Nazir 46bנזיר מ״ו ב
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46bמ״ו ב

ומי מעכבא והתניא (במדבר ו, יג) זאת תורת הנזיר בין שיש לו כפים בין שאין לו כפים

The Gemara raises a difficulty against Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion: And does a lack of waving preclude the performance of the purification ritual of a nazirite? But isn’t it taught in a baraita (Tosefta 1:5): The inclusive phrase: “This is the law of the nazirite,” (Numbers 6:21) teaches that all nazirites are bound by the same halakha, whether he has palms, or whether he does not have palms. Since one who is lacking palms certainly cannot wave, this indicates that waving is not essential.

ואלא הא דתניא זאת תורת הנזיר בין שיש לו שער בין שאין לו שער הכי נמי דלא מעכבא והתניא נזיר ממורט בש"א אינו צריך להעביר תער על ראשו וב"ה אומרים צריך להעביר תער על ראשו

The Gemara refutes this proof: But what about that which is taught in a similar baraita (Tosefta 1:5): “This is the law of the nazirite” whether he has hair or whether he does not have hair; so too, will you explain that lack of shaving does not preclude the ritual in the case of one who has no hair? But isn’t it taught in a baraita (Tosefta 1:6): With regard to an entirely bald nazirite, who cannot shave his hair with a razor as required, Beit Shammai say: He need not pass a razor over his head, and Beit Hillel say: He must pass a razor over his head.

ואמר רבינא מאי אינו צריך לב"ש אינו צריך אין לו תקנה הא לב"ה יש לו תקנה

And Ravina said: What is the meaning of the term: Need not, stated by Beit Shammai? It means that he need not shave, and he has no remedy, and he has no way to complete his naziriteship. This indicates that according to Beit Hillel he does have a remedy, i.e., he can pass a razor over his head and thereby fulfill the mitzva, despite the fact that he does not have any hair. Similarly, one can say that Rabbi Eliezer holds that waving is indispensable, and when the baraita states: Whether he has palms or whether he does not have palms, could mean that waving is indispensable.

והיינו דרבי פדת דאמר ר' פדת ב"ש ורבי אליעזר אמרו דבר אחד

The Gemara adds: And this interpretation, that Beit Shammai and Rabbi Eliezer maintain one who is unable to perform the action mandated by the Torah has no remedy and cannot complete his naziriteship, is in accordance with a statement of Rabbi Pedat. As Rabbi Pedat said: Beit Shammai and Rabbi Eliezer said the same thing, i.e., they follow the same principle.

מאי ר' אליעזר דתניא אין לו בהן יד ורגל אין לו טהרה עולמית דברי רבי אליעזר רבי שמעון אומר יניחנו על מקומו ויצא וחכ"א יניח על של שמאל ויצא

To what statement of Rabbi Eliezer is Rabbi Pedat referring? As it is taught in a baraita: A leper who does not have a thumb or big toe, upon both of which he must place the blood and oil of his purification ritual (Leviticus 14:14) can never attain ritual purity. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Shimon says: The priest puts it on the spot of the missing thumb, and the leper thereby fulfills his obligation. The Rabbis say: Let him put it on the left thumb and thereby fulfill his obligation. According to Rabbi Pedat, Rabbi Eliezer and Beit Shammai both maintain that if the ritual cannot be performed in the precise manner delineated, one cannot fulfill his obligation and has no remedy. This is one version of the discussion.

לישנא אחרינא אמרי לה אמר רב תנופה בנזיר מעכבת אליבא דמאן אילימא אליבא דרבי אליעזר פשיטא האמר רבי אליעזר אחר מעשים כולם אלא אליבא דרבנן השתא יש לומר תגלחת אמרי רבנן לא מעכבא תנופה מיבעיא

The Gemara cites another version of this discussion. Some say that Rav said: The priest’s lack of waving of the offering of a nazirite precludes the release of the prohibitions of his naziriteship. The Gemara asks: According to whose opinion did he state this halakha? If we say that he spoke in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, this is obvious; didn’t Rabbi Eliezer say that he is permitted to drink wine only after all his actions, including waving? Rather, you will say that Rav spoke in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. However, this too is puzzling: Now that one can say that with regard to shaving, a central part of the naziriteship ritual, the Rabbis say that its omission does not preclude the fulfillment of his ritual, is it necessary to state that waving is not essential?

