Chapter 12י״ב
1 א

מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ תִּקֵּן לָהֶם לִישְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיְּהוּ קוֹרִין בַּתּוֹרָה בָּרַבִּים בְּשַׁבָּת וּבְשֵׁנִי וּבַחֲמִישִׁי בְּשַׁחֲרִית כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים בְּלֹא שְׁמִיעַת תּוֹרָה. וְעֶזְרָא תִּקֵּן שֶׁיְּהוּ קוֹרִין כֵּן בְּמִנְחָה בְּכָל שַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם יוֹשְׁבֵי קְרָנוֹת. וְגַם הוּא תִּקֵּן שֶׁיְּהוּ קוֹרִין בְּשֵׁנִי וּבַחֲמִישִׁי שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם וְלֹא יִקְרְאוּ פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה פְּסוּקִים:

Moses, our teacher, established the rule for Israel that they should read the Law publicly on Sabbaths and also on the second and fifth days of the week, during the morning service, so that three days shall not elapse without hearing the Law. Ezra established the rule that the Torah should be read at the afternoon service, every Sabbath for the benefit of those who would otherwise spend the day vacuously. He also ordained that on the second and fifth days of the week, three persons should be called to the reading of the Law and that they should read not less than three verses each.

2 ב

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַיָּמִים שֶׁקּוֹרִין בָּהֶם בַּתּוֹרָה בְּצִבּוּר. בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת וּבְמוֹעֲדִים וּבְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וּבְתַעֲנִיּוֹת וּבַחֲנֻכָּה וּבְפוּרִים וּבְשֵׁנִי וַחֲמִישִׁי שֶׁבְּכָל שָׁבוּעַ וְשָׁבוּעַ. וְאֵין מַפְטִירִין בַּנְּבִיאִים אֶלָּא בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים וְתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב בִּלְבַד:

The following are the days on which the Law is publicly read: Sabbaths, Festivals, the first day of each month, Fast-days, the Feast of Dedication, the Feast of Lots, the second and fifth day of the week. Lessons from the Prophets are only read on Sabbaths, Festivals and the ninth day of Ab.*According to the German and Polish ritual, on the other Scriptural fast-days, at the afternoon service.

3 ג

אֵין קוֹרִין בַּתּוֹרָה בְּצִבּוּר בְּפָחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים גְּדוֹלִים בְּנֵי חוֹרִין. וְאֵין קוֹרִין פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה פְּסוּקִים. וַיְדַבֵּר עוֹלֶה מִן הַמִּנְיָן. וְלֹא יִהְיוּ הַקּוֹרִין פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים. וְאֵין מַתְחִילִין בְּפָרָשָׁה פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה פְּסוּקִים. וְאֵין מְשַׁיְּרִין בְּפָרָשָׁה פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה פְּסוּקִים. וְלֹא יִקְרָא הַקּוֹרֵא פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה פְּסוּקִים:

The Torah is not read publicly unless at least ten male Israelites—all adults and freemen—are present. A minimum of ten verses must be read. The introductory verse, "And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying" is counted among the ten verses. Not less than three must be called to the reading of the Law. They do not begin to read at a place less than three verses from the beginning of a section, nor do they end at a place less than three verses from the close of a section. No reader may read less than three verses.

4 ד

שְׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁקָּרְאוּ עֲשָׂרָה פְּסוּקִים שְׁנַיִם קוֹרְאִין שְׁלֹשָׁה שְׁלֹשָׁה וְאֶחָד אַרְבָּעָה. וּבֵין שֶׁהָיָה הַקּוֹרֵא אַרְבָּעָה רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ אַחֲרוֹן אוֹ אֶמְצָעִי הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח:

When ten verses are read by three persons, two of them read three verses each, and one reads four verses. The one who reads the four verses, whether he is the first, last or intermediate reader, is praiseworthy.

