הלכה כרבי יוסי במועד ובאבל דאמר שמואל הלכה כדברי המיקל באבל
The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei with regard to the intermediate days of the Festival and with regard to mourning, as Shmuel said this general principle: The halakha is in accordance with the statement of the more lenient authority in matters relating to mourning.
פנחס אחוה דמר שמואל איתרע ביה מילתא על שמואל למישאל טעמא מיניה חזנהו לטופרי דהוו נפישן אמר ליה אמאי לא שקלת להו אמר ליה אי בדידיה הוה מי מזלזלת ביה כולי האי
It was related that something unpleasant happened to Pineḥas, brother of Mar Shmuel, that is to say, one of his close relatives died. Shmuel entered to ask him the reason, i.e., to console him. He saw that Pineḥas’s nails were long, and said to him: Why do you not cut them? Pineḥas replied: If it were your relative who died, and you were in mourning, would you treat the matter so lightly and cut your nails?
הואי (קהלת י, ה) כשגגה שיוצא מלפני השליט ואיתרע ביה מילתא בשמואל על פנחס אחוה למישאל טעמא מיניה שקלינהו לטופריה חבטינהו לאפיה אמר ליה לית לך ברית כרותה לשפתים
Pineḥas’s words were: “Like an error that proceeds from a ruler” (Ecclesiastes 10:5). As soon as he uttered them they come true, even though he did not intend them. Shortly after Pineḥas made his comment, something unpleasant happened to Shmuel, and one of his close relatives died. Pineḥas, his brother, entered to ask him the reason, i.e., to offer words of comfort. Shmuel took his nails and cast them in Pineḥas’s face. Shmuel then said to him: Do you not know the principle that a covenant is made with the lips? In other words, do you not know that what one says influences future events?
דאמר ר' יוחנן מנין שברית כרותה לשפתים שנאמר (בראשית כב, ה) ויאמר אברהם אל נעריו שבו לכם פה עם החמור ואני והנער נלכה עד כה ונשתחוה ונשובה אליכם ואיסתייעא מלתא דהדור תרוייהו
This is as Rabbi Yoḥanan said: From where is it derived that a covenant is made with the lips, and that one’s speech has the power to change events? For it is stated: “And Abraham said to his young men: Stay here with the donkey, and I and the lad will go onward; and we will worship, and we will come back to you” (Genesis 22:5). Abraham said this even though he thought that he was going to sacrifice his son as an offering and that Isaac would not be returning, yet this had an influence and they both came back.
סבור מיניה דיד אין דרגל לא אמר רב ענן בר תחליפא לדידי מפרשא לי מיניה דשמואל לא שנא דיד ולא שנא דרגל
With regard to this halakha pertaining to a mourner cutting his nails: They initially concluded from this: With regard to the nails on his hand, yes, a mourner may cut them; but as for the nails on his foot, no, he may not cut them, because long toenails are less repulsive. Rav Anan bar Taḥlifa said: It was explained to me by Shmuel himself: It is not different if it is the nails on the hand and it is not different if it is the nails on the foot, as in both cases cutting the nails is permitted.
אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב ובגנוסטרא אסור אמר רב שמן בר אבא הוה קאימנא קמיה דר' יוחנן בי מדרשא בחולו של מועד ושקלינהו לטופריה בשיניה וזרקינהו
Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: But with scissors [genustera] specifically for nail cutting it is prohibited, i.e., the mourner should cut his nails in an alternate manner. Rav Shemen bar Abba said: I once stood before Rabbi Yoḥanan in the study hall during the intermediate days of a Festival, and he cut his nails with his teeth and threw them down.
שמע מינה תלת שמע מינה מותר ליטול צפרנים בחולו של מועד ושמע מינה אין בהן משום מיאוס ושמע מינה מותר לזורקן
The Gemara comments: Learn from this incident of Rabbi Yoḥanan three halakhot: Learn from this that it is permitted to cut one’s nails on the intermediate days of a Festival. And learn from this that nails have no prohibition due to the fact that they are repulsive, i.e., there is no prohibition against biting them on that basis. Inasmuch as one is prohibited from placing something repulsive in his mouth, this incident teaches that nails do not fall into this category. And also learn from this that it is permitted to throw nails away.
איני והתניא שלשה דברים נאמרו בצפרנים הקוברן צדיק שורפן חסיד זורקן רשע טעמא מאי שמא תעבור עליהן אשה עוברה ותפיל
The Gemara asks: Is that so? But isn’t it taught in a baraita: Three things were said about nails: One who buries them in the ground is deemed righteous. One who burns them is even better, as he is considered pious. One who merely throws them away is regarded as wicked. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that it is prohibited to throw away nail clippings? This is prohibited lest a pregnant women pass over them and miscarry, for the Sages had a tradition that it is dangerous for a pregnant woman to walk over fingernails.
