Chapter 9ט׳
1 א

עַל שִׁשָּׁה דְּבָרִים נִצְטַוָּה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. עַל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. וְעַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם. וְעַל שְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים. וְעַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת. וְעַל הַגֵּזֶל. וְעַל הַדִּינִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכֻּלָּן הֵן קַבָּלָה בְּיָדֵינוּ מִמּשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ. וְהַדַּעַת נוֹטָה לָהֶן. מִכְּלַל דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה יֵרָאֶה שֶׁעַל אֵלּוּ נִצְטַוָּה. הוֹסִיף לְנֹחַ אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ט, ד) "אַךְ בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ". נִמְצְאוּ שֶׁבַע מִצְוֹת. וְכֵן הָיָה הַדָּבָר בְּכָל הָעוֹלָם עַד אַבְרָהָם. בָּא אַבְרָהָם וְנִצְטַוָּה יֶתֶר עַל אֵלּוּ בְּמִילָה. וְהוּא הִתְפַּלֵּל שַׁחֲרִית. וַיִּצְחָק הִפְרִישׁ מַעֲשֵׂר וְהוֹסִיף תְּפִלָּה אַחֶרֶת לִפְנוֹת הַיּוֹם. וְיַעֲקֹב הוֹסִיף גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה וְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית. וּבְמִצְרַיִם נִצְטַוָּה עַמְרָם בְּמִצְוֹת יְתֵרוֹת. עַד שֶׁבָּא משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ וְנִשְׁלְמָה תּוֹרָה עַל יָדוֹ:

Adam, the first man, was commanded with six commandments: 1) idolatry, 2) “blessing” (euphemistically) the Name (of G-d), 3) murder, 4) illicit sexual relations, 5) thievery and, 6) establishing a system of justice. Even though all of these have been received as a Tradition from Moses our Teacher and we can understand the rationale for them, nevertheless, from (verses in) the Torah (we learn that) it was these that they were commanded. A seventh commandment forbidding the eating of a limb torn from a live animal was added for Noah, as it says, “Even flesh, life is in the blood, do not eat of it” (Genesis 9:4). These commandments were universally applicable - until Abraham. With Abraham, circumcision was also commanded and he prayed Shacharis (the Morning Prayer). Isaac separated out a tithe and added another prayer in the afternoon and, with Jacob, the prohibition against eating the sciatic nerve was added, as was the Maariv (Evening) Prayer. In Egypt, Amram was commanded with other precepts82I do not know which. and, with Moses our Teacher, the Torah was completed.

2 ב

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁעָבַד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּעֲבֹד כְּדַרְכָּהּ. וְכָל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁבֵּית דִּין שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מְמִיתִין עָלֶיהָ בֶּן נֹחַ נֶהֱרָג עָלֶיהָ. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מְמִיתִין עָלֶיהָ אֵין בֶּן נֹחַ נֶהֱרָג עָלֶיהָ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱרָג אָסוּר בַּכּל. וְאֵין מְנִיחִין אוֹתוֹ לְהָקִים מַצֵּבָה. וְלֹא לִטַּע אֲשֵׁרָה. וְלֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת צוּרוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן לְנוֹי:

A non-Jew who worships idols is culpable83Liable to execution by the sword., if he worships the idol in its own peculiar way84I.e., in the way said idol is worshipped.. Any type of idolatry which would result in the death penalty in a Jewish Court, would be cause for a non-Jew to be put to death. Similarly, any act committed for which a Jewish Court would not assign the death penalty, would not be cause for the execution of a non-Jew. Yet, even though he would not be executed, all (acts) are forbidden (to him). We do not allow them to set up a monument nor plant an (idolatrous) Ashera tree nor make (human) forms, and so on, even for decorative purposes.

3 ג

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁבֵּרֵךְ אֶת הַשֵּׁם. בֵּין שֶׁבֵּרֵךְ בַּשֵּׁם הַמְיֻחָד. בֵּין שֶׁבֵּרֵךְ בְּכִנּוּי בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן חַיָּב. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:

A non-Jew who “blesses” the Name, whether he “blesses” with one of the special Names85Specifically אדנ-י or שם הוי-ה or with one of the sobriquets86E.g. א-ל, אלוקים, שד-י, צבאו-ת, in any language, is liable. This is not so with a Jew87For he is liable only with אדנ-י or שם הוי-ה.