5 ה

כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִן הַקּוֹרִין פּוֹתֵחַ סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וּמַבִּיט לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא קוֹרֵא בּוֹ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ אֶת יְיָ׳‎ הַמְבֹרָךְ וְכָל הָעָם עוֹנִין בָּרוּךְ ה׳‎ הַמְבֹרָךְ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד [ ]. וְחוֹזֵר וּמְבָרֵךְ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ׳‎ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בָּנוּ מִכָּל הָעַמִּים וְנָתַן לָנוּ אֶת תּוֹרָתוֹ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ׳‎ נוֹתֵן הַתּוֹרָה. וְכָל הָעָם עוֹנִין אָמֵן. וְאַחַר כָּךְ קוֹרֵא עַד שֶׁיַּשְׁלִים לִקְרוֹת וְגוֹלֵל הַסֵּפֶר וּמְבָרֵךְ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ׳‎ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לָנוּ תּוֹרָתוֹ תּוֹרַת אֱמֶת וְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם נָטַע בְּתוֹכֵנוּ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ׳‎ נוֹתֵן הַתּוֹרָה:

Each reader opens the scroll of the law, looks at the place where he will read and recites the invocation, "Bless ye the Lord, who is blessed." The congregation responds, "Blessed is the Lord, who is blessed for ever and ever." He then recites the blessing, "Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, Who hast*Literally “Who hath chosen us from all peoples and given us His Law.” God is addressed in the second person, “Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God because of our consciousness of His existence and attributes—Justice, Kindness, Wisdom and Goodness. The Blessing continues in the third person Who hath chosen us, because His essence is unknown.*Literally “Who hath chosen us from all peoples and given us His Law.” God is addressed in the second person, “Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God because of our consciousness of His existence and attributes—Justice, Kindness, Wisdom and Goodness. The Blessing continues in the third person Who hath chosen us, because His essence is unknown. chosen us from all peoples and given us Thy Law. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, Who givest*Literally: “Who hath given us the Law” “Who giveth the Law” in the 3rd person. the law." The congregation responds Amen. He then reads his section, till he concludes it, rolls up the scroll, and then recites the blessing, "Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, Who hath given us a Law of truth and planted eternal life in our midst, blessed art Thou O Lord, Who giveth the Law."

6 ו

אֵין הַקּוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה רַשַּׁאי לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה אָמֵן מִפִּי הַצִּבּוּר. קָרָא וְטָעָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִקְדּוּק אוֹת אַחַת מַחְזִירִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּקְרָאֶנָּה בְּדִקְדּוּק. וְלֹא יִקְרְאוּ שְׁנַיִם בַּתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא הָאֶחָד לְבַדּוֹ. קָרָא וְנִשְׁתַּתֵּק יַעֲמֹד אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו וְיַתְחִיל מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִתְחִיל הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתֵּק וּמְבָרֵךְ בַּסּוֹף:

A person who reads the Law must not begin till the sound of the Amen recited by the congregation has ceased. If he made a mistake, even if only in the correct enunciation of a single letter, he is made to turn back to the place where the mistake was made and read the word correctly. Two are not to read in the Torah at the same time, but only one by himself. If one, while reading, has been suddenly stricken so that he cannot continue, another person should take his place and begin where the stricken one began, and recite the blessing after reading his portion.

7 ז

אֵין הַקּוֹרֵא רַשַּׁאי לִקְרוֹת עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לוֹ גָּדוֹל שֶׁבַּצִּבּוּר לִקְרוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ חַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת אוֹ רֹאשׁ הַכְּנֶסֶת אֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא מֵעַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ הַצִּבּוּר אוֹ גָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶם לִקְרוֹת. וְצָרִיךְ אֶחָד לַעֲמֹד עִמּוֹ בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאָה כְּדֶרֶךְ חַזָּן הָעוֹמֵד עִם הַקּוֹרְאִין:

The person who reads may not do so till the chief member of the congregation invites him to do so. Even the appointed officer of the synagogue or its president does not read, at his own volition, but waits till the congregation or its chief member tells him to do so. And some one should stand at his side, while he is reading, just as the appointed officer stands at the side of other persons who read.