אשה בי מדרשא לא שכיחא וכי תימא זימנין דמיכנשי להו ושדי להו אבראי כיון דאשתני אשתני
The Gemara answers: A woman is not usually found in the study hall, and therefore Rabbi Yoḥanan was not concerned about throwing his nail clippings there. If you say that sometimes the nails are gathered together when the floor is swept and then thrown outside where a pregnant woman may walk over them, this is not a problem. Once their place has changed the nails themselves change and are no longer harmful.
אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זוג בא מחמתן לפני רבי ומר זוטרא מתני זוג בא מחמתן לפני רבי ובקשו ממנו צפרנים והתיר להם ואם בקשו ממנו שפה התיר להם ושמואל אמר אף בקשו ממנו שפה והתיר להם
Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A pair of Sages from Ḥamatan came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And Mar Zutra taught it without the names of Rav Yehuda and Rav, simply as: A pair of Sages from Ḥamatan came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And they asked him whether or not a mourner is permitted to cut his nails, and he permitted it to them. And had they asked him whether or not a mourner may trim his mustache, he would also have permitted it to them. And Shmuel said: They also asked him about trimming a mustache, and he permitted it to them.
אמר אביטול ספרא משמיה דרב (פפא) שפה מזוית לזוית אמר רבי אמי ובשפה המעכבת א"ר נחמן בר יצחק לדידי כשפה המעכבת דמי לי
Avitul the scribe said in the name of Rav Pappa: A mustache may be trimmed from one corner to the other corner of the mouth.Rabbi Ami said: One may trim only the portion of the mustache that interferes with normal eating, but one may not trim the mustache for beautification. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: For me, my entire mustache is considered like a mustache that interferes with normal eating, as I am particularly sensitive, and so I may trim my entire mustache.
ואמר אביטול ספרא משמיה דרב (פפא) פרעה שהיה בימי משה הוא אמה וזקנו אמה ופרמשתקו אמה וזרת לקיים מה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) ושפל אנשים יקים עליה
§ Having mentioned Avitul the scribe, the Gemara records other statements of his: And Avitul the scribe said in the name of Rav Pappa: The Pharaoh who lived in the days of Moses was a cubit tall, his beard was a cubit long, and his penis [parmashtako] was a cubit and a span, i.e., a cubit and the distance between the thumb and the little finger, in length, in order to fulfill what is stated: “And He sets up over it the lowest of men” (Daniel 4:14), which teaches that Pharaoh was extremely short and lowly.
ואמר אביטול ספרא משמיה דרב (פפא) פרעה שהיה בימי משה אמגושי היה שנאמר (שמות ז, טו) הנה יוצא המימה וגו':
Avitul the scribe also said in the name of Rav Pappa: The Pharaoh who lived in the days of Moses was a sorcerer [amgushi], as it is stated: “Behold, he goes out to the water” (Exodus 7:15). Pharaoh would regularly go out to the water in order to engage in witchcraft.
ואלו מכבסין במועד הבא ממדינת הים: אמר רב אסי א"ר יוחנן מי שאין לו אלא חלוק אחד מותר לכבסו בחולו של מועד
§ The mishna taught: And these people may launder their clothes on the intermediate days of a Festival: One who comes from a country overseas. Rav Asi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Anyone who has only one shirt is permitted to launder it on the intermediate days of a Festival.
מתיב ר' ירמיה אלו מכבסין במועד הבא ממדינת הים כו' הני אין מי שאין לו אלא חלוק אחד לא
Rabbi Yirmeya raised an objection from what was taught in the mishna: And these people may launder their clothes on the intermediate days of a Festival: One who comes from a country overseas, and one who is released from a house of captivity, and one who comes out of prison, and one who had been ostracized and the Rabbis released him from his decree of ostracism, etc. It may be inferred: Those who are mentioned in the mishna, yes, they may launder their clothes during the intermediate days of the Festival, but one who has only one shirt may not launder it.
אמר ליה ר' יעקב לר' ירמיה אסברה לך מתני' אע"ג דאית ליה תרי ומטנפי
Rabbi Ya’akov said to Rabbi Yirmeya: I will explain it to you. The mishna is referring to those cases where one is permitted to launder his clothes even if he has two changes of garments and they are dirty. Rabbi Yoḥanan speaks about one who has only one garment, and he rules that he may launder it in all circumstances.
שלח רב יצחק בר יעקב בר גיורי משמיה דר' יוחנן כלי פשתן מותר לכבסן בחולו של מועד מתיב רבא מטפחות הידים מטפחות
Rav Yitzḥak bar Ya’akov bar Giyorei sent a message in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan: With regard to linen garments, it is permitted to launder them during the intermediate days of the Festival because they are easily soiled. Rava raised an objection from what is taught in the mishna: Hand towels, the towels