Chapter 4ד׳
1 א

חֲמִשָּׁה דְּבָרִים מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַתְּפִלָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּה. טָהֳרַת יָדַיִם. וְכִסּוּי הָעֶרְוָה. וְטָהֳרַת מְקוֹם תְּפִלָּה. וּדְבָרִים הַחוֹפְזִים אוֹתוֹ. וְכַוָּנַת הַלֵּב:

There are five requisites, the absence of which hinder the [proper] recital of a Service, even when its due time has arrived;—Cleansing the hands, Covering the body, Assurance as to the cleanliness of the place where the prayers are recited, Removal of distractions, and Concentration of the mind.

2 ב

טָהֳרַת יָדַיִם כֵּיצַד. רוֹחֵץ יָדָיו בְּמַיִם עַד הַפֶּרֶק וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל. הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְהִגִּיעַ זְמַן תְּפִלָּה וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מַיִם. אִם הָיָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אַרְבָּעָה מִילִין שֶׁהֵם שְׁמוֹנַת אֲלָפִים אַמָּה הוֹלֵךְ עַד מְקוֹם הַמַּיִם וְרוֹחֵץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל. הָיָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם יוֹתֵר עַל כֵּן מְקַנֵּחַ יָדָיו בִּצְרוֹר אוֹ בְּעָפָר אוֹ בְּקוֹרָה וּמִתְפַּלֵּל:

Cleanliness of hands: How is this condition complied with? The hands are washed in water, up to the wrists, and then the prayers are recited. A person, travelling on the road, finds, when the time for prayer has arrived, that he has no water. If it can be procured within a distance of four miles, equal to 8000 cubits, he should proceed to the locality where there is water, wash his hands and then recite the prayers. If the distance exceeds that limit, he wipes his hands on a clod, or with loose earth, or on a beam and then reads the Service.

3 ג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים לְפָנָיו אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מְקוֹם הַמַּיִם לַאֲחוֹרָיו אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ לַחֲזֹר לַאֲחוֹרָיו אֶלָּא עַד מִיל. אֲבָל אִם עָבַר מִן הַמַּיִם יוֹתֵר אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לַחֲזֹר אֶלָּא מְקַנֵּחַ יָדָיו וּמִתְפַּלֵּל. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַהֵר לִתְפִלָּה אֶלָּא יָדָיו בִּלְבַד, בִּשְׁאָר תְּפִלּוֹת חוּץ מִתְּפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית. אֲבָל שַׁחֲרִית רוֹחֵץ פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל. וְאִם הָיָה רָחוֹק מִן הַמַּיִם מְקַנֵּחַ יָדָיו בִּלְבַד וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל:

This rule only applies if the direction of the place where water can be procured is in front of the traveller. But if it is in his rear, he is only obliged to retrace his steps a mile. If he has passed on from the place where there is water beyond this distance, he is not obliged to go back, but wipes his hands and recites the prayers. The statement that for prayers only the hands need to be cleansed refers to all services except the morning service. For this service, the face, the hands and the feet*Why feet? Because these may be mired as people walked barefoot or only wearing sandals. should first be washed, and then the prayers are recited. If water is not accessible, one wipes the hands only, and recites the prayers.

4 ד

כָּל הַטְּמֵאִין רוֹחֲצִין יְדֵיהֶן בִּלְבַד כִּטְהוֹרִין וּמִתְפַּלְּלִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לִטְבּל וְלַעֲלוֹת מִטֻּמְאָתָן אֵין הַטְּבִילָה מְעַכֶּבֶת. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁעֶזְרָא תִּקֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא בַּעַל קֶרִי בִּלְבַד בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל. וּבֵית דִּין שֶׁעָמְדוּ אַחַר כֵּן הִתְקִינוּ אַף לִתְפִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַל קֶרִי בִּלְבַד עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל. וְלֹא מִפְּנֵי טֻמְאָה וְטָהֳרָה נָגְעוּ בָּהּ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים מְצוּיִים אֵצֶל נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן כְּתַרְנְגוֹלִים. וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה תִּקְּנוּ טְבִילָה לְבַעַל קֶרִי לְבַדּוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוּהוּ מִכְּלַל הַטְּמֵאִין:

Those who are ritually unclean wash their hands only—like those that are clean—and recite the prayers. Although they are able to take a ritual bath and so be rid of their ritual impurity, their omission to do so does not debar them from the recital of the prayers. We have already explained that Ezra instituted the rule that one who had had an emission should not read Torah alone till he had taken a ritual bath. Subsequent authorities extended the rule to the recital of prayers, and ordained that such a person should not recite the prayers alone till he had ritually bathed. This rule has no connection with ritual cleanliness or uncleanliness. Its purpose is to restrain scholars from uxoriousness. Hence the limitation of the requirement of ritual bathing to those who had seminal emissions and whose case forms an exception to those otherwise unclean.