8 ח

הַקּוֹרֵא יֵשׁ לוֹ לְדַלֵּג מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם בְּעִנְיָן אֶחָד כְּגוֹן (ויקרא טז א) ״אַחֲרֵי מוֹת״ וְ(ויקרא כג כז) ״אַךְ בֶּעָשׂוֹר״ שֶׁבְּפָרָשַׁת (ויקרא כא א) ״אֱמֹר אֶל הַכֹּהֲנִים״. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא עַל פֶּה שֶׁאָסוּר לִקְרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא מִן הַכְּתָב אֲפִלּוּ תֵּבָה אַחַת. וְלֹא יִשְׁהֶה בְּדִלּוּג אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּשְׁלִים הַתֻּרְגְּמָן תַּרְגּוּם הַפָּסוּק:

The reader has (sometimes*On the Day of Atonement.) to skip from passage to passage—both being on the same theme—as, for instance, that beginning, ".… After the death of the two sons of Aaron" (Leviticus chapter 16 verse 1) to that beginning, "And on the tenth day of this seventh month" (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the weekly portion Emor. But he must take care not to recite by heart, it being forbidden to recite even a single word without referring to the text. Nor, when skipping, may he pause for a longer time than it takes the interpreter to translate the last verse [of the former passage].

9 ט

כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתְחִיל הַקּוֹרֵא לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה אָסוּר לְסַפֵּר אֲפִלּוּ בִּדְבַר הֲלָכָה אֶלָּא הַכּל שׁוֹמְעִין וְשׁוֹתְקִין וּמְשִׂימִין לִבָּם לְמַה שֶּׁהוּא קוֹרֵא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחמיה ח ג) ״וְאָזְנֵי כָל הָעָם אֶל סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה״. וְאָסוּר לָצֵאת מִן הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַקּוֹרֵא קוֹרֵא. וּמֻתָּר לָצֵאת בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִישׁ. וּמִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה תָּמִיד וְתוֹרָתוֹ אֻמְנוּתוֹ מֻתָּר לוֹ לַעֲסֹק בְּתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַקּוֹרֵא קוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה:

As soon as he has begun to read in the Torah, it is forbidden to converse even on a Halachic topic. All must listen silently and give heed to what he is reading, as it is said, "And the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law" (Nehemiah 8:3). It is likewise forbidden to leave the synagogue while the Torah is being read. But one may leave in the interval between one section and another. A person who is continuously engaged in the study of the Torah, this being his sole occupation, may continue his study while the Law is being read.

10 י

מִימוֹת עֶזְרָא נָהֲגוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא שָׁם תֻּרְגְּמָן מְתַרְגֵּם לָעָם מַה שֶּׁהַקּוֹרֵא קוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּבִינוּ עִנְיַן הַדְּבָרִים. וְהַקּוֹרֵא קוֹרֵא פָּסוּק אֶחָד בִּלְבַד וְשׁוֹתֵק עַד שֶׁיְּתַרְגֵּם אוֹתוֹ הַתֻּרְגְּמָן וְחוֹזֵר וְקוֹרֵא פָּסוּק שֵׁנִי. וְאֵין הַקּוֹרֵא רַשַּׁאי לִקְרוֹת לַמְתֻרְגְּמָן יוֹתֵר מִפָּסוּק אֶחָד:

Since the days of Ezra it has been the rule that an interpreter shall be present to interpret to the people what the reader is reading in the Torah, so that they may understand the subject-matter. The reader reads one verse only, waits till the interpreter has interpreted it, and then reads the next verse. The reader may not read to the interpreter more than one verse at a time.