4 ד

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁהָרַג נֶפֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ עֵבָּר בִּמְעֵי אִמּוֹ נֶהֱרָג עָלָיו. וְכֵן אִם הָרַג טְרֵפָה אוֹ שֶׁכְּפָתוֹ וּנְתָנוֹ לִפְנֵי אֲרִי אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ בָּרָעָב עַד שֶׁמֵּת. הוֹאִיל וְהֵמִית מִכָּל מָקוֹם נֶהֱרָג. וְכֵן אִם הָרַג רוֹדֵף שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהַצִּילוֹ בְּאֶחָד מֵאֵיבָרָיו נֶהֱרָג עָלָיו. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:

A non-Jew who kills someone, even a fetus in its mother’s womb, is executed. Even if he kills someone who has an incurable, terminal illness, or tied someone up and placed him in front of a lion or he let him starve until he died is liable since he caused someone to die. Similarly, if he killed a Pursuer88Someone who is chasing someone else for the purpose of killing him. when he could have saved his friend by merely injuring one of the Pursuer’s limbs, is also executed. This is not the case with a Jew.

5 ה

שֵׁשׁ עֲרָיוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת עַל בְּנֵי נֹחַ. הָאֵם. וְאֵשֶׁת הָאָב. וְאֵשֶׁת אִישׁ. וַאֲחוֹתוֹ מֵאִמּוֹ. וְזָכוּר. וּבְהֵמָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, כד) "עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו" זוֹ אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו. (בראשית ב, כד) "וְאֶת אִמּוֹ" כְּמַשְׁמָעָהּ. (בראשית ב, כד) "וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ" וְלֹא בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ. בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא בְּזָכוּר. (בראשית ב, כד) "וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד" לְהוֹצִיא בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף שֶׁאֵין הוּא וְהֵם בָּשָׂר אֶחָד. וְנֶאֱמַר (בראשית כ, יב) "אֲחֹתִי בַת אָבִי הִיא אַךְ לֹא בַת אִמִּי וַתְּהִי לִי לְאִשָּׁה":

Six are forbidden to the non-Jew89With whom he may not engage in sexual relations.: 1) his mother, 2) his father’s wife, 3) a married woman, 4) his maternal sister, 5) a male, and 6) an animal. From “and so a man will leave his father” (Genesis 2:24), we learn of the prohibition with his father’s wife; “and his mother” (ibid.) – this is learned in its literal sense; from “and cleave to his wife” (ibid.) we deduce - and not his friend’s wife; from “his wife90Or, his woman.” (ibid.) - and not with a male; from “and they shall be as one flesh” (ibid.) - we learn about the animal or beast or bird since he and they are not of the same flesh; and it says, “she is indeed my sister the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother. And so she became my wife.” (Genesis 20:12).

6 ו

בֶּן נֹחַ חַיָּב עַל מְפֻתַּת אָבִיו וַאֲנוּסַת אָבִיו הֲרֵי הִיא אִמּוֹ מִכָּל מָקוֹם. וְחַיָּב עַל אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר מִיתַת אָבִיו. וְחַיָּב עַל הַזָּכוּר בֵּין קָטָן בֵּין גָּדוֹל וְעַל הַבְּהֵמָה בֵּין קְטַנָּה בֵּין גְּדוֹלָה. וְהוּא נֶהֱרָג לְבַדּוֹ וְאֵין הוֹרְגִין אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה. שֶׁלֹּא נִצְטַוּוּ בַּהֲרִיגַת בְּהֵמָה אֶלָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל:

A non-Jew is culpable if he has relations with the one whom his father had seduced or raped. What this really means is his mother. He is forbidden to his father’s wife even after his father’s death. He is forbidden to have relations with any male, whether a minor or an adult, nor with any animal whether young or fully-grown. He alone is executed and not the animal, since an animal is only killed if it had relations with a Jew.

7 ז

אֵין בֶּן נֹחַ חַיָּב עַל אֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא עָלֶיהָ כְּדַרְכָּהּ אַחַר שֶׁנִּבְעֲלָה לְבַעְלָהּ. אֲבָל מְאֹרָסָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לְחֻפָּה וְלֹא נִבְעֲלָה אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כ, ג) "וְהִיא בְּעֻלַת בָּעַל". בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּבֶן נֹחַ שֶׁבָּא עַל בַּת נֹחַ. אֲבָל עַכּוּ''ם הַבָּא עַל הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית בֵּין כְּדַרְכָּהּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ חַיָּב. וְאִם הָיְתָה נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָסָה נִסְקָל עָלֶיהָ כְּדִינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. בָּא עָלֶיהָ אַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לַחֻפָּה וְלֹא נִבְעֲלָה הֲרֵי זֶה בְּחֶנֶק כְּדִינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל אִם בָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחַר שֶׁנִּבְעֲלָה הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת עַכּוּ''ם חֲבֵרוֹ וְיֵהָרֵג בְּסַיִף:

