אם אבדו אינו חייב באחריותן ואם היה שכיר שבת שכיר חדש שכיר שנה שכיר שבוע נותן לו שכר שבת לפיכך אם אבדו חייב באחריותן
if the items that the laborer was entrusted to watch were lost on Shabbat, he does not bear financial responsibility to compensate the owners for them, since he is not a paid bailee on that day. And if he is a laborer hired for a week, hired for a month, hired for a year, or hired for seven years, the one who hired him gives him payment for labor performed on Shabbat as well. Therefore, if the items were lost on Shabbat, he bears financial responsibility to compensate the owners for them. If payment for Shabbat is incorporated within payment for a longer period, it is not prohibited to accept payment for permitted actions performed on Shabbat.
אלא גבי שבת היינו טעמא דאין קוראין בתחילה משום דיפנו אבהתהון דינוקי למצותא דשבתא ואיבעית אימא משום דבשבתא אכלין ושתין ויקיר עליהון עלמא כדאמר שמואל שינוי וסת תחילת חולי מעיים
Rather, with regard to Shabbat, this is the reason that children may not read a passage in the Bible for the first time on Shabbat, so that the fathers of the children will be at leisure to fulfill the mitzva of delighting in Shabbat. Teaching new material to their children would occupy more of their fathers’ time, limiting their opportunity to fulfill that mitzva. And if you wish, say instead: Due to the fact that on Shabbat children eat and drink more than they are accustomed to eating, their world is heavy upon them, i.e., their head and their limbs are sluggish, and they are incapable of concentrating and studying well, as Shmuel said: A change in routine [veset] in eating and the like causes the onset of an intestinal ailment.
ולמאן דאמר שכר פיסוק טעמים מאי טעמא לא אמר שכר שימור קסבר בנות מי קא בעיין שימור
And according to the one who says that the payment for teach-ing Bible is payment for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, and therefore in the case of one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow, that other person may not teach his sons and daughters Bible, what is the reason that he did not say that it is payment for watching the children? The Gemara answers: He holds: Do girls need watching? They stay home and are not accustomed to going out.
ולמאן דאמר שכר שימור מאי טעמא לא אמר שכר פיסוק טעמים קסבר (שכר) פיסוק טעמים דאורייתא הוא
The Gemara asks: And according to the one who says that the payment for teaching Bible is payment for watching the children, what is the reason that he did not say that it is payment for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes? The Gemara answers: He holds that the punctuation of the text with cantillation notes is by Torah law; therefore, it is included in the prohibition against taking payment for teaching Torah.
דאמר רב איקא בר אבין אמר רב חננאל אמר רב מאי דכתיב (נחמיה ח, ח) ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים מפורש ושום שכל ויבינו במקרא ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים זה מקרא מפורש זה תרגום ושום שכל אלו הפסוקים ויבינו במקרא זה פיסוק טעמים ואמרי לה אלו המסורות
This is as Rav Ika bar Avin said that Rav Ḥananel said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And they read in the book, in the Torah of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading” (Nehemiah 8:8)? The Gemara explains: “They read in the book, in the Torah of God”; that is the Bible. “Distinctly”; that is the Aramaic translation. “And they gave the sense”; these are the division into verses. “And caused them to understand the reading”; this is punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, which facilitate the understanding of the verses. And some say: These are the traditions that determine the proper vocalization of the Bible. Rav holds that the cantillation notes are an integral part of Torah study.
אמר רבי יצחק מקרא סופרים ועיטור סופרים וקריין ולא כתיבן וכתיבן ולא קריין הלכה למשה מסיני
On a related note, Rabbi Yitzḥak said: The vocalization of the scribes, and the ornamentation of the scribes, and the verses with words that are read but not written, and those that are written but not read are all halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai.
מקרא סופרים אָרֶץ שָׁמַיִם מִצְרַיִם
The Gemara elaborates: The vocalization of the scribes is referring to words that when they appear at the end of phrases, clauses, or verses, their vocalization changes, e.g., eretz with a segol under the letter alef to aretz with a kamatz under the letter alef; shamayim with a pataḥ under the letter mem, to shamayim with a kamatz under the letter mem; and mitzrayim with a pataḥ under the letter reish, to mitzrayim with a kamatz under the letter reish.
עיטור סופרים אחר תעבורו (בראשית יח, ה) אחר תלכו (בראשית כד, נה) אחר תאסף (במדבר יב, יד) קדמו שרים אחר נוגנים (תהלים סח, כו) צדקתך כהררי אל (תהלים לו, ז)
The ornamentation of the scribes are expressions that the scribes understood in a manner that differs slightly from its plain understanding. For example: “Then [aḥar] go on” (Genesis 18:5); “then [aḥar] she will go” (Genesis 24:55); “afterward [aḥar] you will be gathered” (Numbers 31:2); “the singers go before, the minstrels follow after [aḥar]” (Psalms 68:26); “Your righteousness is like the mighty mountains” (Psalms 36:7).
קריין ולא כתיבן פרת דבלכתו (שמואל ב ח, ג) איש דכאשר ישאל איש בדבר האלהים (שמואל ב טז, כג) באים דונבנתה (ירמיהו לא, לח) לה דפליטה (ירמיהו נ, כט) את דהגד הוגד (רות ב, יא) אלי דהגורן (רות ג, ה) אלי דהשעורים (רות ג, יז) הלין קריין ולא כתבן
Words that are read but not written are included in the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. For example, the word “Euphrates” that is in the phrase “as he went to establish his control over the river Euphrates” (II Samuel 8:3) is not written in the text of the Bible. The same is true for the word “man” that is in the verse “now the counsel of Ahithophel, which he counseled in those days, was as if a man inquired of the word of God” (II Samuel 16:23); and for the word “come” that is in the verse “behold, the days come, says the Lord, that the city shall be built to the Lord from the tower of Hananel unto the gate of the corner” (Jeremiah 31:37); and for “her” that is in the phrase “let her not have escape” (Jeremiah 50:29); unto that is in the verse “it has been told me, all that you have done unto your mother-in-law” (Ruth 2:11); and for “to me” that is found in the passage “and she said unto her: All that you say to me I will do. And she went down to the threshing floor” (Ruth 3:4–5); and for “to me” that is in the verse “he gave me these six measures of barley; for he said to me” (Ruth 3:17). These words are read but not written.
וכתבן ולא קריין נא דיסלח (מלכים ב ה, יח)
And there are words that are written but not read. For example, the word “may” that is in the verse “may God forgive your servant” (II Kings 5:18) appears in the Bible text but is not vocalized.