11 יא

אֵין הַקּוֹרֵא רַשַּׁאי לְהַגְבִּיהַּ קוֹלוֹ יוֹתֵר מִן הַמְתַרְגֵּם. וְהַמְתַרְגֵּם לֹא יַגְבִּיהַּ קוֹלוֹ יוֹתֵר מִן הַקּוֹרֵא. וְאֵין הַמְתַרְגֵּם רַשַּׁאי לְתַרְגֵּם עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הַפָּסוּק מִפִּי הַקּוֹרֵא. וְאֵין הַקּוֹרֵא רַשַּׁאי לִקְרוֹת פָּסוּק אַחֵר עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הַתַּרְגּוּם מִפִּי הַתֻּרְגְּמָן. וְאֵין הַתֻּרְגְּמָן נִשְׁעָן לֹא לְעַמּוּד וְלֹא לְקוֹרָה אֶלָּא עוֹמֵד בְּאֵימָה וּבְיִרְאָה. וְלֹא יְתַרְגֵּם מִתּוֹךְ הַכְּתָב אֶלָּא עַל פֶּה. וְאֵין הַקּוֹרֵא רַשַּׁאי לְסַיֵּעַ לַתֻּרְגְּמָן שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ תַּרְגּוּם כָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה. וְהַקָּטָן מְתַרְגֵּם עַל יְדֵי גָּדוֹל וְאֵין כָּבוֹד לַגָּדוֹל שֶׁיְּתַרְגֵּם עַל יְדֵי קָטָן. וְלֹא יִהְיוּ הַמְתַרְגְּמִין שְׁנַיִם כְּאֶחָד אֶלָּא אֶחָד קוֹרֵא וְאֶחָד מְתַרְגֵּם:

The reader may not raise his voice above that of the interpreter nor may the interpreter raise his voice above that of the reader. The interpreter may not begin to translate till the sound of the verse uttered by the reader has ceased. The reader may not read the next verse till the interpreter's translation of the previous verse is ended. The interpreter is not to lean against a pillar or beam, but stands in reverence and awe. He does not read the translation from a script but translates it by heart. The reader may not prompt the interpreter so that it should not be said that the translation is written in the Torah. A minor (under thirteen years) may act as interpreter to an adult who is reading. But it is not respectful to an adult that he should act as interpreter to a minor who is reading. There should not be two interpreters acting together. But one reads and one interprets.

12 יב

וְלֹא כָּל הַמִּקְרָאוֹת מְתַרְגְּמִינַן בְּצִבּוּר. (בראשית לה כב) ״מַעֲשֵׂה רְאוּבֵן״ וּ(במדבר ו כב כז) ״בִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים״ וּמַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל מִן (שמות לב כא) ״וַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אֶל אַהֲרֹן״ עַד (שמות לב כה) ״וַיַּרְא משֶׁה אֶת הָעָם״ וְגוֹ׳‎ וְעוֹד פָּסוּק אֶחָד (שמות לב לה) ״וַיִּגֹּף ה׳‎ אֶת הָעָם״ כֻּלָּם נִקְרָאִין וְלֹא מִתַּרְגְּמִין. וּבְמַעֲשֵׂה אַמְנוֹן בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב יג א) ״אַמְנוֹן בֶּן דָּוִד״ נִקְרָא וְלֹא מִתַּרְגֵּם:

Not all verses are translated in public. The story of Reuben (Genesis 35:22), The Priestly Benediction (Numbers 6:24-26), the story of the Golden Calf from "And Moses said to Aaron" till "And Moses saw the people etc." (Exodus 32:21-25) and the verse, "And God plagued the people" (Exodus 32:35) are read and not translated. In the story of Amnon (II Samuel c. 13) where the phrase, "Amnon, son of David" occurs, it is read and not translated.