A non-Jew is not liable for punishment with regard to his friend’s wife until he has intercourse with her in the normal way, and this only after she has already had marital relations with her husband. However, if she was only engaged or she was brought under the marital canopy91It is unclear to what this refers since non-Jews do not have “Chuppa” (the marital canopy) as part of their wedding ceremony. Maybe, for this reason, this phrase is absent in some versions., but the marriage was not as yet consummated, he is not liable for having had relations with her, as it says, “and she, one who has had relations with a man” (Genesis 20:3). To what do we refer? To a non-Jew who had relations with a non-Jewess. But a non-Jew who had relations with a Jewess, whether in the normal fashion or not in the normal fashion is culpable. If she was an engaged girl92Between the ages of 12 and 12½., he is stoned, as would be a Jew. If he had relations with her after she had come under the canopy, but the marriage was not as yet consummated, he is strangled to death, as would a Jew. If he had relations with a married Jewish woman has consummated her marriage with her husband, then (the Law) is the same as if he had relations with his non-Jewish friend’s wife, and he is killed by means of the sword.

8 ח

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁיִּחֵד שִׁפְחָה לְעַבְדּוֹ וּבָא עָלֶיהָ הֲרֵי זֶה נֶהֱרָג עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם אֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ עַד שֶׁיִּפְשֹׁט הַדָּבָר וְיֹאמְרוּ לָהּ הָעָם זוֹ דְּבֵית עֶבֶד פְּלוֹנִי. וּמֵאֵימָתַי תַּחְזֹר לְהֶתֵּרָהּ מִשֶּׁיַּפְרִישֶׁנָּה מֵעַבְדּוֹ וְיִפְרַע רֹאשָׁהּ בַּשּׁוּק. וּמֵאֵימָתַי תִּהְיֶה אֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ כִּגְרוּשָׁה שֶׁלָּנוּ מִשֶּׁיּוֹצִיאֶנָּה מִבֵּיתוֹ וִישַׁלְּחֶנָּה לְעַצְמָהּ. אוֹ מִשֶּׁתֵּצֵא הִיא מִתַּחַת רְשׁוּתוֹ וַתֵּלֶךְ לָהּ. שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין בִּכְתָב. וְאֵין הַדָּבָר תָּלוּיִ בּוֹ לְבַד. אֶלָּא כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה הוּא אוֹ הִיא לִפְרשׁ זֶה מִזֶּה פּוֹרְשִׁין:

A non-Jew who had relations with a maidservant who he united93I.e. married. with his slave is executed because of the prohibition of having relations with his fellow’s wife. He is not culpable unless it was publicly known that she belonged to such and such a slave. From when is she considered permitted94I.e. divorced from his slave.? When he separates her from his slave and shakes loose her hair in the market. And when is one of their95Not referring to a slave. married women considered like one of our divorcees? From the time he expels her from his house and sends her off on her own, or from when she leaves on her own from his property. For the Gentiles do not have a written bill of divorce96As do we. and the matter is not dependent upon him alone. Rather, whenever either he or she wishes to separate97The spouse need not consent., they (may) separate.

9 ט

בֶּן נֹחַ חַיָּב עַל הַגֵּזֶל. בֵּין שֶׁגָּזַל עַכּוּ''ם בֵּין שֶׁגָּזַל יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְאֶחָד הַגּוֹזֵל אוֹ הַגּוֹנֵב מָמוֹן אוֹ גּוֹנֵב נֶפֶשׁ אוֹ הַכּוֹבֵשׁ שְׂכַר שָׂכִיר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ פּוֹעֵל שֶׁאָכַל שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה. עַל הַכּל הוּא חַיָּב וַהֲרֵי הוּא בִּכְלַל גַּזְלָן. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכֵן חַיָּב עַל פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה. וּבֶן נֹחַ שֶׁגָּזַל פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה וּבָא אַחֵר וּגְזָלָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ. שְׁנֵיהֶן נֶהֱרָגִין עָלֶיהָ:

A non-Jew is liable to punishment because of thievery whether he stole from a non-Jew or a Jew, whether he stole or robbed money or kidnapped or withheld an employee’s wages or the like. Even if he was a worker and ate98He is entitled to eat from the produce of the field within which he was working when he is working. at a time when he wasn’t working, he, too, is a thief and is culpable, which is not the case with a Jew. A non-Jew is liable for thievery for stealing even the value of less than a Prutah (penny). If a non-Jew stole less than the value of a Prutah, and another came and stole from him, both are executed.

10 י

וְכֵן חַיָּב עַל אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי וְעַל בָּשָׂר מִן הַחַי בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנוּ הַשִּׁעוּרִין אֶלָּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבַד. וּמֻתָּר הוּא בְּדָם מִן הַחַי:

He is liable for punishment for eating any amount of the limb of a living animal or the flesh from a living animal. For measures and sizes were given for Israel only. Non-Jews are permitted to consume blood from a live animal.