5 ה

לְפִיכָךְ הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין בִּזְמַן תַּקָּנָה זוֹ שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ זָב שֶׁרָאָה קֶרִי וְנִדָּה שֶׁפָּלְטָה שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שֶׁרָאֲתָה דַּם נִדָּה צְרִיכִין טְבִילָה לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וְכֵן לִתְפִלָּה מִפְּנֵי הַקֶּרִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם טְמֵאִין. וְכֵן הַדִּין נוֹתֵן שֶׁאֵין טְבִילָה זוֹ מִפְּנֵי טָהֳרָה אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי הַגְּזֵרָה שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ מְצוּיִין אֵצֶל נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן תָּמִיד. וּכְבָר בָּטְלָה גַּם תַּקָּנָה זוֹ שֶׁל תְּפִלָּה לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא פָּשְׁטָה בְּכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא הָיָה כֹּחַ בַּצִּבּוּר לַעֲמֹד בָּהּ:

While this ordinance was in force it was held that even one who suffered from flux and had a seminal issue, or a woman who in her period of menstration had a seminal discharge, or during cohabitation, found that her period of separation had come, must, in order to read the Shema and the prayers, first take a ritual bath on account of the seminal emission, even though they are also otherwise unclean. This is logical, the ritual bathing being prescribed not because of the uncleanness, but to discourage uxoriousness. The ordinance, however, has become obsolete, as it was never universally adopted by the Jewish people and was found too irksome.

6 ו

מִנְהָג פָּשׁוּט בְּשִׁנְעָר וּבִסְפָרַד שֶׁאֵין בַּעַל קֶרִי מִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁרוֹחֵץ כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּמַיִם מִשּׁוּם (עמוס ד יב) ״הִכּוֹן לִקְרַאת אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל״. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּבָרִיא אוֹ בְּחוֹלֶה שֶׁבָּעַל. אֲבָל חוֹלֶה שֶׁרָאָה קֶרִי לְאָנְסוֹ פָּטוּר מִן הָרְחִיצָה וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִנְהָג. וְכֵן זָב שֶׁרָאָה קֶרִי וְנִדָּה שֶׁפָּלְטָה שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע אֵין בָּהֶן מִנְהָג אֶלָּא מְקַנְּחִין עַצְמָן וְרוֹחֲצִין יְדֵיהֶן וּמִתְפַּלְּלִין:

The custom is general in Spain and in Shinar (Iraq) that one who has had a seminal emission does not recite prayers till he has washed all his body in water, out of respect to the exhortation, "Prepare to meet thy God." This only applies to a healthy person or one who is sick and has cohabited. But a sick man who has had an involuntary emission is exempt from the duty of bathing for prayer. The custom does not apply to his case, nor to the case of one who suffers from a flux or of a woman in her period of separation who had a seminal emission. They dry themselves, wash their hands and recite the prayers.

7 ז

כִּסּוּי הָעֶרְוָה כֵּיצַד. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכִּסָּה עֶרְוָתוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּכַסִּין לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁיְּכַסֶּה אֶת לִבּוֹ. וְאִם לֹא כִּסָּה לִבּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱנַס וְאֵין לוֹ בְּמָה יְכַסֶּה הוֹאִיל וְכִסָּה עֶרְוָתוֹ וְהִתְפַּלֵּל יָצָא. וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה:

The covering of the body: how is this requirement to be fulfilled? Although the lower part of the body is covered, as for the reading of the Shema, the prayers are not to be recited till the heart is also covered. If one has not covered it or is unable to do so, having nothing wherewith to cover it, and recites the prayers, he has fulfilled his duty, since the lower part of his body is covered. But he should not do so deliberately.

8 ח

טָהֳרַת מְקוֹם הַתְּפִלָּה כֵּיצַד. לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל בִּמְקוֹם הַטִּנֹּפֶת וְלֹא בַּמֶּרְחָץ וְלֹא בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא וְלֹא בָּאַשְׁפָּה וְלֹא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה עַד שֶׁיִּבְדְּקֶנּוּ. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין קוֹרִין בּוֹ קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע אֵין מִתְפַּלְּלִין בּוֹ. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁמַּרְחִיקִין מִצּוֹאָה וּמִמֵּי רַגְלַיִם וְרֵיחַ רַע וּמִן הַמֵּת וּמֵרְאִיַּת הָעֶרְוָה לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע כָּךְ מַרְחִיקִין לִתְפִלָּה:

Cleanliness of the place where prayers are recited: how is this condition fulfilled? One may not pray in a place where there is filth, nor in a bath-house, nor in a latrine, nor on a site used for depositing refuse, nor in any place concerning which there is no presumption that it is clean. In short, wherever the Shema is not read, there prayers are not recited. And as we move away from ordure, urine, a foul odor, a corpse, and an indecent exposure, in order that we may read the Shema, we do the same, for the recital of the prayers.