13 יג

הַמַּפְטִיר בַּנָּבִיא צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה תְּחִלָּה אֲפִלּוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה פְּסוּקִים. חוֹזֵר וְקוֹרֵא מַה שֶּׁקָּרָא לְפָנָיו. וְלֹא יַפְטִיר בַּנָּבִיא עַד שֶׁיִּגְלל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה. וְלֹא יִפְחֹת מֵעֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד פְּסוּקִים. וְאִם שָׁלֵם הָעִנְיָן בְּפָחוֹת מֵאֵלּוּ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹסִיף. וְאִם קָרָא עֲשָׂרָה פְּסוּקִים וְתִרְגְּמָן הַמְתַרְגֵּם דַּיּוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא שָׁלֵם הָעִנְיָן. וּבַנָּבִיא אֶחָד קוֹרֵא וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁנַיִם מְתַרְגְּמִין. וּמְדַלֵּג מֵעִנְיָן לְעִנְיָן אַחֵר. וְאֵינוֹ מְדַלֵּג מִנָּבִיא לְנָבִיא אֶלָּא בִּנְבִיאִים שֶׁל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר בִּלְבַד. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְדַלֵּג מִסּוֹף הַסֵּפֶר לִתְחִלָּתוֹ. וְכָל הַמְדַלֵּג לֹא יִשְׁהֶה בְּדִלּוּג אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּשְׁלִים הַמְתַרְגֵּם תַּרְגּוּמוֹ:

The person who concludes with the lesson from the prophets has first to read in the Torah, even if it is only three verses. He may repeat what the previous reader has already read. He must not read the lesson from the Prophets till the Scroll of the Law has first been rolled up. He should not read less than twenty-one verses from the prophet. If the topic of the lesson is concluded in a smaller number of verses, he need not read more. If he read ten verses and the interpreter translated them, that is sufficient, even though the topic is not completed. Only one reads the lesson from the prophets, but two may act as interpreters. He may skip from one subject to another, but not from one prophetical book to another except in the minor Prophets; and there he must not pass from the end of the book to the beginning. When skipping, he must not pause longer than it takes the interpreter to recite his translation of what has been read.

14 יד

הַקּוֹרֵא בַּנָּבִיא יֵשׁ לוֹ לִקְרוֹת לַתֻּרְגְּמָן שְׁלֹשָׁה פְּסוּקִים וְהַמְתַרְגֵּם מְתַרְגֵּם שְׁלָשְׁתָּן זֶה אַחַר זֶה. וְאִם הָיוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה הַפְּסוּקִים שָׁלֹשׁ פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת לֹא יִקְרָא לַתֻּרְגְּמָן אֶלָּא אֶחָד אֶחָד בִּלְבַד:

The person who reads the lesson from the prophets should read for the interpreter three verses, and the interpreter translates the three one after another, but if the three verses are separate sections, he should read for the interpreter one verse at a time.

15 טו

הַמַּפְטִיר בַּנָּבִיא מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנָיו בְּרָכָה אַחַת. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה׳‎ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בִּנְבִיאִים וְכוּ׳‎. וּמְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו אַרְבַּע בְּרָכוֹת. בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה חוֹתֵם בָּהּ הָאֵל הַנֶּאֱמָן בְּכָל דְּבָרָיו. שְׁנִיָּה חוֹתֵם בָּהּ בּוֹנֶה יְרוּשָׁלַיִם. שְׁלִישִׁית חוֹתֵם בָּהּ מָגֵן דָּוִד. רְבִיעִית חוֹתֵם בָּהּ עִנְיַן קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם כְּמוֹ שֶׁחוֹתֵם בַּתְּפִלָּה. וְכֵן אִם חָל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת הַמַּפְטִיר בַּנָּבִיא מַזְכִּיר רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁמַּזְכִּיר בַּתְּפִלָּה:

The person who reads the lesson from the prophets, recites, before doing so, one blessing as follows: "Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, Who hast*Literally, “who hath chosen.” chosen good prophets etc."; and after the lesson, he recites four blessings. The first blessing he concludes with the formula, "O Lord, God Who are faithful in all Thy words*Literally, “The God who is faithful in all His words.”"; the second with the formula, "Who rebuildest Jerusalem"; (Spanish and German rituals have "Who makest Zion joyful through her children") the third, with the formula, "Shield of David"; the fourth with a formula referring to the special character of the day—identical with the conclusion of the middle blessing in the Amidah prayer for the day. So if the first day of the month falls on a Sabbath, the person who reads the lesson from the prophets mentions the first day of the month in this blessing, as he does in the Amidah.

