rav Ḥisda said: Without a wife. Rav Sheshet said: Without an attendant to aid him. Rav Naḥman said: Without intelligence. One of the Sages teaches in a baraita: Without salt and without fat [revav] in which to dip his bread.
אָמַר אַבָּיֵי נָקְטִינַן אֵין עָנִי אֶלָּא בְּדֵעָה בְּמַעְרְבָא אָמְרִי דְּדָא בֵּיהּ כּוּלָּא בֵּיהּ דְּלָא דָּא בֵּיהּ מָה בֵּיהּ דָּא קָנֵי מָה חָסַר דָּא לָא קָנֵי מָה קָנֵי
Abaye said that we have a tradition: A poor person is only one lacking in intelligence, in agreement with the opinion of Rav Naḥman. In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say: One who has this attribute, intelligence, in him has everything in him. One who does not have this attribute in him, what is in him? If he acquired this, what else is lacking? If he has not acquired this, what has he acquired?
אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא אֵין הַחוֹלֶה עוֹמֵד מֵחׇלְיוֹ עַד שֶׁמּוֹחֲלִין לוֹ עַל כֹּל עֲוֹנוֹתָיו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הַסֹּלֵחַ לְכׇל עֲוֹנֵכִי הָרֹפֵא לְכׇל תַּחֲלוּאָיְכִי רַב הַמְנוּנָא אָמַר חוֹזֵר לִימֵי עֲלוּמָיו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר רֻטֲפַשׁ בְּשָׂרוֹ מִנֹּעַר יָשׁוּב לִימֵי עֲלוּמָיו כׇּל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ הָפַכְתָּ בְחׇלְיוֹ אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף לוֹמַר דִּמְשַׁכֵּחַ תַּלְמוּדוֹ
§ Rabbi Alexandri said that Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: The sick person recovers from his illness only when the heavenly court forgives him for all his sins, as it is stated: “Who forgives all your iniquity; Who heals all your diseases” (Psalms 103:3). Rav Hamnuna said: When he recovers, he returns to the days of his youth, as it is stated in a verse with regard to one recovering from illness: “His flesh is tenderer than a child’s; he returns to the days of his youth” (Job 33:25). Interpreting the verse: “The Lord will support him upon the bed of suffering; You overturned all his lying down in his illness” (Psalms 41:4), Rav Yosef said: That is to say that the sick person forgets his studies, as everything that is organized is overturned.
רַב יוֹסֵף חֲלַשׁ אִיעַקַּר לֵיהּ תַּלְמוּדֵיהּ אַהְדְּרֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי קַמֵּיהּ הַיְינוּ דִּבְכָל דּוּכְתָּא אָמְרִינַן אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף לָא שְׁמִיעַ לִי הָדָא שְׁמַעְתָּא אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי אַתְּ אַמְרִיתַהּ נִיהֲלַן וּמַהָא מַתְנִיתָא אַמְרִיתַהּ נִיהֲלַן
The Gemara relates: Rav Yosef himself fell ill and his studies were forgotten. Abaye restored his studies by reviewing what he had learned from Rav Yosef before him. This is the background for that which we say everywhere throughout the Talmud, that Rav Yosef said: I did not learn this halakha, and Abaye said to him in response: You said this to us and it was from this baraita that you said it to us.
כִּי הֲוָה גְּמִיר רַבִּי תְּלָת עֶשְׂרֵי אַפֵּי הִילְכָתָא אַגְמְרֵיהּ לְרַבִּי חִיָּיא שִׁבְעָה מִנְּהוֹן לְסוֹף חֲלַשׁ רַבִּי אַהְדַּר רַבִּי חִיָּיא קַמֵּיהּ הָנְהוּ שִׁבְעָה אַפֵּי דְּאַגְמְרֵיהּ שִׁיתָּא אַזְּדּוּ הֲוָה הָהוּא קַצָּרָא הֲוָה שְׁמִיעַ לֵיהּ לְרַבִּי כְּדַהֲוָה גָּרֵיס לְהוּ אֲזַל רַבִּי חִיָּיא וּגְמַר יָתְהוֹן קַמֵּי קַצָּרָא וַאֲתָא וְאַהְדַּר יָתְהוֹן קַמֵּי רַבִּי כַּד הֲוָה חָזֵי לֵיהּ רַבִּי לְהָהוּא קַצָּרָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ אוֹתִי וְאֶת חִיָּיא אִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי הָכִי קָאָמַר לֵיהּ אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ אֶת חִיָּיא וְחִיָּיא עָשָׂה אוֹתִי
The Gemara relates: When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would learn thirteen aspects of a halakha on a certain issue, he taught Rabbi Ḥiyya seven of them. Ultimately, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi fell ill and forgot all thirteen aspects. Rabbi Ḥiyya restored those seven aspects that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi taught him by reviewing them before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. However, six were gone and forgotten, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had not taught them to anyone. There was a certain launderer who would hear Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi when he was studying those halakhot. Rabbi Ḥiyya went and learned those halakhot from the launderer and he came and restored them by reviewing them before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi saw that launderer, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: You made me and Ḥiyya, as we were able to learn these halakhot that otherwise would have been forgotten. Some say that this is what he said to the launderer: You made Ḥiyya, and Ḥiyya made me.
וְאָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא גָּדוֹל נֵס שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה לַחוֹלֶה יוֹתֵר מִן הַנֵּס שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לַחֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה שֶׁל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה אֵשׁ שֶׁל הֶדְיוֹט וְהַכֹּל יְכוֹלִים לְכַבּוֹתָהּ וְזוֹ שֶׁל חוֹלֶה שֶׁל שָׁמַיִם הִיא וּמִי יָכוֹל לְכַבּוֹתָהּ
And Rabbi Alexandri said that Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: Greater is the miracle performed for the sick person than the miracle that was performed for Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, who were rescued from the fiery furnace (see Daniel, chapter 3), as in the miracle of Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, they were rescued from the fire of a layman, and anyone is capable of extinguishing it. And that fire afflicting a sick person with a fever is the fire of Heaven, and who can extinguish it?
וְאָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא וְאָמְרִי לַהּ אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ קִיצּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הַכֹּל מוֹשְׁלִים בּוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהָיָה כׇל מֹצְאִי יַהַרְגֵנִי רַב אָמַר מִן הָדֵין קְרָא לְמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ עָמְדוּ הַיּוֹם כִּי הַכֹּל עֲבָדֶיךָ
And Rabbi Alexandri said that Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said, and some say Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the end of the time allotted for the life of a person arrived, everything has dominion over him, as it is stated that Cain said: “Whosoever finds me will slay me” (Genesis 4:14). Cain feared that since God sentenced him to death he would be susceptible to all threats and vulnerable to anyone seeking to murder him. Rav said that it is derived from this verse: “They stand this day according to Your judgments; for all are Your servants” (Psalms 119:91). When the decree emerges from Heaven that the time has arrived for a person to die, everyone is a servant of God, an agent to kill him.
רַבָּה בַּר שֵׁילָא אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ שְׁכֵיב גַּבְרָא גָּבוֹהַּ הֲוָה רְכִיב גִּירְדּוֹנָא זוּטְרָא מְטָא תִּיתּוּרָא אִיסְתְּוִיט שַׁדְיֵיהּ וְקָא שָׁכֵיב קָרֵי עַל נַפְשֵׁיהּ לְמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ עָמְדוּ הַיּוֹם
The Gemara relates that people said to Rabba bar Sheila: A man died. This person was tall and was riding on a small mule [giredona]. When he reached a bridge [tittora], the mule was frightened [istavveit] and cast off the rider, and although the rider was tall and the mule was short and the rider did not fall far, he died. Rabba bar Sheila read the verse and applied it to the rider: “They stand this day according to Your judgments.”
שְׁמוּאֵל חַזְיַיהּ לְהָהוּא קְרוּקִיתָא דְעַקְרַבָּא יְתִיבָא עַל אַקְרוּקְתָּא וְעָבְרָה נַהֲרָא טָרְקָא גַּבְרָא וּמָיֵית קָרֵי עֲלֵיהּ לְמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ עָמְדוּ הַיּוֹם
Shmuel saw a certain frog [kerokita], and also noticed that a scorpion was sitting upon the frog and the frog crossed the river. The scorpion stung a man on the other side of the river and the man died. Shmuel read and applied the verse to the dead man: “They stand this day according to Your judgments.” Even the frog and scorpion are servants and agents of God. The only way the scorpion could reach the man and kill him was by means of the frog taking it across the river.
אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל אֵין מְבַקְּרִין אֶת הַחוֹלֶה אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁחֲלָצַתּוּ חַמָּה לְאַפּוֹקֵי מַאי לְאַפּוֹקֵי הָא דְּתַנְיָא רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן פְּרָטָא אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אֵין מְבַקְּרִין לֹא חוֹלֵי מֵעַיִים וְלֹא חוֹלֵי הָעַיִן וְלֹא מְחוּשֵׁי הָרֹאשׁ בִּשְׁלָמָא חוֹלֵי מֵעַיִים מִשּׁוּם כִּיסּוּפָא אֶלָּא חוֹלֵי הָעַיִן וּמְחוּשֵׁי הָרֹאשׁ מַאי טַעְמָא
§ Shmuel said: One visits a sick person only if that person is one whom fever overcame. The Gemara asks: What illnesses does this statement come to exclude? The Gemara answers: It comes to exclude that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei ben Perata says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: One visits neither those with intestinal illness, nor those with eye illness, nor those suffering from headaches. The Gemara asks: Granted, one does not visit those with intestinal sickness, due to the sick person’s embarrassment, as he would need to frequently relieve himself and it would be awkward for him in the presence of the visitor. However, what is the reason that one does not visit those with eye illnesses and headaches?
מִשּׁוּם דְּרַב יְהוּדָה דְּאָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה דִּיבּוּרָא קַשְׁיָא לְעֵינָא וּמְעַלֵּי לְאִישָּׁתָא אָמַר רָבָא הַאי אִישָּׁתָא אִי לָאו דְּפַרְווֹנְקָא דְּמַלְאֲכָא דְמוֹתָא מְעַלֵּי
The Gemara answers: It is due to that which Rav Yehuda said, as Rav Yehuda said: Speech is injurious for the eye and beneficial for curing a fever. Therefore, if one suffers from pain in his eye or his head it is better for him not to talk. If he has visitors, he will need to speak to them, which will cause him harm. Rava said: With regard to this fever [ishta], were it not the agent [parvanka] of the Angel of Death, i.e., the cause of serious, potentially deadly illnesses, it could be deemed beneficial,