Chapter 8ח׳
1 א

חֲלוּצֵי צָבָא כְּשֶׁיִּכָּנְסוּ בִּגְבוּל הָעַכּוּ''ם וְיִכְבְּשׁוּם וְיִשְׁבּוּ מֵהֶן. מֻתָּר לָהֶן לֶאֱכל נְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת וּבְשַׂר חֲזִיר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אִם יִרְעַב וְלֹא מָצָא מַה יֹּאכַל אֶלָּא מַאֲכָלוֹת אֵלּוּ הָאֲסוּרִים. וְכֵן שׁוֹתֶה יֵין נֶסֶךְ. מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ וּבָתִּים מְלֵאִים כָּל טוּב עָרְפֵּי חֲזִירִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

Those courageous soldiers (or front-line troops) who cross the borders into non-Jewish lands, capture them and take prisoners are permitted to eat non-Kosher meats69Lit. Neveilos and Treifos., swine and so on, if they are hungry and could not find anything to eat except for these forbidden foods. They may also drink wine offered in the service of idolatry. By Tradition we have learned that “houses filled with all good” (Deut. 6:11) means beheaded boar, and the like.

2 ב

וְכֵן בּוֹעֵל אִשָּׁה בְּגֵיוּתָהּ אִם תְּקָפוֹ יִצְרוֹ. אֲבָל לֹא יִבְעָלֶנָּה וְיֵלֵךְ לוֹ. אֶלָּא מַכְנִיסָהּ לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כא, יא) "וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת תֹּאַר". וְאָסוּר לִבְעל אוֹתָהּ בִּיאָה שְׁנִיָּה עַד שֶׁיִּשָּׂאֶנָּה:

Similarly, one may have sexual intercourse with a non-Jewish woman if his lust gets the better of him. But, he must not just have intercourse with her and go. Rather, he must take her home, as it says, “and when you see a Woman of Beauty among the captives” (Deut. 21:11). He may not have intercourse with her a second time until he marries her.

3 ג

אֵין אֵשֶׁת יְפַת תֹּאַר מֻתֶּרֶת אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַשִּׁבְיָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כא, יא) "וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה". בֵּין בְּתוּלָה בֵּין בְּעוּלָה בֵּין אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ. שֶׁאֵין אִישׁוּת לְעַכּוּ''ם. וְחָשַׁקְתָּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ יָפָה. בָהּ וְלֹא בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ שֶׁלֹּא יִבְעל שְׁתַּיִם. וְלָקַחְתָּ לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא יִקַּח שְׁתַּיִם וְיִבְעל אַחַת וְיַנִּיחַ אַחַת לְאָבִיו אוֹ לְאָחִיו. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁלֹּא יִלְחָצֶנָּה בַּמִּלְחָמָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כא, יב) "וַהֲבֵאתָהּ אֶל תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ". יַכְנִיסָהּ לְמָקוֹם וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִבְעל:

The Woman of Beauty is permitted only in the hour of capture, as it says, “and you see her among the captives” (Deut. 21:11). This is applicable whether or not she is a virgin. Even if she is a married woman this Law applies since there is no concept of forbidden interpersonal relationships among the non-Jews70Actually, since they do not have the concept of “sanctification”, the Rambam is referring to relations between Jews and non-Jews. However, as far as relations between non-Jews and non-Jews are concerned, they are considered married and the prohibition against adultery is applicable for them.. From “And you desire her” (ibid.) we learn - even if she is not pretty; from “unto her” (ibid.) we learn - and not with her friend, for you may not have relations with a second one; from “and you shall take her as a wife” (ibid.) we learn - you may not take two and have relations with one and leave the other for your father or brother. From where do we know that we do not coerce her (to have relations) during the war71Probably, “out in the open”., as it says, “and you shall bring her home” (Deut. 21:12). He must take her back to the city72Lit., an open place. and only then he may have relations with her.

4 ד

הַכֹּהֵן מֻתָּר בִּיפַת תֹּאַר בְּבִיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה. שֶׁלֹּא דִּבְּרָה תּוֹרָה אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד הַיֵּצֶר. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִשָּׂאֶנָּה אַחַר כָּךְ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא גִּיֹּרֶת:

A Kohen, too, is permitted to have this one-time intercourse with a Woman of Beauty, for the Torah only permitted this to appease the (Evil) Inclination. But he may not marry her afterwards because she will then be a convert.