16 טז

כַּמָּה הֵן הַקּוֹרְאִין. בְּשַׁבָּת בְּשַׁחֲרִית קוֹרְאִין שִׁבְעָה. וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שִׁשָּׁה. וּבְיָמִים טוֹבִים חֲמִשָּׁה. אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מֵהֶן אֲבָל מוֹסִיפִין עֲלֵיהֶם. בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וּבְחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד קוֹרִין אַרְבָּעָה. בְּשַׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בְּמִנְחָה וּבְשֵׁנִי וּבַחֲמִישִׁי שֶׁל כָּל הַשָּׁנָה וּבַחֲנֻכָּה וּבְפוּרִים בְּשַׁחֲרִית וּבִימֵי הַתַּעֲנִית בְּשַׁחֲרִית וּבְמִנְחָה קוֹרִין שְׁלֹשָׁה. אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מִמִּנְיַן זֶה וְאֵין מוֹסִיפִין עֲלֵיהֶן:

How many persons read the Law? On Sabbath, in the morning service, seven read the Law; on the Day of Atonement, six; on the festivals, five. These respective numbers may not be diminished but may be increased. On the first day of each month, and on the intermediate days of the festivals, four read the Law. On Sabbath and on the Day of Atonement in the afternoon services, on the second and fifth day of the week throughout the year in the morning service, on the Feast of Lights and on the Feast of Lots in the morning service, and on fast-days in the morning and in the afternoon services, three read the Law. These numbers are neither increased nor diminished.

17 יז

אִשָּׁה לֹא תִּקְרָא בְּצִבּוּר מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַצִּבּוּר. קָטָן הַיּוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת וְיוֹדֵעַ לְמִי מְבָרְכִין עוֹלֶה מִמִּנְיַן הַקּוֹרְאִים. וְכֵן מַפְטִיר עוֹלֶה מֵהַמִּנְיָן שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא קוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה. וְאִם הִפְסִיק שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בְּקַדִּישׁ בֵּין מַשְׁלִים וּבֵין הַמַּפְטִיר אֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה מִן הַמִּנְיָן. צִבּוּר שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בָּהֶם יוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת אֶלָּא אֶחָד עוֹלֶה וְקוֹרֵא וְיוֹרֵד וְחוֹזֵר וְקוֹרֵא שְׁנִיָּה וּשְׁלִישִׁית עַד שֶׁיִּגְמֹר מִנְיַן הַקּוֹרְאִים שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם:

A woman should not read the Law at a congregational service, out of respect to the congregation. A minor who can read and understands to whom the blessings are offered may be counted in the number of those who read the Law. The person who reads the lesson from the Prophets is also counted in their number, since he reads in the Torah as well. If, however, the reader of the congregation intervened with the recital of Kaddish between the reader of the concluding section of the Pentateuchal portion for the day and the reader of the lesson from the Prophets, the latter is not counted in the number of those who read the Law. In a congregation where there is only one individual competent to read, he goes up to the reading-desk, reads a section, goes down, then goes up again and reads a second section, does the same a third time and so on till he has completed the number of those who should have read that day.

18 יח

בְּכָל קְרִיאָה וּקְרִיאָה מֵאֵלּוּ כֹּהֵן קוֹרֵא רִאשׁוֹן וְאַחֲרָיו לֵוִי וְאַחֲרָיו מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. וּמִנְהָג פָּשׁוּט הוּא הַיּוֹם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ כֹּהֵן עַם הָאָרֶץ קוֹדֵם לִקְרוֹת לִפְנֵי חָכָם גָּדוֹל יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכָל מִי שֶׁהוּא גָּדוֹל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בְּחָכְמָה קֹדֶם לִקְרוֹת. וְהָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁגּוֹלֵל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה נוֹטֵל שָׂכָר כְּנֶגֶד הַכּל. לְפִיכָךְ עוֹלֶה וּמַשְׁלִים אֲפִלּוּ גָּדוֹל שֶׁבַּצִּבּוּר:

In each and every one of these readings, a Cohen (descendant of Aaron) reads the first section. He is followed by a Levite (descendant of Levi other than a Cohen) and he, in turn, is followed by an Israelite. It is a universal custom that a Cohen, even though he is illiterate, has precedence over a great scholar in Israel. The person, superior in knowledge reads before one who is his inferior. The reader of the concluding section who rolls up the Scroll will receive a reward equal to that of all the others. Hence, even the greatest man in the congregation goes up [to the reading desk] to complete the portion.

