הַשָּׂטָן בְּחוּשְׁבָּנֵיהּ תְּלָת מְאָה וְשִׁיתִּין וְאַרְבְּעָה וְאָמַר רָמֵי בַּר אַבָּא כְּתִיב אַבְרָם וּכְתִיב אַבְרָהָם בַּתְּחִלָּה הִמְלִיכוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מָאתַיִם וְאַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵבָרִים וּלְבַסּוֹף הִמְלִיכוֹ עַל מָאתַיִם וְאַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה אֵבָרִים The letters of the term the Satan [haSatan] in numerical value is 364, which equals the number of days of the year, except for Yom Kippur, during which he has no power. And Rami bar Abba said: It is written “Abram,” and after he was commanded to perform circumcision it is written “Abraham” (Genesis 17:5). Initially the Holy One, Blessed be He, enthroned him as ruler over 243 limbs, which is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the word Abram. And in the end, after he was circumcised, He enthroned him as ruler over 248 limbs, which is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the word Abraham.
אֵלּוּ הֵן שְׁתֵּי עֵינַיִם וּשְׁתֵּי אׇזְנַיִם וְרֹאשׁ הַגְּוִיָּיה These are the additional limbs: Two eyes, and two ears, and the tip of the sex organ. Following his circumcision, he had total control over them, and they performed only according to his will.
וְאָמַר רָמֵי בַּר אַבָּא מַאי דִּכְתִיב עִיר קְטַנָּה וַאֲנָשִׁים וְגוֹ׳ עִיר קְטַנָּה זֶה הַגּוּף וַאֲנָשִׁים בָּהּ מְעַט אֵלּוּ אֵבָרִים וּבָא אֵלֶיהָ מֶלֶךְ גָּדוֹל וְסָבַב אֹתָהּ זֶה יֵצֶר הָרָע וּבָנָה עָלֶיהָ מְצוֹדִים וַחֲרָמִים אֵלּוּ עֲוֹנוֹת And Rami bar Abba said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “There was a little city and few men in it, and there came a great king against it, and besieged it, and built great bulwarks against it. Now there was found in it a man poor and wise, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man remembered that same poor man” (Ecclesiastes 9:14–15)? “A little city,” this is referring to the body; “and few men in it,” this is referring to the limbs; “and there came a great king against it and besieged it,” this is referring to the evil inclination; “and built great bulwarks against it,” these are sins.
וּמָצָא בָהּ אִישׁ מִסְכֵּן וְחָכָם זֶה יֵצֶר טוֹב וּמִלַּט הוּא אֶת הָעִיר בְּחׇכְמָתוֹ זוֹ תְּשׁוּבָה וּמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים וְאָדָם לֹא זָכַר אֶת הָאִישׁ הַמִּסְכֵּן הַהוּא דְּבִשְׁעַת יֵצֶר הָרָע לֵית דְּמִדְּכַר לֵיהּ לְיֵצֶר טוֹב The Gemara expounds on the next section of the verse: “Now there was found in it a man poor and wise,” this is referring to the good inclination; “and he by his wisdom delivered the city,” this is referring to repentance and good deeds that are cause by the good inclination. “Yet no man remembered that same poor man” means that when the evil inclination overcomes the good inclination no one remembers the good inclination.
הַחׇכְמָה תָּעֹז לֶחָכָם מֵעֲשָׂרָה שַׁלִּיטִים הַחׇכְמָה תָּעֹז לֶחָכָם זוֹ תְּשׁוּבָה וּמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים מֵעֲשָׂרָה שַׁלִּיטִים שְׁתֵּי עֵינַיִם וּשְׁתֵּי אׇזְנַיִם וּשְׁתֵּי יָדַיִם וּשְׁתֵּי רַגְלַיִם וְרֹאשׁ הַגְּוִיָּיה וּפֶה The Gemara interprets the following verse in a similar homiletical manner: “Wisdom is a stronghold to the wise man more than ten rulers that are in a city” (Ecclesiastes 7:19). “Wisdom is a stronghold to the wise man,” this is referring to repentance and good deeds. “More than ten rulers,” these are the two eyes, and two ears, and two hands, and two legs, and the tip of the sex organ, and the mouth, which are the limbs that are used by a person to interact with the world.