5 ה

וְכֵיצַד דִּין יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּיפַת תֹּאַר. אַחֲרֵי שֶׁיִּבְעָלֶנָּה בִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וְהִיא בְּגֵיוּתָהּ אִם קִבְּלָה עָלֶיהָ לְהִכָּנֵס תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה מַטְבִּילָהּ לְשֵׁם גֵּרוּת מִיָּד. וְאִם לֹא קִבְּלָה תֵּשֵׁב בְּבֵיתוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כא, יג) "וּבָכְתָה אֶת אָבִיהָ וְאֶת אִמָּהּ יֶרַח יָמִים". וְכֵן בּוֹכָה עַל דָּתָהּ וְאֵינוֹ מוֹנְעָהּ. וּמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת צִפָּרְנֶיהָ. וּמְגַלַּחַת אֶת רֹאשָׁהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּתְגַּנֶּה בְּעֵינָיו. וְתִהְיֶה עִמּוֹ בַּבַּיִת. נִכְנָס וְרוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ. יוֹצֵא וְרוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ. כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּקוּץ בָּהּ. וּמְגַלְגֵּל עִמָּהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּקַבֵּל. אִם קִבְּלָה וְרָצָה בָּהּ. הֲרֵי זוֹ מִתְגַיֶּרֶת וְטוֹבֶלֶת כְּכָל הַגֵּרִים:

What are the details of the Jewish Law of the Woman of Beauty? (Even) after he has had the first intercourse with her, she still remains a non-Jewess. Now, if she accepts upon herself the Wings of the Shechinoh (Holy Presence)73I.e., she converts., she immediately74And she need not grow her fingernails long nor shave her head. immerses in a Mikveh for purposes of conversion. If she does not wish to do accept this, she sits in his house for thirty days, as it says, “and she cries for her father and mother, for a month of days” (Deut. 21:13). He does not prevent her from weeping for her religion75Which she can no longer practice.. She grows her fingernails long and shaves her head so that she will appear despicable in his eyes. She is to remain in the house with him. When he comes in, he sees her, and when he leaves, he sees her. This is done so that he will come to loathe her. He discusses matters with her in order to induce her to convert for thirty days. If she accepts and he still wants her, she converts and immerses, as do all converts.

6 ו

וּצְרִיכָה לְהַמְתִּין שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים. חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁל בְּכִיָּה וּשְׁנֵי חֳדָשִׁים אַחֲרָיו. וְנוֹשְׂאָהּ בִּכְתֻבָּה וְקִדּוּשִׁין. אִם לֹא חָפֵץ בָּהּ מְשַׁלְּחָהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ. וְאִם מְכָרָהּ עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כא, יד) "וּמָכֹר לֹא תִמְכְּרֶנָּה בַּכָּסֶף". [וְאִם מְכָרָהּ] אֵינָהּ מְכוּרָה וּמַחֲזִיר הַדָּמִים. וְכֵן אִם כְּבָשָׁהּ אַחַר שֶׁנִּבְעֲלָה לְשֵׁם שִׁפְחָה מִשֶּׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כא, יד) "לֹא תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ" שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ:

In all, she must wait three months: one month of wailing, and two months thereafter. He then may marry her with a Kesuba (marriage contract) and Kiddushin (sanctification). If he does not want her, he releases her on her own. If he sells her76As a maidservant., he violates the Negative Commandment “and you may not sell her for money, you shall not deal with her as a slave, because you have humbled her” (Deut. 21:14). The sale is invalid and he must return the money. If he first had relations with her and then seized her for the purposes of making her a maidservant, once he uses her as such, he violates a Negative Precept, as it says, “you shall not deal with her as a slave” (Deut. 21:14), that is, he must not have her serve him.

7 ז

לֹא רָצְתָה לְהִתְגַּיֵּר מְגַלְגְּלִין עִמָּהּ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. לֹא רָצְתָה מְקַבֶּלֶת שֶׁבַע מִצְוֹת שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ וּמְשַׁלְּחָהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ. וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּכָל הַגֵּרִים הַתּוֹשָׁבִים. וְאֵינוֹ נוֹשְׂאָהּ שֶׁאָסוּר לִשָּׂא אִשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא נִתְגַּיְּרָה:

If (at first) she does not want to convert, (we) talk with her repeatedly for twelve months. If she still doesn’t want to (fully) convert, she may accept the Seven Noahide commandments, and he sends her away on her own. She then has the same status as any other Resident Convert. He cannot marry her, for we cannot marry anyone who has not fully converted.

8 ח

נִתְעַבְּרָה מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה הֲרֵי הַוָּלָד גֵּר. וְאֵינוֹ בְּנוֹ לְדָבָר מִן הַדְּבָרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם. אֶלָּא בֵּית דִּין מַטְבִּילִין אוֹתוֹ עַל דַּעְתָּם. וְתָמָר מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל יְפַת תֹּאַר הָיְתָה. אֲבָל אַבְשָׁלוֹם נוֹלַד מֵאַחַר הַנִּשּׂוּאִין. נִמְצֵאת תָּמָר אֲחוֹת אַבְשָׁלוֹם מֵאִמּוֹ וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְהִנָּשֵׂא לְאַמְנוֹן. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (שמואל ב יג, יג) "דַּבֶּר נָא אֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי לֹא יִמְנָעֵנִי מִמֶּךָּ":

If she became pregnant from their first intercourse, the child is a convert. However, it is not the father’s child in every respect77E.g. inheritance, etc., since the mother was a non-Jewess. However, the Court immerses the child with (without?) their consent78Lit., knowledge.. Tamar was born from a first intercourse with a Woman of Beauty, while Avshalom was born after the wedding. Thus Tamar was (Halochically) Avshalom’s sister on their mother’s side (only) and she was permitted to marry Amnon, as it says, “now speak with the king, for he will not withhold me from you.” (II Samuel 13:13).