19 יט

אֵין שָׁם כֹּהֵן עוֹלֶה יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְלֹא יַעֲלֶה אַחֲרָיו לֵוִי כְּלָל. אֵין שָׁם לֵוִי כֹּהֵן שֶׁקָּרָא רִאשׁוֹן חוֹזֵר וְקוֹרֵא הוּא עַצְמוֹ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה בִּמְקוֹם לֵוִי. אֲבָל לֹא יִקְרָא אַחֲרָיו כֹּהֵן אַחֵר שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ הָרִאשׁוֹן פָּסוּל וּלְפִיכָךְ עוֹלֶה כֹּהֵן אַחֵר. וְכֵן לֹא יִקְרָא לֵוִי אַחַר לֵוִי שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם פָּסוּל:

Should no Cohen be present, an Israelite goes up to read the Torah and a Levite should not follow. Should no Levite be present, the Cohen who read the first section, reads the second section in place of a Levite. Another Cohen however does not read after the first, lest it be said that the one first called up was unfit and that therefore another Cohen went up. So too, one Levite does not read after another, lest it be said that one of them is unfit.

20 כ

כֵּיצַד סֵדֶר הַקְּרִיאָה בַּתּוֹרָה. אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה כָּל יוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף אַחַר שֶׁיִּגְמֹר שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר תְּפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית אוֹמֵר קַדִּישׁ וּמוֹצִיא סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וְקוֹרֵא לְאֶחָד אֶחָד מִן הַצִּבּוּר וְעוֹלִין וְקוֹרִין בַּתּוֹרָה. וּכְשֶׁגּוֹמְרִין מַחֲזִיר סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה לִמְקוֹמָהּ וְאוֹמֵר קַדִּישׁ וּמִתְפַּלְּלִין תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף. וְיָמִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן מַפְטִיר וּמוּסָף נָהֲגוּ לוֹמַר קַדִּישׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה הַמַּפְטִיר. וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לוֹמַר קַדִּישׁ אַחַר הַמַּפְטִיר:

At which part of the service is the Torah read? On the days when an additional Amidah is recited—the Reader, having concluded the morning service, recites Kaddish; takes out a scroll of the Law, and calls members of the congregation individually, who come up and read in the Law. When they have concluded, he replaces the scroll and recites Kaddish; and then the additional service is recited. On days when a lesson from the prophets is read as well as the additional service, it is the usual custom to recite Kaddish before the person comes up to read the lesson from the prophets. In some communities however, Kaddish is recited after the lesson from the prophets has been read.

21 כא

וּבְמִנְחָה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת וְשֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אַחַר שֶׁיִּגְמֹר שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר (תהילים קמה א) ״תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד״ וְסֵדֶר הַיּוֹם אוֹמֵר קַדִּישׁ וּמוֹצִיא סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וְעוֹלִין וְקוֹרִין בּוֹ וּמַחֲזִירוֹ וְאוֹמֵר קַדִּישׁ וּמִתְפַּלְּלִין מִנְחָה. וְכֵן בְּתַעֲנִית קוֹרְאִין בְּמִנְחָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר קַדִּישׁ וּמִתְפַּלְּלִין תְּפִלַּת מִנְחָה. אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב לֹא נָהֲגוּ לִקְרוֹת בְּמִנְחָה:

In the afternoon service on Sabbath or on the Day of Atonement, the Reader, after he has ended the recital of the Psalm of David (Psalm 145) and of the Order of Sanctification,*The Ashkenazi practice is to say these before Neilah on the Day of Atonement to mark the distinction between that service and the preceding service. recites Kaddish, and takes out the scroll of the Law, which is read by members of the congregation. He then replaces the scroll and recites Kaddish. The afternoon Amidah is then recited. On Festivals, it is not customary to read the Law during the afternoon service.