9 ט

הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל וּמָצָא צוֹאָה בִּמְקוֹמוֹ הוֹאִיל וְחָטָא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא בָּדַק עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִתְפַּלֵּל חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר. הָיָה עוֹמֵד בִּתְפִלָּה וּמָצָא צוֹאָה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ אִם יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּזְרְקֶנָּה לְאַחֲרָיו אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת יְהַלֵּךְ וְאִם לָאו יְסַלְּקֶנָּה לַצְּדָדִין. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל יַפְסִיק. גְּדוֹלֵי הַחֲכָמִים לֹא הָיוּ מִתְפַּלְּלִים בְּבַיִת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שֵׁכָר וְלֹא בְּבַיִת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מוּרְיָיס בְּעֵת עִפּוּשׁוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרֵיחוֹ רַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם טָהוֹר:

A person who, after reciting prayers, finds ordure in the place, inasmuch as he had committed a sin in not examining it before his recital of the prayers, must read them again in a clean place. A person, while standing and reading the service, finds ordure in front of him. If by walking on, he would leave it four cubits in his rear, he should do so. If this is impossible,*A river or other barrier being in front of him. he should move away from it sideways. If he cannot do this, he must intermit the recital of the prayers. The great sages did not recite prayers in a house where there was beer or strong sauce that had turned bad, because of its offensive odor, even though the premises might otherwise be clean.

10 י

דְּבָרִים הַחוֹפְזִים אוֹתוֹ כֵּיצַד. אִם הָיָה צָרִיךְ לִנְקָבָיו לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל. וְכָל הַצָּרִיךְ לִנְקָבָיו וְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּתוֹ תּוֹעֵבָה וְחוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל אַחַר שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה צְרָכָיו. וְאִם יָכוֹל לְהַעֲמִיד עַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי פַּרְסָה תְּפִלָּתוֹ תְּפִלָּה. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לְכַתְּחִלָּה לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁיִּבְדֹּק עַצְמוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה וְיִבְדֹק נְקָבָיו וְיָסִיר כִּיחוֹ וְנִיעוֹ וְכָל הַדָּבָר הַטּוֹרְדוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל:

[Absence of] disturbing elements. How is this requisite fulfilled? If one feels an urgent call of nature, one must not pray. If the call is disregarded, the prayer that one utters is an abomination. And, having first relieved himself, he should recite the Service a second time. But if he can restrain himself as long as it would take to walk a Parsah (= 4 mil = 8000 cubits), his recital of prayer is accounted a proper recital. Nevertheless, prayers should not be recited by anyone till he has examined himself well and is satisfied that the calls of nature have been attended to. So also, phlegm, saliva and anything else that might disturb one should be removed and then the prayers should be recited.

11 יא

מִי שֶׁגִּהֵק וּפִהֵק וְנִתְעַטֵּשׁ בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ אִם לִרְצוֹנוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מְגֻנֶּה. וְאִם בָּדַק גּוּפוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל וּבָא לְאָנְסוֹ אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם. נִזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ רֹק בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ מַבְלִיעוֹ בְּטַלִּיתוֹ אוֹ בְּבִגְדוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה מִצְטַעֵר בְּכָךְ זוֹרְקוֹ בְּיָדוֹ לַאֲחוֹרָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטַעֵר בַּתְּפִלָּה וְנִמְצָא טָרוּד. יָצָא מִמֶּנּוּ רוּחַ מִלְּמַטָּה כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בִּתְפִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לְדַעְתּוֹ שׁוֹהֶה עַד שֶׁתִּכְלֶה הָרוּחַ וְחוֹזֵר לִתְפִלָּתוֹ:

A person who, during prayers, stretches himself, yawns or sneezes, if he does so voluntarily, his behavior is unseemly. But if, before beginning his prayers, he examined himself and the act was involuntary, it does not matter. Saliva that has accumulated during prayer, should be covered with the garment. A person, whose delicacy would be offended by this procedure, casts it behind him with his hand, so that during prayer he may be saved from an annoyance which would disturb him. If, while standing in prayer, intestinal flatus involuntarily escapes, he waits till it has passed and resumes his prayer.