9 ט

יְפַת תֹּאַר שֶׁלֹּא רָצְתָה לְהָנִיחַ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אַחַר הַשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. הוֹרְגִין אוֹתָהּ. וְכֵן עִיר שֶׁהִשְׁלִימָה אֵין כּוֹרְתִין לָהֶן בְּרִית עַד שֶׁיִּכְפְּרוּ בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וִיאַבְּדוּ אֶת כָּל מְקוֹמוֹתֶיהָ וִיקַבְּלוּ שְׁאָר הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ. שֶׁכָּל עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁלֹּא קִבֵּל מִצְוֹת שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ הוֹרְגִין אוֹתוֹ אִם יֶשְׁנוֹ תַּחַת יָדֵינוּ:

A Woman of Beauty who does not want to forsake (her) idolatry after the twelve months is executed. Similarly, we do not make a treaty with a city which came and made peace with us until they completely relinquish their idolatry, destroy its places, and accept the rest of the Commandments commanded of the Sons of Noah. For any non-Jew who is under our jurisdiction and fails to accept the Noahide Commandments is executed.

10 י

משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ לֹא הִנְחִיל הַתּוֹרָה וְהַמִּצְוֹת אֶלָּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, ד) "מוֹרָשָׁה קְהִלַּת יַעֲקֹב". וּלְכָל הָרוֹצֶה לְהִתְגַּיֵּר מִשְּׁאָר הָאֻמּוֹת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, טו) "כָּכֶם כַּגֵּר". אֲבָל מִי שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה אֵין כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לְקַבֵּל תּוֹרָה וּמִצְוֹת. וְכֵן צִוָּה משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ מִפִּי הַגְּבוּרָה לָכֹף אֶת כָּל בָּאֵי הָעוֹלָם לְקַבֵּל מִצְוֹת שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ. וְכָל מִי שֶׁלֹּא יְקַבֵּל יֵהָרֵג. וְהַמְקַבֵּל אוֹתָם הוּא הַנִּקְרָא גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב בְּכָל מָקוֹם. וְצָרִיךְ לְקַבֵּל עָלָיו בִּפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה חֲבֵרִים. וְכָל הַמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו לָמוּל וְעָבְרוּ עָלָיו שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ וְלֹא מָל הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִן הָאֻמּוֹת:

Moses our Teacher did not bequeath the Torah and the Commandments to anyone but to Israel, as it says, “the Heritage of the Congregation of Jacob” (Deut. 33:4), and to anyone from the other nations who wishes to convert, as it says, “as you, as a convert” (Numbers 15:15). However, no one who does not want to convert is forced to accept the Torah and the Commandments. Moses our Teacher was commanded by the Almighty to compel the world to accept the Commandments of the Sons of Noah. Anyone who fails to accept them is executed. Anyone who does accept them upon himself is called a Convert Who May Reside Anywhere79A “Resident Convert” for short. He may live anywhere in the Land of Israel.. He must accept them in front of three wise and learned Jews. However, anyone who agrees to be circumcised and twelve months have elapsed and he was not as yet circumcised is no different than any other member of the nations of the world80He remains a non-Jew in every respect..

11 יא

כָּל הַמְקַבֵּל שֶׁבַע מִצְוֹת וְנִזְהָר לַעֲשׂוֹתָן הֲרֵי זֶה מֵחֲסִידֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם. וְיֵשׁ לוֹ חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. וְהוּא שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל אוֹתָן וְיַעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצִּוָּה בָּהֶן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בַּתּוֹרָה וְהוֹדִיעָנוּ עַל יְדֵי משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ שֶׁבְּנֵי נֹחַ מִקֹּדֶם נִצְטַוּוּ בָּהֶן. אֲבָל אִם עֲשָׂאָן מִפְּנֵי הֶכְרֵעַ הַדַּעַת אֵין זֶה גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב וְאֵינוֹ מֵחֲסִידֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם וְלֹא מֵחַכְמֵיהֶם:

Anyone who accepts upon himself and carefully observes the Seven Commandments is of the Righteous of the Nations of the World and has a portion in the World to Come. This is as long as he accepts and performs them because (he truly believes that) it was the Holy One, Blessed Be He, Who commanded them in the Torah, and that is was through Moses our Teacher we were informed that the Sons of Noah had already been commanded to observe them. But if he observes them because he convinced himself logically81By his own intellect and conscience, but he does not agree that they were commanded by G-d., then he is not considered a Resident Convert and is not of the Righteous of the Nations of the World, but merely one of their wise.