אָמַר רַבִּי זְכַרְיָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בִּיקֵּשׁ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהוֹצִיא כְּהוּנָּה מִשֵּׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִקְדִּים בִּרְכַּת אַבְרָהָם לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּקוֹם הוֹצִיאָהּ מֵאַבְרָהָם Rabbi Zekharya said in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: The Holy One, Blessed be He, wanted the priesthood to emerge from Shem, so that his children would be priests, as it is stated: “And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High” (Genesis 14:18). Once Melchizedek, traditionally identified as Shem, placed the blessing of Abraham before the blessing of the Omnipresent, He had the priesthood emerge from Abraham in particular, and not from any other descendant of Shem.
שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ וּבָרוּךְ אֵל עֶלְיוֹן אָמַר לוֹ אַבְרָהָם וְכִי מַקְדִּימִין בִּרְכַּת עֶבֶד לְבִרְכַּת קוֹנוֹ מִיָּד נְתָנָהּ לְאַבְרָהָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר נְאֻם ה׳ לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ וּבָתְרֵיהּ כְּתִיב נִשְׁבַּע ה׳ וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי צֶדֶק עַל דִּיבּוּרוֹ שֶׁל מַלְכִּי צֶדֶק As it is stated: “And he blessed him and said: Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth, and blessed be God the Most High” (Genesis 14:19–20). Abraham said to him: And does one place the blessing of the servant before the blessing of his master? You should have blessed God first. Immediately the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave the priesthood to Abraham, as it is stated: “The Lord says to my lord: Sit at My right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool” (Psalms 110:1), and afterward it is written: “The Lord has sworn, and will not repent: you shall be a priest forever, because you are a king of righteousness [al divrati malki tzedek]” (Psalms 110:4), which is explained homiletically to mean: Due to the improper words [divrati] of Melchizedek, the offspring of Abraham shall be priests of God forever.
וְהַיְינוּ דִּכְתִיב וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן הוּא כֹּהֵן וְאֵין זַרְעוֹ כֹּהֵן The Gemara comments: And this is as it is written: “And he was priest of God the Most High” (Genesis 14:18), which emphasizes that he, Melchizedek, is a priest, but his children will not be priests.
הַדְרָן עֲלָךְ אַרְבָּעָה נְדָרִים
אֵין בֵּין הַמּוּדָּר הֲנָאָה מֵחֲבֵירוֹ לַמּוּדָּר הֵימֶנּוּ מַאֲכָל אֶלָּא דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל וְכֵלִים שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין בָּהֶם אוֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ MISHNA: The difference between one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow [hamuddar hana’a meḥaveiro] and one for whom benefit from his food is forbidden by vow concerns only setting foot on the other person’s property and borrowing from that person utensils that one does not use in preparation of food but for other purposes. Those two benefits are forbidden to the former but permitted to the latter.
הַמּוּדָּר מַאֲכָל מֵחֲבֵירוֹ לֹא יַשְׁאִילֶנּוּ נָפָה וּכְבָרָה וְרֵיחַיִם וְתַנּוּר אֲבָל מַשְׁאִיל לוֹ חָלוּק וְטַבַּעַת וְטַלִּית וּנְזָמִים Therefore, with regard to one for whom benefit from another’s food is forbidden by vow, that person may not lend him utensils used in the preparation of food, e.g., a sieve, or a strainer, or a millstone, or an oven. However, he may lend him a garment, or a finger ring, or a cloak, or nose rings, as these are not used in the preparation of food. However, he may not lend them to one for whom benefit from him is forbidden by vow.
גְּמָ׳ מַאן תְּנָא אָמַר רַב אַדָּא בַּר אַהֲבָה רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר הִיא דְּתַנְיָא רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר אֲפִילּוּ וִיתּוּר אָסוּר בְּמוּדַּר הֲנָאָה GEMARA: Who is the tanna who taught this mishna? Rav Adda bar Ahava said: It is Rabbi Eliezer, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer said: Even overlooking [vittur] a matter for which one is typically indifferent to the actions of others, e.g., people setting foot on one’s property, is prohibited in the case of one prohibited by vow from deriving benefit from another.
הַמּוּדָּר מַאֲכָל מֵחֲבֵירוֹ לֹא יַשְׁאִילֶנּוּ וְכוּ׳ § We learned in the mishna: With regard to one for whom benefit from another’s food is forbidden by vow, that person may not lend him utensils used in the preparation of food.