12 יב

בִּקֵּשׁ לְהוֹצִיא רוּחַ מִלְּמַטָּה וְנִצְטַעֵר הַרְבֵּה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַעֲמִיד עַצְמוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ לְאַחֲרָיו אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וּמַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁתִּכְלֶה הָרוּחַ. וְאוֹמֵר רִבּוֹן כָּל הָעוֹלָמִים יְצַרְתָּנוּ נְקָבִים נְקָבִים חֲלוּלִים חֲלוּלִים גָּלוּי וְיָדוּעַ לְפָנֶיךָ חֶרְפָּתֵנוּ וּכְלִמָּתֵנוּ חֶרְפָּה וּכְלִמָּה בְּחַיֵּינוּ תּוֹלֵעָה וְרִמָּה בְּמִיתָתֵנוּ וְחוֹזֵר לִמְקוֹמוֹ וּמִתְפַּלֵּל:

If he is seized with intestinal flatulence, and its retention causes him excessive pain, he should step backwards four cubits and wait till he feels relieved. Then he should say: "Lord of the Universe, Thou hast formed us with apertures and cavities. Our shame and reproach are open and known to Thee. Objects of shame and reproach are we while we live; worm and corruption, after we die." Then he returns to his place and resumes his prayer.

13 יג

הָיָה עוֹמֵד בִּתְפִלָּה וְנָטְפוּ מֵי רַגְלָיו עַל בִּרְכָּיו מַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיִּכְלוּ הַמַּיִם וְחוֹזֵר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁפָּסַק. וְאִם שָׁהָה כְּדֵי לִגְמֹר אֶת הַתְּפִלָּה חוֹזֵר לָרֹאשׁ:

If, while standing reading the service, his urine dripped on to his knees, he should pause till the dripping has ceased, and then resume his prayers at the place where he left off. If he had paused for an interval sufficiently lengthy to conclude the service, he starts again from the beginning.

14 יד

וְכֵן הַמַּשְׁתִּין מַיִם שׁוֹהֶה כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ ד׳‎ אַמּוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל. וּמִשֶּׁהִתְפַּלֵּל שׁוֹהֶה אַחַר תְּפִלָּתוֹ כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַשְׁתִּין כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְסֹק דִּבְרֵי הַתְּפִלָּה מִפִּיו:

So, after urinating, one must pause for as long as it would take to walk four cubits and then one may recite the service. Thus too, after the conclusion of a service, one should wait as long as it would take to walk four cubits before urinating, so that there shall be an interval after the reading of the service.

15 טו

כַּוָּנַת הַלֵּב כֵּיצַד. כָּל תְּפִלָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּכַוָּנָה אֵינָהּ תְּפִלָּה. וְאִם הִתְפַּלֵּל בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל בְּכַוָּנָה. מָצָא דַּעְתּוֹ מְשֻׁבֶּשֶׁת וְלִבּוֹ טָרוּד אָסוּר לוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁתִּתְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתּוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ הַבָּא מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ וְהוּא עָיֵף אוֹ מֵצֵר אָסוּר לוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁתִּתְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתּוֹ. אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים יִשְׁהֶה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים עַד שֶׁיָּנוּחַ וְתִתְקָרֵר דַּעְתּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל:

Concentration of the mind—how is this condition [to be fulfilled?] Any prayer uttered without mental concentration is not prayer. If a service has been recited without such concentration, it must be recited again devoutly. A person finds that his thoughts are confused and his mind is distracted: He may not pray till he has recovered his mental composure. Hence, on returning from a journey or if one is weary or distressed, it is forbidden to pray till his mind is composed. The sages said that he should wait three days till he is rested and his mind is calm, and then he recites the prayers.

16 טז

כֵּיצַד הִיא הַכַּוָּנָה. שֶׁיְּפַנֶּה אֶת לִבּוֹ מִכָּל הַמַּחֲשָׁבוֹת וְיִרְאֶה עַצְמוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הוּא עוֹמֵד לִפְנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה. לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לֵישֵׁב מְעַט קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה כְּדֵי לְכַוֵּן אֶת לִבּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל בְּנַחַת וּבְתַחֲנוּנִים וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה תְּפִלָּתוֹ כְּמִי שֶׁהָיָה נוֹשֵׂא מַשּׂאוֹי וּמַשְׁלִיכוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לֵישֵׁב מְעַט אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִפָּטֵר. חֲסִידִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הָיוּ שׁוֹהִין שָׁעָה אַחַת קֹדֶם תְּפִלָּה וְשָׁעָה אַחַת לְאַחַר תְּפִלָּה וּמַאֲרִיכִין בִּתְפִלָּה שָׁעָה:

What is to be understood by concentration of the mind? The mind should be freed from all extraneous thoughts and the one who prays should realize that he is standing before the Divine Presence. He should therefore sit awhile before beginning his prayers, so as to concentrate his mind, and then pray in gentle tones, beseechingly, and not regard the service as a burden which he is carrying and which he will cast off and proceed on his way. He should, accordingly, also sit awhile, after concluding the prayers, and then leave. The ancient saints were wont to pause and meditate one hour before the service, one hour after the service and take one hour in its recital.