11 יא

אֶחָד הָאֵבֶר אוֹ הַבָּשָׂר הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מִן הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ מִן הַחַיָּה. אֲבָל הָעוֹף יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין בֶּן נֹחַ נֶהֱרָג עַל אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי מִמֶּנּוּ:

The Law is the same regarding a limb or flesh which separated from the animal or beast. However, it appears to me, that a non-Jew is not executed for eating the limb of a live bird.

12 יב

הַשּׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה אֲפִלּוּ שָׁחַט בָּהּ שְׁנֵי הַסִּימָנִין. כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא מְפַרְכֶּסֶת אֵבֶר וּבָשָׂר הַפּוֹרְשִׁין מִמֶּנָּה אֲסוּרִין לִבְנֵי נֹחַ מִשּׁוּם אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי:

Any limb or flesh which falls off of a slaughtered animal, even though both its signs99The trachea and the esophagus, both of which must be cut to affect a Kosher slaughtering. were cut is forbidden to the non-Jew because of the prohibition of eating a limb from a live animal as long as the animal is still quivering about100Has post-slaughter spasms..

13 יג

כָּל שֶׁאָסוּר עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל מִשּׁוּם אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי אָסוּר עַל בְּנֵי נֹחַ. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁבְּנֵי נֹחַ חַיָּבִין וְלֹא יִשְׂרָאֵל. שֶׁבְּנֵי נֹחַ אֶחָד בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה בֵּין טְמֵאָה בֵּין טְהוֹרָה חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי. וּמִשּׁוּם בָּשָׂר מִן הַחַי. וְאֵבֶר וּבָשָׂר הַפּוֹרְשִׁין מִן הַמְפַרְכֶּסֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשָּׁחַט בָּהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁנֵי סִימָנִין הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לִבְנֵי נֹחַ מִשּׁוּם אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי:

Anything which is forbidden to a Jew because of the prohibition of eating flesh from a live animal is also forbidden for a non-Jew. There are cases when it would be forbidden for a non-Jew, but not for a Jew. For a non-Jew, there is no difference if it is an animal or a beast, whether it was a non-kosher (species of) animal or a kosher (species of) animal. In all these cases, non-Jews are obligated in the prohibition of eating a limb or flesh from a live animal. Limbs and flesh which separated from the quivering animal are forbidden to a non-Jew because of this prohibition, even though a Jew slaughtered it through both its signs.

14 יד

וְכֵיצַד מְצֻוִּין הֵן עַל הַדִּינִין. חַיָּבִין לְהוֹשִׁיב דַּיָּנִין וְשׁוֹפְטִים בְּכָל פֶּלֶךְ וּפֶלֶךְ לָדוּן בְּשֵׁשׁ מִצְוֹת אֵלּוּ. וּלְהַזְהִיר אֶת הָעָם. וּבֶן נֹחַ שֶׁעָבַר עַל אַחַת מִשֶּׁבַע מִצְוֹת אֵלּוּ יֵהָרֵג בְּסַיִף. וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה נִתְחַיְּבוּ כָּל בַּעֲלֵי שְׁכֶם הֲרִיגָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁכֶם גָּזַל וְהֵם רָאוּ וְיָדְעוּ וְלֹא דָּנוּהוּ. וּבֶן נֹחַ נֶהֱרָג בְּעֵד אֶחָד וּבְדַיָּן אֶחָד בְּלֹא הַתְרָאָה וְעַל פִּי קְרוֹבִין. אֲבָל לֹא בְּעֵדוּת אִשָּׁה. וְלֹא תָּדוּן אִשָּׁה לָהֶם:

What must they do to fulfill their requirement regarding the Law of Justice? They have to set up magistrates and judges in each district to judge the people with regard to these Six Commandments; and they must issue warnings (about them) to the people. A non-Jew who violates one of the Seven Commandments is executed by means of the sword. 101This entire passage is absent in most versions.How is this so? Anyone who worships idols or blasphemed or murdered or had sexual relations with one of those forbidden to him or stole even less than the value of a Prutah or ate any amount from a limb or the flesh of a live animal or saw someone else violate one of these and failed to judge and execute him, is himself executed by means of the sword. It was for this reason all residents of the City of Shechem deserved to be executed. For Shechem kidnapped102Dinah., and they saw and knew and failed to judge him. A non-Jew is executed by the testimony of one, and with one judge, without forewarning, and by the testimony of relatives, but not by the testimony of a woman103Other editions are missing the words, “but not by the testimony”.. A woman may not judge for them.