ומי לא מעכבא והתניא זאת תורת הנזיר בין שיש לו כפים ובין שאין לו כפים ואלא הא דתניא זאת תורת הנזיר בין שיש לו שער ובין שאין לו שער הכי נמי דמעכבא

The Gemara asks: And doesn’t the lack of waving preclude a nazirite’s ritual? But isn’t it taught in a baraita (Tosefta 1:5): The inclusive phrase: “This is the law of the nazirite,” teaches that whether he has palms or whether he does not have palms waving is always required, and a nazirite is not exempted by a lack of palms. The Gemara questions this interpretation of the baraita. But what about that which is taught in the same baraita (Tosefta 1:5): “This is the law of the nazirite,” whether he has hair or whether he does not have hair; so too, will you say that the lack of shaving precludes his ritual?

והתניא נזיר ממורט בש"א אינו צריך להעביר תער על ראשו וב"ה אומרים צריך אמר רבי אבינא מאי צריך לבית הלל צריך ואין לו תקנה

But isn’t it taught in a baraita (Tosefta 1:6): With regard to an entirely bald nazirite, Beit Shammai say: He need not pass a razor over his head, and Beit Hillel say: He must pass a razor over his head. This baraita indicates that even according to the opinion of Beit Hillel a nazirite does not have to actually shave. Rabbi Avina said: What is the meaning of: He must, as stated by Beit Hillel? It means that he must shave, and if he fails to do so he has no remedy, and can never drink wine.

לב"ש יש לו תקנה ופליגא דרבי פדת:

Conversely, according to the opinion of Beit Shammai he has a remedy, as he does not have to use a razor at all. And this interpretation disagrees with the opinion of Rabbi Pedat. Rabbi Pedat claims that both Beit Shammai and Rabbi Eliezer maintain that if the ritual cannot be performed in the precise manner delineated, one cannot fulfill his obligation and has no remedy. By contrast, Rabbi Avina contends that Beit Shammai exempt the nazirite from this obligation, while Beit Hillel say that he has no remedy.

מתני׳ גילח על הזבח ונמצא פסול תגלחתו פסולה וזבחיו לא עלו לו גילח על החטאת שלא לשמה ואח"כ הביא קרבנותיו לשמן תגלחתו פסולה וזבחיו לא עלו לו גילח על העולה או על השלמים שלא לשמן ואח"כ הביא קרבנותיו לשמן תגלחתו פסולה וזבחיו לא עלו לו

MISHNA: As taught earlier (45a) the nazirite shaves after having brought one, or all, of his offerings. This mishna discusses what the halakha is if the offering was found to be invalid after the nazirite had shaved. If a nazirite shaved based upon the requisite offering, and afterward the offering was found to be invalid for any reason, his shaving is invalid and his offerings do not count toward the fulfillment of his obligation. If he shaved based upon the sin-offering, that was found to have been sacrificed not for its own sake, which invalidates the offering, and afterward he brought his other offerings for their own sake, his shaving is invalid and his other offerings do not count toward the fulfillment of his obligation. If he shaved based upon the requisite burnt-offering or having brought the requisite peace-offering, and these were offered not for their own sake, and afterward he brought his remaining offerings for their own sake, his shaving is invalid and his offerings do not count toward the fulfillment of his obligation.

רבי שמעון אומר אותו הזבח לא עלה לו אבל שאר זבחים עלו ואם גילח על שלשתן ונמצא אחד מהן כשר תגלחתו כשרה ויביא שאר זבחים:

Rabbi Shimon says: In the case of one who shaved based upon a burnt-offering or a peace-offering that was sacrificed not for its own sake, that offering, which was performed incorrectly, does not count toward the fulfillment of his obligation; however, his other offerings do count. And everyone agrees that if he shaved based upon all three of them, i.e., he brought all three offerings, without specifying which offering he is basing his shaving upon, and even one of them was found valid, his shaving is valid, but he must bring the other offerings in order to fulfill his obligation.

גמ׳ אמר רב אדא בר אהבה זאת אומרת קסבר ר"ש נזיר שגילח על שלמי נדבה יצא מאי טעמ' דאמר קרא (במדבר ו, יח) ונתן על האש אשר תחת זבח השלמים ולא כתב על שלמיו:

GEMARA: Rav Adda bar Ahava said: That is to say that Rabbi Shimon maintains that a nazirite who shaved based upon voluntary peace-offerings has fulfilled his obligation. A peace-offering that was sacrificed not for its own sake does not count toward the fulfillment of one’s obligation but is considered a voluntary gift-offering. It is clear from the mishna that Rabbi Shimon maintains that shaving based upon any valid offering, even a peace-offering of this type, is effective. What is the reason for this? It is as the verse states: “And put it on the fire which is under the sacrifice of the peace-offering” (Numbers 6:18), and it is not written: On his peace-offering. This indicates that he fulfills his obligation with any type of peace-offering.