17 יז

שִׁכּוֹר אַל יִתְפַּלֵּל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כַּוָּנָה. וְאִם הִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּתוֹ תּוֹעֵבָה. לְפִיכָךְ חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל כְּשֶׁיִּתְרוֹקֵן מִשִּׁכְרוּתוֹ. שָׁתוּי אַל יִתְפַּלֵּל וְאִם הִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּתוֹ תְּפִלָּה. אֵי זֶה שִׁכּוֹר זֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ. שָׁתוּי יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר בִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֵינוֹ מִשְׁתַּבֵּשׁ. אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הוֹאִיל וְשָׁתָה רְבִיעִית יַיִן לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁיָּסִיר יֵינוֹ מֵעָלָיו

An intoxicated person must not pray, because he cannot concentrate. If he prays, his prayer is an abomination. He must therefore recite the prayers again after he has recovered from his intoxication. A person under the influence of drink should not pray while in that condition. But if he has recited the service, it is regarded as prayer. A drunkard is one who is unable to speak in the royal presence. A person under the influence of drink is one who can speak in the presence of a king without committing error. Yet having drunk, if only a quarter of a log of wine,*Equal in volume to 1½ eggs. one is not to pray till he is rid of the effect of the wine he has taken.

18 יח

וְכֵן אֵין עוֹמְדִין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לֹא מִתּוֹךְ שְׂחוֹק וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ קַלּוּת רֹאשׁ וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ שִׂיחָה וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ מְרִיבָה וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ כַּעַס אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה. וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ דִּין וַהֲלָכָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא לִבּוֹ טָרוּד בַּהֲלָכָה. אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ עִיּוּן כְּגוֹן הֲלָכוֹת פְּסוּקוֹת:

So too, persons should not stand up to pray after indulging in jest, laughter, frivolity, idle talk, quarrelling or outburst of anger, but only after the study of Torah, not however of legal discussions by which the mind is distracted, but only after the study of such themes as require no profound reflection, as for instance established rules.

19 יט

תְּפִלּוֹת הַפְּרָקִים כְּגוֹן תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וּתְפִלַּת מוֹעֲדוֹת צָרִיךְ לְהַסְדִּיר תְּפִלָּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ עוֹמֵד וּמִתְפַּלֵּל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּשֵׁל בָּהּ. הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בִּמְקוֹם סַכָּנָה כְּגוֹן מְקוֹם גְּדוּדֵי חַיּוֹת וְלִסְטִים וְהִגִּיעַ זְמַן תְּפִלָּה מִתְפַּלֵּל בְּרָכָה אַחַת. וְזוֹ הִיא. צָרְכֵי עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל מְרֻבִּים וְדַעְתָּם קְצָרָה. יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה׳‎ אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁתִּתֵּן לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד כְּדֵי פַּרְנָסָתוֹ וּלְכָל גְּוִיָּה וּגְוִיָּה דֵּי מַחְסוֹרָהּ וְהַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֶיךָ עֲשֵׂה בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ׳‎ שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה. וּמִתְפַּלֵּל אוֹתָהּ בַּדֶּרֶךְ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ, וְאִם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד עוֹמֵד. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מַגִּיעַ לְיִשּׁוּב וְתִתְקָרֵר דַּעְתּוֹ חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה כְּתַקָּנָתָהּ תְּשַׁע עֶשְׂרֵה בְּרָכוֹת:

Prayers which are only read at periodic intervals, such as the additional service for the beginning of the month and the services for the festivals should be first rehearsed before one stands up to recite them so that he shall not break down during their recital. If a person were travelling in a dangerous locality, infested, for example, by wild beasts or robbers, he should recite one blessing as follows: "The needs of Israel, Thy people, are many. Their knowledge is scanty. Be it Thy will, O Lord, our God, to give every one what is sufficient for his maintenance and provide every creature with its requirements. Do what is good in Thy sight. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who hearkenest unto prayer." He recites this prayer, walking. If he is able to stand on one spot while uttering it, he should do so. And when he arrives in a neighbourhood that is populated and his mind is calm, he reads the service of nineteen blessings in its regular form.