22 כב

וְיוֹם שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מוּסָף כְּשֶׁגּוֹמֵר תְּפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית אוֹמֵר קַדִּישׁ וּמוֹצִיא סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וְקוֹרְאִין בּוֹ וּמַחֲזִירוֹ וְאוֹמֵר קַדִּישׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהילים קמה א) ״תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד״ וְסֵדֶר הַיּוֹם כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאוֹמְרִים בְּכָל יוֹם וְאוֹמֵר קַדִּישׁ וְכָל הָעָם נִפְטָרִין:

On a day when no additional service is recited, the reader, after concluding the morning Amidah recites Kaddish and takes out a scroll of the Law which is read. He then replaces it, recites Kaddish, then repeats Psalm 145 and the "Order of Sanctification", as on other days, recites Kaddish, after which the people depart.

23 כג

אֵין קוֹרְאִין בְּחֻמָּשִׁין בְּבָתֵּי כְּנֵסִיּוֹת מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד צִבּוּר. וְאֵין גּוֹלְלִין סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה בְּצִבּוּר מִפְּנֵי טֹרַח הַצִּבּוּר שֶׁלֹּא יַטְרִיחַ עֲלֵיהֶם לִהְיוֹתָן עוֹמְדִין עַד שֶׁיִּגְלל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם יִצְטָרְכוּ לִקְרוֹת שְׁנֵי עִנְיָנִים מוֹצִיאִין שְׁנֵי סִפְרֵי תּוֹרָה. וְלֹא יִקְרָא אִישׁ אֶחָד עִנְיָן אֶחָד בִּשְׁתֵּי תּוֹרוֹת שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ סֵפֶר רִאשׁוֹן פָּגוּם הָיָה וּלְפִיכָךְ קוֹרֵא בַּשֵּׁנִי:

Scrolls of single books of the Pentateuch are not used for reading at services in synagogues, out of respect to the congregation. Nor is the scroll of the Law rolled*To the right place for the reading. at a public service, out of regard to the convenience of the congregants so that they should not have the trouble of standing while the scroll is being rolled. Hence, if two sections in different parts of the text are to be read, two scrolls are taken out. One person must not read one section in two scrolls, lest it will be said that the first scroll was defective and therefore he read out of the second.

24 כד

כָּל הַגּוֹלֵל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה גּוֹלְלוּ מִבַּחוּץ וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְהַדְּקוֹ מְהַדְּקוֹ מִבִּפְנִים. וְצָרִיךְ לְהַעֲמִידוֹ עַל הַתֶּפֶר כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקָּרַע. מָקוֹם שֶׁמּוֹצִיאִין סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה אַחַר שֶׁקּוֹרְאִין בּוֹ וּמוֹלִיכִין אוֹתוֹ לְבֵית אַחֵר לְהַצְנִיעוֹ אֵין הַצִּבּוּר רַשָּׁאִין לָצֵאת עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וִילַוּוּ אוֹתוֹ וְהֵם אַחֲרָיו עַד הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁמַּצְנִיעִין אוֹתוֹ בּוֹ:

The person who rolls up the scroll rolls it from without.*Towards himself, if he holds and rolls the scroll, himself. If one sits, holding the scroll and another standing before him rolls the scroll, he should roll it inwards, so that the written part shall not be exposed. When fastening it, the fastening should be placed within.*The knot of the band which is wound round the scroll is placed inside the scroll so that the scroll should not have to be turned on its face to undo the knot. And he should set it with the seams in the centre.‡So that if the outside sheet of the scroll weakens, the seams connecting one sheet with another would come apart and the scroll would not be torn. In a place where the scroll of the Law, after being read, is taken out of the Synagogue and removed to another place for the sake of security, the Congregation must not leave the synagogue till the scroll has been taken out and they must accompany it, following it to the place where it is deposited.